Calcium Deposits In Breast Biology Essay

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Calcium that deposits in the breast is called calcification. It occurs within a small area inside the breast. It is quite common after menopause. Macrocalcification and microcalcification are the two types of calcification. Macrocalcification are seen as single large dots while microcalification appears as small white specks. Macrocalcification very rarely become cancerous, while microcalcification can lead to breast cancer in the later stages. Calcification develops when calcium phosphate crystals and collagen clump up together. It is usually a part of breast degeneration that may start due to ageing, inflammation of breasts or injury. Calcium crystal deposits are so tiny that they can only be detected in a breast x-ray as tiny white spots. The pattern shape and size are studied by the doctor to diagnose the calcification. Further confirmation is done by biopsy wherein a part of the affected tissue is removed and analysed to confirm malignation. Biopsy is done under local anesthesia. It is of two types, the needle biopsy and the surgical biopsy. Only 15 to 20 percent of calcification become malignant. In these cases a close monitoring by a six monthly diagnostic is advised. If there is no change then a yearly checkup is sufficient. Many have the misconception that high calcium leads to breast calcification. This is not true as there is no connection between the two. Harmone replacement therapy during post menopausal period is often said to lead to this problem. Though there is not sufficient evidence to support the case.

2. Causes for Lactation Without Pregnancy

Pregnancy and lactation are related to each other. Lactation is something, which is needed, and hence expected only after child birth. However, "lactation after pregnancy" is not the case always. There have been numerous cases reported where lactation without pregnancy occurred. Its occurrence before pregnancy is definitely alarming to many and might appear shocking. Nevertheless, it is harmless. It can occur in any women of child-bearing age. The usual age is between 16-40 years. There can be a number of causes behind it, which are discussed below.

Causes of Lactation Without Pregnancy

Hormonal Changes

There are various stages in a woman's life cycle, where a change in the hormonal level occurs. The body responds to such changes in various ways. One of such ways can be lactation without pregnancy. As already said, the hormone responsible for lactation is prolactin. Your breasts can start lactating if the amount of prolactin rises beyond its usual limits.


In some women, miscarriage can also lead to lactation without pregnancy. Miscarriage is again followed by certain hormonal changes, or you can say imbalance, which can finally result in lactating breasts. At times, miscarriage goes unnoticed. You take it as a painful period with heavy bleeding, and do not notice that it was actually a loss of conception. In such situations, the reason behind lactation remains unexplained. It is recommendable that you see a doctor regarding such unusual experiences.

Nipple Stimulation

Breasts are a part of the reproductive system and are supposed to play their role after child birth. But the breasts work on stimulation. If the nipples are sucked on a regular basis, your brain takes the sucking movements as a signal to start milk production. As a result, the mammary glands in your breasts produce milk. Many women, who do not aim to get pregnant but want to nurse a baby, make use of this fact and lactate for breastfeeding their adopted child. This also helps them in forming that special bond with their child, which exists only between a natural mother and her baby. It is observed that sucking the nipples for about 20 minutes, eight to ten times in day, for a period of minimum three weeks can stimulate lactation. But the sucking movement should be same as that of a baby's. You can do it either with your own hands or can take the help of your nursing partner.


There are certain recommended drugs in lactation and pregnancy such as Reglan, Sulpiride and Domperidone that can stimulate lactation. They block dopamine and raise your prolactin level. Increased prolactin, in turn, results in lactation without pregnancy. The uptake of these drugs is often recommended when the mother is not lactating enough to feed her baby well.


The intake of certain herbs can induce lactation, even without pregnancy. Fennel, fenugreek, anise seed, cumin seed, blessed thistle, goat's rue and hops are some of the common examples. Therefore, it is important to take these herbs within recommended amounts.

Though, lactation without pregnancy is harmless and benign, you should not take it casually, especially when the reason is unknown. Consult a medical professional to know the cause and necessary medical treatment.

3. Treatment for Blocked Fallopian Tubes

Fallopian tubes are an essential part of the female reproductive system and play an important role in transferring mature eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. These tubes are located on both sides of the uterus. A blockage in the tubes would prevent the transfer of the eggs from the ovaries to the uterus and will hence, lead to a various female reproductive health related problems. One of the major problems that the blockage can cause is blocked fallopian tubes infertility also known as tubular factor infertility. The blockage can occur in one or both the fallopian tubes and the blocked fallopian tubes treatment also largely depends upon this.

