Biological Warfare Applications And Agents Biology Essay

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Overlap between specific biological and chemical weapons are used to produce chemical and biological weapons and biological poisoning toxin weapons Convention on the Prohibition of the Convention provides for both provisions. Toxic substances are organic in origin, often called "Agent midspectrum".

Biological weapons or to destroy people or groups of people or serious can affect the entire population is disqualified. In addition, self defense against such employment or self as content can be defined.

Biological weapons technology in national or non-state armed groups can be used. If, after using a state secret or public, it can be considered a terrorist bioweapons.

The creation and stockpiling of biological weapons ("offensive biological warfare") was outlawed by the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), signed by over 100 countries. The BWC remains in force, and it prohibits storage, stockpiling, and usage of these weapons.

The rationale behind the agreement is to avoid the devastating impact of a successful biological attack which could conceivably result in millions, possibly even billions of deaths and cause severe disruptions to societies and economies. However, the consensus among military analysts is that, except in the context of bioterrorism, BW is of little military use.

Many countries pursue "defensive BW" research (defensive or protective applications) which are not prohibited by the BWC. As a tactical weapon, the main military problem with a BW attack is that it would take days to be effective, and therefore, unlike a nuclear or chemical attack, would not immediately stop an opposing force.

As a strategic weapon, BW is again militarily problematic, although with a possible exception with the Soviets, the weaponized biological agents did not spread from person to person. Spread is less of a concern for terrorists, but it was very much a concern for post-WWII BW development by major powers.

History:

Repeat exercise in the history of biological weapons. Last organic form, use 20 days as the chief Taremasu 3 star:

Food and water, intentional poisoning of infection • materials

Microorganisms, toxic substances or animal, alive or dead, weapon systems • Use

Vaccinations • Use biological materials

Ancient world:

Willingness to use biological weapons accident in the early hours of 1500-1200 is described, BC Language text from enemy territory Pesutohittaito victims are registered in the stomach. However, ergot test, ergotism type of armor is no evidence that he rapeseed yield on the enemy as they eat fungus, and doubts, and poison wells did not know.

TROJAN war epic and Homer, Iliad and Odyssey of the Legend, spears and arrows, according to the poison given. During the holy war, Greece, about 590 BC, Athens University, poison water supplies Amphictionic besieged city Kirrha Delphi () poisonous plants in the area near the lawn for the first time. Aquillus Senchurionmaniusu BC Nearly 130 cities, surrounded by enemies, like poisoned.

BC, Scythian archers snake venom, there is a tendency to share one human blood, wounds and infections because of animal faeces suggested four centuries. Poisonous plants for production of biological weapons use toxic substances and other harmful substances in many other ancient examples.

184 BC, the clay pot filled with poisonous snakes Hannibarukarutago, the soldiers ordered to throw a pot on the ship's deck Pergamon. Led opposition to throw a pot full of live scorpions by the people of Rome about 198 AD Seputimiususeuerusu earthen city Mosul (Iraq) in (a nearby town.

Middle Ages, biological weapons:

Sometimes the world commercial and military maintenance and Mongolia, perhaps unknowingly, between the eastern and western regions of the Mughal Empire established commercial and political relations, the Middle East to Central Asia, brought the plague in Europe. Black Death in Eurasia, about half of the third country in Asia and Europe dominate the flow of history by turning the population killed.

In the Middle Ages, had been used in biological attacks glands, using insect prey to one of the groups and the walls of dung from a slingshot throw. Year 1346, the Mongol warrior plague and gold rush Kafakurimia Autonomous Republic ([Theodosia present) over the walls of the besieged city died dump. It is estimated that this procedure can cause insects to emerge in Europe.

During the war years 1340 siege Tounrevekku 100 years, and the attackers surrounded the area, erosion has increased animal.

