Can Two Stroke Petrol Be Improved Through Ethanol Biology Essay

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Hydrocarbon and Fossil Fuels. The gasoline used to run cars, the diesel needed to run busses and trucks, and the kerosene essential for the use of camping stoves and lanterns are all examples of liquid fuels. An example of a gaseous fuel is one found when using a barbecue grill. Coal that is used to power a locomotive by producing steam is a solid fuel. All of these fuels in different states are mixtures of compounds called hydrocarbons.

It was thought, just under 200 years ago, that carbon compounds found within the cells of an organism could only be synthesised by the organism itself. This theory was later disputed when a German chemist by the name of Friedrich Wohler used inorganic substances to synthesise urea which is a carbon compound found in urine, in 1828.

In science today, regardless of their origin, almost all carbon compounds are included in organic chemistry. Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds, containing only carbon and hydrogen. The simplest of these are methane and ethane.

Research question - Can the efficiency (heating capability) of two stroke petrol be increased by combining it with ethanol? If so, what ratio of ethanol to petrol is most efficient?

Hypothesis - It was hypothesized that if more two stroke petrol was added to the ratio then the temperature of the water in the beaker would increase when the same spirit burner and modified bomb calorimeter design were used.

Ethanol, Two Stroke Petrol

10, 90 (Respectively)

Ethanol, Two Stroke Petrol

30, 70 (Respectively)

Ethanol, Two Stroke Petrol

50, 50 (Respectively)

Ethanol, Two Stroke Petrol

70, 30 (Respectively)

Ethanol, Two Stroke Petrol

90, 10 (Respectively)

MSDS and Health and Safety

Hazard

Safety Precaution

Dangerous chemicals at risk of unexpected combustion (ethanol, methanol, two stroke fuel)

Handle with extreme care and wear protective gear - eg. Safety glasses, laboratory coat and gloves.

Glassware

Handle with care and place towards centre of table.

ETHANOL - Irritating to eyes. 

Vapours may cause dizziness or suffocation. 

Ingestion may produce health damage.

Gloves, safety glasses, laboratory coat and respirator as required.

METHANOL - Moderately irritating to the skin.

Mild to moderate eye irritant. Swallowing even small amounts of methanol could potentially cause blindness or death.

Gloves, safety glasses, laboratory coat and respirator as required.

4.0 Materials and Method

4.1 Materials

One empty paint can

4 kg of clay

Pliers

Hammer

Nail

File

Beehive shelf

Twelve ..............

80ml beaker

Thermometer

Retort stand

Two clamps

Three 10ml measuring cylinders

Ethanol

Methanol

Two stroke petrol 1;20

Gloves

Soft drink can

Apron

Safety glasses

Paper towel

Pencil

Paper

Glad wrap

Aluminium foil

Sticky tape

Water

Spirit Burner

Wick

Cap

Data logger

Temperature probe

Funnel

Pipette

4.2 Method

PART A

Simple Calorimeter

A retort stand and two clamps were set up in order to hold a soda can with a thermometer suspended in it.

100 mls of water was poured into soda can.

10 mls of methanol was poured into the spirit burner and wick was wet.

Spirit burner was placed under soda can and lit.

Three trials were carried out measuring the temperature increase of the water in the can.

PART B

Making and testing of Bomb Calorimeter

A paint can was insulated with a thick layer of clay so as to trap as much heat as possible.

A large hole was made using pliers, a hammer, a nail and a file in the top so as to insert a beaker while having the lip resting on the outside of the upturned can.

Spirit burner was placed on top of beehive shelf and can was placed on top of 4 sets of three porcelain things at a 45 degree angle to each other so as to allow oxygen to enter the calorimeter with minimal heat loss.

10 mls of ethanol was pour into spirit burner, lit and temperature increase in beaker was recorded 3 times. Temp was recorded at 1 min, 2 mins and 3 mins, all of which were separate trials.

Spirit burner was emptied and wick was dried of any ethanol.

Step 4 was repeated after 10 mls of methanol was poured into spirit burner and tested.

First trial was done and it was realised that there was insufficient oxygen to sustain a flame.

Many holes were then punctured around the wall of the can with a hammer and nail to allow oxygen to enter the calorimeter.

PART C

Testing and comparison of ethanol and two stroke petrol

4.3 Table of Variables

CONTROLLED

INDEPENDENT

DEPENDENT

Same spirit burner used for every trial.

Type of hydrocarbon poured into spirit burner (ethanol, methanol, two stroke petrol).

Temperature increase in beaker of water measured in °C

Same amount of water in beaker (100mls).

Amount of time hydrocarbon is left to burn (1, 2, 3 mins)

Controlled amount of wind disturbing the flame.

Same initial temperature when possible for trials.