There are a number of treatment options that are available for the treatment of blocked fallopian tubes. These can be used to treat and cure the condition so that the chances of pregnancy improve. The condition can be diagnosed using tests procedures like exploratory laparoscopic surgery, hysterosalpingogram (HSG) and ultrasound. Here's a description of the different treatment procedures for blocked fallopian tubes.


This treatment method is adopted in case of blocked fallopian tubes due to hydrosalpinx that causes the fallopian tubes end to get blocked. The procedure involves creating a new opening in the area of the fallopian tube that lies closest to the ovaries. Reblocking of the tube can occur due to the scarring of the tube.

Tubal Reanastomosis

This treatment procedure is adopted to repair the fallopian tube that has been damaged as an affect of a disease. The procedure involves the removal of the damaged part of the tube and joining of the two healthy ends of the tube through an abdominal incision.


This treatment procedure is adopted to treat a blocked fallopian tube wherein the blockage occurs in the area of the tube that is closest to the ovaries due to scarring. It involves rebuilding the fringed ends of the tube.


This is a treatment procedure that involves the removal of the fallopian tubes that are affected by hydrosalpinx. This is done to better the chances of success of IVF procedures.

Selective Tubal Cannulation

This treatment procedure is used to treat fallopian tube blockage in areas that lie close to the uterus. The procedure involves inserting a cannula or catheter through the cervix into the fallopian tube.

So these were some of the blocked fallopian tubes treatment options. It is advisable to discuss the treatment procedure with your doctor before opting for one. You should also follow all measures required for successful treatment of the condition.

4. How to Lower Heart Rate Naturally

The human heart is probably the most important organ in the human body, which supplies blood to all other parts to function well. Having a high blood pressure or a rapid heart rate is an early sign of many heart diseases, which may follow. This makes it extremely crucial to keep a check on your heart rate and monitor it regularly to prevent any future problems. Ideally your heart rate should be below 220 whenever you measure it. There are various drugs available which help in lowering your heart rate, but these have certain side effects attached to them. However, you can try out the various means to lower heart rate naturally discussed below.

Ways on How to Lower Heart Rate Naturally

Regular Exercises

People who exercise regularly tend to develop a human heart, which is stronger and healthier than others. A stronger heart beats slowly, as there is no need to keep pumping blood at a similar pace of a normal heart. This is the reason sportsmen and athletes have a heart rate slower then that of normal people. Thus to reduce your heart rate over a period of time, keep exercising regularly. Various cardiovascular exercises like running, jogging, cycling, swimming and walking are considered good to slow down heart rate over a period of time.


Eating a right balanced diet is considered to be one of the most effective ways to lower your heart rate. The ideal diet in this case should be the one which suits your heart and manages to keep it healthy. You should consume foodstuffs which contain lesser amount of sodium and have a higher protein content. An irregular heart rate and heart palpitations are observed among people who have a deficiency of calcium, potassium and magnesium in their diet. Ensure you maintain the desired levels of these minerals in your body. Whole grains, dairy products, fresh fruits, raisins, spinach and figs are some of the items you can include in your diet and lower heart rate naturally. Also get your daily dose of folic acid from the diet you eat, as folic acid is proven to be extremely useful in lowering heart rate naturally.

Get Rid of Obesity

For people who are overweight or suffering from obesity, it is essential to get rid of those extra pounds first, to help you in lowering heart rate naturally. When an overweight person does a simple task like climbing up stairs, the heart rate increases rapidly compared to a normal person. If you are obese, try eating a low fat diet or a weight loss diet. Also doing regular exercises and keeping a check on the diet will help remove any undesired flab from the body.

Consume Less Caffeine

There are a lot of people who have a habit of consuming large amounts of coffee throughout the day. Coffee contains caffeine, which is widely regarded as a potent stimulant. However people who are suffering from high blood pressure problems and have an increased heart rate, should ideally keep away from caffeine. Apart from coffee, there are various other items like soda, diet tablets, pain killers and teas, which have high amounts of caffeine present in them. Before buying or consuming any such products, you should always check the label for ingredients.