Modern times:

The 18th Century:

India's life as a result of introducing various types of population, after contacts with the ancient world threatening disease, decimated was. Welcome described in two cases of alleged war and trying to be different embryo. First, the summit between the two countries in June 1763 Fort Pitt, Ecuyer, Delaware representatives of 24 days the disease spread and people of the state hope to the end of] one of two blankets, handkerchief is in contact with smallpox fencing was surrounded. Militia Commander Uiriamutorento, giving the show a blanket, of course, the purpose is, "leave records tell Indians and smallpox."

The British commander, Lord Switzerland Jefuriamasuto, British officer, Colonel Henry bouquet, the idea of giving smallpox-infected blankets communication was talking in terms of Indianpontiakku war. Historian June 29 Furanshisupakuman July 13, 16 and 26, 1763 four years to achieve the same character. Part:, 16 July Chief Jefuriamasuto Commander, one note 1763: India's Inocculate blankets, you not only tried to better all other means can eradicate corruption in the race may be trying to , "writes. I may be pressed very capable dog should be happy with this idea, ..." Colonel Henry bouquet July 26, India's apostle and His Excellency Inclosures and 16 days, 1763, "that all the directions I is observed a reference to a letter in response.

But, despite the intention is clear enough already some biological weapons, according to the aggressive Amherst, each regarding the other two times I wrote about an encounter between historians will be discussed. The Native American tribes to transfer the disease could be a blanket. Smallpox was done during the transfer process. Whether he is history, this plan really is, and scientific knowledge of the disease in smallpox survival, time to detection of bacteria and is still unable to determine whether the light was a vector of plague understanding Unable to deepen a specific implementation.

Opportunities for disease transmission may have a business plan was put on. Please also during the Pontiac War: see chicken pox.

The 19th Century:

Cambridge, who visited San Francisco on board merchant ships were in Richadohenridana diarist in 1834. Mexico, San Francisco Bay north of the Russian people and for the establishment of sites, the number of items such as blankets ship handling.

Smallpox epidemic in California state and local history documentation, beginning shortly after the fort left in Russia. Popular trade item in a blanket, two were contaminated with a blanket first hand, what is a cheaper source.

During the Civil War, Union forces in the pond drinking water is dependent on General Sherman's Union, reported animal shot. However, the person died from the disease from animal carcasses is a real threat to health, it's not drinking water is less uncomfortable.

Jack London's novel "Yeah yeah, yeah!" "Besides measles intentionally pointing a description of the North Pacific Island Polynesian population is controlled, many of them killed Monday: The story of the South were in the ocean /" Yes, yes, yes! ". However, the South Sea story from personal experience in several London material, is ready, it is not specific to this particular case history.

The 20th Century:

During World War I in Germany to pursue an ambitious biological weapons program. Diplomatic, use of bag pouches, a small team of employees and the German sabotage of Finland will provide the Grand Duchy and the Russian, Romania, United States, Argentina, a neutral country.

, 1916 Nordic light in the struggle for independence is growing in Finland and in Russia's reindeer anthrax was in stable horses. Anthrax, Bucharest, glanders, the cows in the service of the confederate states have worked against the allocated equipment as in the German military attaché.

Chebicheisu, Maryland, glanders, water collection points and inland ports, in the basement of his sister's house, any confidential information to include German laboratory animals infected and officials, a U.S. citizen, at least Antonkashimiru Dr. Dilger, Newport established was produced News, Norfolk, Baltimore, New York, and perhaps Covington, St. Louis, Kentucky. Argentina and German agents, as well as the port of Buenos Aires, to attempt to interfere with wheat as a kind of armor was destroyed is glanders.

During the year 1948 Israeli War of Independence, according to Red Cross, and population-acre urban water supply because the bacteria Salmonella typhi questions raised in the Jewish Haganah militia, was published in typhoid. Egypt's army in the Gaza Strip, a very well hidden after arresting the Haganah soldiers attempted to launch another attack was allegedly killed. Israel denies these allegations.

During the Cold War, and the United States test subjects honest objectors are using biological agents agreed to run a program called white coat. In addition, many tests generally unannounced, has been made during the Cold War.