5.0 Results

22/10/2010-Simple calorimeter

10mL ethanol

Initial Temperature= 23 degrees

1 min=32

2min=36

3min=40

25/10/2010-Simple Calorimeter

10mL ethanol

Initial Temperature=23 degrees

1 min=31

2min=35

3min=41

29/10/2010-Bomb Calorimeter

Initial Temp=22

1 min=30

2min=39

3min=47

Observations:

-(2)Condensation on outside of beaker

-(2)Bubble forming

-(2)Perfect line on 80mL mark from scarring by previous experiments

-(3)Scattered bubbles, still warm after 4 minutes out of calorimeter

1/11/2010-Bomb Calorimeter

10mL Ethanol

Added foil after first trials produced FAIL results

Initial Temp=22

1min=30

2min=40

3min=47

Observations:

-Moved spirit burner closer to beaker (used 4cm high beehive shelf)

5/11/2010-Bomb Calorimeter

10mL of 20:1 Two Stroke Petrol

No Aluminium foil

Trial 1:

Initial Temp=22

1min=32

2min-45

3min=56

Decided to burn for two minutes for future trials because it gave the best average temp increase

Trial 2:

10mL of 20:1 Two Stroke Petrol

Started using data logger instead of basic thermometer

Initial Temp=21.5

2min=44.2

Trial 3:

Points to graph heating in attachment

Initial Temp=22.2

2min=44.2

In Biology

Trial 4:

Initial=21.8

2min=43.8

Trial 5:

Initial:22.2

2min: 37.3

Possibly burning wick rather than hydrocarbon - invalid trial?...

Time (secs)

Temp (°C)

Time (secs)

Temp (°C)

Time (secs)

Temp (°C)

Time (secs)

Temp (°C)

0

22.2

31

26.3

63

33.3

94

39.6

1

22.3

32

26.4

64

33.5

95

39.8

2

22.3

33

26.6

65

33.7

96

40

3

22.3

34

26.8

66

33.9

97

40.2

4

22.3

35

27

67

34.1

98

40.4

5

22.3

36

27.2

68

34.3

99

40.5

6

22.3

37

27.4

69

34.5

100

40.7

7

22.4

38

27.6

70

34.7

101

40.9

8

22.4

39

27.8

71

34.9

102

41

9

22.4

40

28.1

72

35.1

103

41.2

10

22.5

41

28.3

73

35.3

104

41.4

11

22.6

42

28.6

74

35.5

105

41.6

12

22.7

43

28.8

75

35.7

106

41.7

13

22.8

44

29

76

35.9

107

41.9

14

22.9

45

29.2

77

36.1

108

42.1

15

23.1

46

29.4

78

36.3

109

42.3

16

23.2

47

29.7

79

36.5

110

42.5

17

23.4

48

29.9

80

36.7

111

42.7

18

23.5

49

30.1

81

36.9

112

42.9

19

23.7

50

30.4

82

37.1

113

43

20

23.9

51

30.6

83

37.4

114

43.2

21

24.1

52

30.8

84

37.6

115

43.4

22

24.3

53

31.1

85

37.8

116

43.5

23

24.5

54

31.4

86

38

117

43.7

24

24.8

55

31.6

87

38.2

118

43.8

25

25

56

31.8

88

38.4

119

44.1

26

25.3

57

32

89

38.6

120

44.2

27

25.5

58

32.2

90

38.8

28

25.7

59

32.4

91

39

29

25.9

60

32.6

92

39.2

30

26.1

61

32.8

93

39.4

62

33

94

39.6

9.0 AppendixC:\Users\paige\Pictures\2010-10-26\450.jpg

C:\Users\paige\Pictures\2010-10-26\453.jpg

C:\Users\paige\Pictures\2010-10-26\457.jpgC:\Users\paige\Pictures\2010-10-26\454.jpgC:\Users\paige\Pictures\2010-10-26\447.jpg

Treatment

Trial No.

T init

T final

Δ T

Mass init (g)

Mass final (g)

Δ Mass (kg)

Q (kJ)

Heat Content (kJ/kg)

Mol H

100P

1

22

45

23

9.61860

100P

2

21.5

44.2

22.7

9.49314

100P

3

22.2

44.2

22

9.20040

100P

4

21.8

43.8

22

9.20040

100P

5

22.2

37.3

15.1

 

 

 

6.31482

 

 

10E90P

1

22

41.5

19.5

191.22

190.56

0.00066

8.15490

12355.90909

1324.553455

10E90P

2

22

40

18

191.22

190.56

0.00066

7.52760

11405.45455

1222.664727

10E90P

3

22

40.5

18.5

190.44

189.83

0.00061

7.73670

12683.11475

1359.629902

30E70P

1

22

41

19

194.49

193.62

0.00087

7.94580

9133.10

854.86

30E70P

2

22

41

19

193.53

191.49

0.00204

7.94580

3895.00

364.57

30E70P

3

25

40

15

191.49

190.89

0.00060

6.27300

10455.00

978.59

30E70P

4

25

45

20

190.87

190.10

0.00077

8.36400

10862.34

1016.71

50E50P

1

24

31

7

194.94

194.51

0.00043

2.92740

6807.91

544.63

50E50P

2

24

37

13

194.53

193.98

0.00055

5.43660

9884.73

790.78

50E50P

3

24

36

12

193.98

193.47

0.00051

5.01840

9840.00

787.20

70E30P

1

24

36

12

195.18

194.25

0.00093

5.01840

5396.13

358.30

70E30P

2

23.5

36

12.5

194.38

193.68

0.00070

5.22750

7467.86

495.87

70E30P

3

24

38

14

193.65

193.13

0.00052

5.85480

11259.23

747.61

100E

1

22

39

17

 

 

 

7.10940

 

 

100E

2

22

40

18

 

 

 

7.52760

 

 

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