Quit Smoking

Along with eliminating consumption of caffeine, you should also get rid of other bad habits like smoking and alcohol consumption. A lot of undesired chemicals and toxic substances are taken in by the body while smoking. It harms your stamina levels making you work harder even for daily tasks. This will increase your heart beat by a huge margin and the only way to lower your heart rate lies in quiting smoking.

Keep Stress Away

Easier said than done, but you should try and keep stress levels, as low as possible throughout the day. When you are stressed, your heart beat is far from normal and increases rapidly, as it stimulates the sympathetic nervous system in your body. This is not at all a good sign and you could face serious health issues. Try doing yoga, practicing meditation, relaxing by lying down and doing nothing for a while, listening to music, doing something you enjoy and laughing, among other things to help you lower heart rate naturally.

Consume Dark Chocolate

Foodstuffs which contain high levels of cocoa in them like, dark chocolates, chocolate confectioneries and chocolate drinks are capable of lowering blood pressure levels in the body. This does not mean you consume lots and lots of chocolate everyday, rather it needs to be consumed in moderation. Eating a lot of chocolate increases the number of calories you would be in-taking and this is not good for health.

5. Heart Transplant Life Expectancy

A heart transplant is a surgical process where a diseased heart is removed from a patient and is replaced with a donor heart. This process is made possible by a mechanical pump that circulates blood through the body during the surgery. During the lengthy procedure, the 'new' heart is linked to the major blood vessels and connected to a mechanism that temporarily controls the heartbeat.

A heart transplant can drastically improve the person's quality of life and life expectancy. However, waiting lists are long and there is a scarcity of donor organs, which is why they must be judiciously used, to provide maximum benefit. A person is a good candidate for heart transplant if he/she has end-stage heart disease, and is not responding or benefiting from conventional therapy. Most people who have to consider this option are concerned about heart transplant life expectancy and success rate. Read on heart health.

Heart Transplant Life Expectancy

There are a number of factors that influence life expectancy after heart transplant including age, patient compliance, immunological match of donor to recipient and the year in which you were transplanted. However, according to American Heart Association, as of June 5, 2009, the one-year survival rate was 88% for males and 77.2% percent for females; the three-year survival rate was about 79.3% percent for males and 77.2% percent for females. The five-year survival rate was 73.1% percent for males and 67.4% percent for females. Way back in the year two thousand, The Independent covered a story about a heart transplant survivor, in which it said that the longest heart transplant survivor was a 73-year-old American from Michigan who had lived 24 years after the surgery. Thus, in the best of circumstances, heart transplant life span can be as long as this, or in all likelihood, longer.

Heart Transplant Success Rate

The human heart transplantation success rate is related to the risk factors before transplantation. However, on an average, the success rate is close to 95% in most centers. The risks are heightened if the patient is over 60 years of age, is on a ventilator, has an elevated panel reactive antibody level, has had a previous heart transplant, and has high pressures in the pulmonary (lung) blood vessels. However, even in such cases, there are 95% or higher chance of being initially successful. The first 30 days are crucial and if a patient lives through those, there is a close to 90% chance that he/she will be alive at the end of the first year.

Heart Transplant Risks

Our immune systems protect us from potentially harmful substances. An 'foreign' organ and tissue in our bodies would almost always trigger an immune response, which would result in the destruction of the foreign tissue. In order to prevent this from happening, a patient is given strong immuno-suppressive drugs. However, one of the major risks of heart transplant remains rejection of the donor heart by the body. Every 3 to 4 months after an organ transplant, a sample (biopsy) of the heart tissue is tested and an echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG, EKG), or blood tests are also performed to check for rejection.

While immuno-suppressant drugs are required to suppress your immune system so that it does not reject the donor heart, these drugs may have side effects, including an increased risk of infections and cancer. Steroids given carry side effects such as infections, ulcers, or bone loss.

Heart transplant is usually only considered when all other avenues have been exhausted. Even though it is not really a choice, people are often reluctant to consider it because the cost and wait involved. However, it is also an option that offers hope. After a heart transplant, life expectancy is extended and usually a better quality of life is also achieved.

6. Natural Blood Thinners That You Can Take In Lieu Of Medication

There are many people, especially those with certain kinds of blood vessel or heart disease, that have to take prescription blood thinners on a daily basis. Blood thinners discourage the formation of blood clots in the arteries and veins, and thus lower the chances of a person suffering from a heart attack or stroke.

he two main types of blood thinners are anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. The former, such as heparin or warfarin, work on chemical reactions in the body to increase the time it takes for a blood clot to form. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, stop blood cells called platelets from clumping together to form a clot.

Best Natural Blood Thinners

There are many naturally occurring substances that can produce a similar effect as aspirin, without the negative side effects. Many of them contain substances called salicylates, which apparently block vitamin K. These are some of the foods that are natural blood thinners, that are said to have a high content of salicylates:


Cayenne pepper









The wondrous properties of ginger root are many, and this herb is used in a wide range of home remedies, from soothing sore throats, to assisting digestion and motion sickness, and in recent times, to lower cholesterol. Ginger is believed to help reduce inflammation and facilitate blood flow throughout the body. Cayenne is a spice used in many different cuisines, and is an important ingredient in a variety of hot sauces. Paprika is also a spice derived from the ground dried fruits of Capsicum annuum. It is very rich in vitamin C and other antioxidants. The herb, peppermint has a long tradition of medicinal use, and has proved to reduce irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), in one study.

The essential oil contained in thyme is an antiseptic, and the herb used in tea can soothe cough and bronchitis. Licorice helps dissolves thick mucus and relieves respiratory difficulties. It has many medicinal uses like, for ulcer treatment etc. and is a mild laxative. The wonderful flavor of the spice cinnamon is harnessed in many sweet dishes, and is reputed to cure colds and ease diarrhea and other digestive system. It is also said to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

Widely used in Asia, turmeric is used to treat cuts, burns and bruises, and in other antibacterial capacities. It is also believed to benefit the skin, and is thus, added to many cosmetic creams and lotions. Oregano is used more as a medicinal plant than as a spice in many countries, and has high antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Oil extracts of oregano are used to treat cold, influenza, mild fevers, fungal infections, indigestion, stomach upsets, enteric parasites and painful menstruation. It also has sedative properties, and consequently must be consumed in small doses. It is also one of the best natural topical antiseptics.

Fish Oil

Fish oil has been recommended for people of all age groups for centuries. Available in many capsule forms, they have been made popular in recent times for their ability to increase good cholesterol. Fish oil is a great source of omega 3 fatty acids, that not only are essential to normal growth and health, but may play very important role in preventing cancer, particularly breast, colon and prostate cancer. It may also boost immunity, improve brain function and have pain relieving capabilities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Fish oil contains two of the most therapeutic omega 3 fatty acids - DHA and EPA. They are absorbed by the body with greater ease as compared to the others, and can help reduce inflammation in the blood.

As above mentioned, natural blood thinners do not have side effects, one can consume them in moderate quantities without worry. However, if you are already taking prescription anticoagulant drugs, you should not consume too many foods with natural blood thinning compounds.

7. Causes of Poor Blood Circulation In The Legs

Blood circulation is essential to the normal functioning of the body and it is the arteries and veins that perform this by carrying blood to and from the heart: arteries carry pure blood from the heart (with oxygen and other important nutrients) to all parts of the body and veins carry deoxygented blood from different parts of the body to the heart. Any deficiencies in the circulatory mechanism affects the whole body or the particular part where the blood is not circulating well. Nerves and tissues get severely affected because of poor circulation. Poor circulation in legs is a problem faced by many individuals especially the aged. The following paragraphs attempt to understand the causes, symptoms and treatment for such a disorder. Read more on how does the circulatory system work and blood circulation problems.

Causes of Poor Circulation in Legs

The main cause of poor blood circulation in legs is peripheral vascular disease (PVD). All disorders of the blood vessels on the periphery of the heart or outside it are listed under PVD. It occurs when plaque (fatty substance) builds up on the walls of the peripheral arteries (atherosclerosis), and hardens it. This hardening makes it difficult for blood to flow efficiently through the arteries and veins. PVD is the main cause of poor circulation in legs and people who smoke, have unhealthy diets or poor posture are more at risk for developing poor circulation. Following is a list of diseases and conditions that can also lead to poor blood circulation in legs and feet.


High blood pressure

High cholesterol


Varicose veins




Heart disease



Kidney diseases

Symptoms of Poor Circulation in Legs

Poor blood circulation exhibits itself through many different signs and symptoms. The earliest sign is a cramping feeling that one experiences in the legs followed by occasional numbness and a constant feeling of fatigue in the legs and feet. A lot of pain can be felt while walking, running or even when one is not moving. Discoloration is another symptom of poor circulation. Spots of blue or black may appear on the legs, especially on the calf muscles. Swelling of the feet or even the entire leg has been experienced by some people. A feeling of having cold hands or cold feet may also be experienced by some. Development of blood clot in the veins known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) may also occur.

8. What is a Heart Murmur

Normally the heart beats in two sounds: the first is a 'lub' like sound, caused by the mitral and tricuspid valves closing at the beginning of the systole, and the second is a 'dub' like sound, caused by the aortic and pulmonary valves closing at beginning of the diastole. These two sounds follow each other and should not be interrupted by any other sounds. A heart murmur is a swishing or a whistling sound heard along with the normal 'lub-dub' sound.

There are mainly two types of heart murmurs: innocent and abnormal. People suffering from innocent heart murmurs have healthy hearts with no signs of heart problems. These murmurs occur when the blood flows faster than normal, or when there is extra blood flow through the heart. These murmurs can also be caused due to changes in the heart after a surgery, aging, or during pregnancy. On the other hand, people suffering form abnormal heart murmurs can have symptoms of heart diseases. These murmurs are more common in children, especially at the time of birth. Congenital heart defects, septal defects (holes in the heart), infections, or any damage to the heart valves are some common causes of abnormal heart murmurs. These defects are related to the heart structure, interior walls and valves of the heart, arteries, and veins that transport blood to the heart and other parts of the body.

Signs and Symptoms

Usually heart murmurs are harmless but their symptoms depend on the cause behind the murmurs and how severe that cause is. Some of the signs and symptoms are as follows:

Shortness of breath

Chest pain

Blue coloring of the skin on the fingertips and inside the mouth

Dizziness or fainting

Excessive sweating


Abnormal growth and poor eating habits in infants

Diagnosis and Treatment

To diagnose a heart murmur, doctors usually perform a physical exam, where they ask patients about symptoms, along with their medical and family histories. They evaluate heart murmurs by the sound - low, medium, or high pitch - how long it lasts, and how it is affected by breathing and different physical activities of the body. Once heart murmurs are confirmed, doctors may ask the patient to undergo various tests like chest X-rays, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac catheterization.

Children diagnosed with innocent heart murmurs do not need treatment as they have normal hearts, however, they should always go for regular checkups. Similarly, pregnant women suffering from innocent heart murmurs also do not need treatment. Persons suffering from anemia, hyperthyroidism or fever can also have innocent murmurs. However, these murmurs will abate and eventually stop after the illness is cured. The treatment for patients suffering from abnormal heart murmurs can range from medicine to surgery, depending upon the type and severity of heart damage.

A heart murmur is not a disease, it's just a way of alerting ourselves to ensure that the heart is functioning properly. Majority of heart murmurs are harmless, but if diagnosed, one should always consult a doctor for necessary treatment and precautions.

9. Normal Calorie Intake for Females

Calorie is often associated with fattening foods and has always been viewed suspiciously, as not a good thing to have in the body. But exactly what is a calorie? A calorie is a unit of energy, energy that works like fuel for the body. Energy is needed for all activities in the body, viz. functioning of the brain, pumping blood in the heart, breathing, muscle movement, etc. Calories in the food refer to the amount of energy the food possesses. The carbohydrates, proteins and fats are broken down metabolically into glucose, amino acid and fatty acids respectively. These molecules enter the bloodstream, providing energy to all parts of our bodies. The following paragraphs will help one understand all about the normal calorie intake for females.

Normal Calorie Intake for a Woman

As a woman, it is imperative to pay attention to our body's energy needs. According to Food and Drug Administration (FDA), a woman's daily calorie intake should be between 1500 to 2000 a day. But this need also depends a lot on height, weight, lifestyle and health of a woman. Calorie intake also depends on the physical considerations as a calorie requirement requisite. Calorific requirements are normally calculated for the following reasons: maintaining weight and energy levels or losing or gaining weight.

Calculation of Daily Calorie Intake for Females

Most dietitians and nutritionists use the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) to determine calorie needs. A BMR is the bare minimum calorific requirement calculated for basic functions of the body. While assessing a BMR, its calculation is restricted to the body's internal functions and not the activities done by manner of exercise or other laborious work.

Calorie Intake in Females to Gain Weight

Once the calorie intake has been calculated using the BMR, one can decide how much calorie one needs to feed the body to gain weight. This calculation will help you understand the basics of weight gain. You would be required to consume more calories and burn less. It is estimated that one pound of body weight is approximately equivalent to 3500 calories. So the additional calorie intake will depend upon how much weight you want to gain. So eat foods that are high on calories or simply speaking, just eat more.

Calorie Intake in Females to Lose Weight

As mentioned above, a pound of body weight is about 3500 calories, so for those who need to lose weight, a calorie deficit diet is what is needed. A combination of lesser caloric diet intake with an increase in the exercise regime will prove to be an efficient way to lose weight. Consuming foods that are listed under low low calorie food list will definitely help. Eating a combination of restricted protein and fat, a no-carbohydrate diet will be beneficial. More on free low calorie recipes

For optimum health, gain as well as loss should be gradual. Never push the body by stuffing it with more calories nor deprive it by drastically reducing it. There are many foods that help one to gain weight as well as lose weight the healthy way. Before going on a program for calorie intake (increase or decrease), research the food well. exercises will also go a long way in helping one not only burn calories but also increase appetite. Normal calorie intake for females should be given priority as a woman's body undergoes many hormonal changes. To live healthy and well, sufficient amount of calories that convert to energy is essential.

10. How to Tighten Your Vagina After Childbirth

It is understandable if you feel that discussing a loose vagina can be embarrassing. Most women do not talk of it in front of their friends or family. If women who have not given birth are unable to talk about this, women who have given birth have no reason not to. For health reasons, a loose vagina means a woman is susceptible to urinary incontinence, or the involuntary urge to pass urine whenever she experiences an involuntary activity like coughing.

For intimacy reasons, a woman who just gave birth may feel embarrassed about her expanded vagina. Your husband might find this unsatisfactory. The first thing you must do to tighten your vagina after birth is to consult your doctor, who can suggest to you ways on how to tighten your vagina. Your doctor can recommend to you certain remedies to tighten your vagina, including Kegel exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and Neocontrol.

Kegel exercises are used to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles that stretched during childbirth and it helps regain sexual pleasure by making muscles more elastic and stronger. These exercises prevent urine leakage and control bladder tone.

The Neocontrol therapy is a specially designed chair that uses magnetic fields to stimulate the pelvic floor muscles. This is normally performed in an urologist’s office and the process takes 20 to 30 minutes. This also requires regular attendance for eight weeks.

Another popular way to tighten the vagina after birth is the use of vaginal cones. These are tampon-sized, weighted devices that are inserted in the vagina and held there. Cones vary in weight. The lightest cone is inserted first, which the muscles squeeze to hold in place. This is done for fifteen minutes, twice daily.

Electrical stimulation is a vagina tightening therapy that uses a probe. This probe is inserted into the vagina and begins stimulating the pelvic floor muscles with an electric current, which contracts and relaxes the muscles. Sessions last for about 20 minutes and treatments are done every one to four days.

Tightening your vagina after birth takes time. There is no magical formula or cream that lets you have that instant tight vagina in no time. With the help of your doctor, you can perform one therapy or a combination of therapies for you to achieve that tight vagina in a matter of time. A doctor would not usually treat a woman who has not yet undergone childbirth, but such a woman can tighten her vagina by means of other sources.