      

      

A small bomb was developed by the United States biological E120 Treaty, signed on biological weapons

However, it is common used as biological weapons are not considered world after extensive research was conducted by the United States on this subject (), and the former Soviet Union, and perhaps other major countries, the Cold War, through World War II, the United States refer to biological weapons testing. Keeping this in mind, large-scale biological weapons area of the United States, China and North Korea, Korean (1950-1953) war and their use in testing for the disease, insect vectors, the defendant challenged.

Biological factors:

Natural toxic substances using biological weapons people are sick of people considered void. As weapons are bacteria will be used. Whether micro-organisms pathogens, viruses, bacteria and disease is protozoic. , Four types of biological weapons: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and those that conversation. Victims of their biological weapons, living creatures and, if infected hosts are increased and then a killer feature, one weak multiplier effect. When they hunt, poison in the body copy is not only short incubation period, if necessary, is killed within a few hours.

Signs of biological weapons:

Biological Weapons Anti-Personnel Landmines:

Human qualities that biological weapons, infectious diseases, high capacity and high vaccine shortage is ideal for the target, and aerosol delivery.

Most likely to be considered as lethal weapons to fight disease organisms are used (efficiently if applicable) and a strong distribution for aerosol delivery feasible.

Biological weapons production quickly and easily in many cases of biological weapons may be used. Targeted delivery of biological agents in the production of weak form the main difficulties are not effective.

For example, some of the causes of anthrax is considered a dominant factor. , Hardy variance ago to leave behind, making a total spores. Second, anthrax pulmonary (lung) infection that other people usually do not cause a secondary infection. Therefore, impact factors are usually limited to this goal. Pulmonary anthrax on a regular basis "" a cold, now there's a 90 percent mortality rate begins is more than fatal. In the end, friendship is the security of people with appropriate antibiotics.

And aerosol particles of 1.5 and 5 micrometers using anthrax would require the establishment of the failed attack. Through the respiratory system of aerosol and large come out. I will be very small, and the aerosol can be inhaled, exhaled. In addition, the size and power loading is catching total is for non-conductive powder. Interference with the distribution. Hashi Sono separation of content, you should be processed off rate. Aerosols should be distributed in the rain one day, after being involved is not corrupted in human lung is not. There also other technical problems.

Hand, or anthrax, Ebola, Marburg virus, cholera, tularemia, brucellosis Roy's known, Q fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, coccidioidomycosis breakfast, glanders, nose diseases like plague and Rocky Mountain fever Shigella will be weaponized, anxiety, yellow fever and searches, psittacosis, Japanese B encephalitis, rift valley fever, smallpox and. Ricin weapons, abuse, botulinum toxin, and saxitoxin, a poison that naturally generate as many mycotoxins can be included. Select Agent as the disease causative organism is known. United States, the right use, transfer, Disease Control and Prevention, Select Agent Program Center for the organizers.

Anti-agricultural biological weapons:

And biological weapons, the target plants, especially plants, destroying crops and leaves. United States, the United States during World War II, and finally, we used in the fight against insurgents in Vietnam and Malaysia have started a program of herbicide and plant growth regulators (ie, herbicides) found. However, herbicides, chemicals, toxic substances in the biological as they are in many ways, biological weapons or be classified as biological tissue. Earth and water Earth strategy, animals, agriculture, destroying Eelam liberation war in Vietnam was enacted Torasurirankainchi.

Biodefence:

Role of public health departments and disease surveillance:

It is important to note that all of the classical and modern biological weapons organisms are animal diseases, the only exception being smallpox. Thus, in any use of biological weapons, it is highly likely that animals will become ill either simultaneously with, or perhaps earlier than humans.

Indeed, in the largest biological weapons accident known- the anthrax outbreak in Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg) in the Soviet Union in 1979, sheep became ill with anthrax as far as 200 kilometers from the release point of the organism from a military facility in the southeastern portion of the city (known as Compound 19 and still off limits to visitors today, see Sverdlovsk Anthrax leak).

Thus, a robust surveillance system involving human clinicians and veterinarians may identify a bioweapons attack early in the course of an epidemic, permitting the prophylaxis of disease in the vast majority of people (and/or animals) exposed but not yet ill.

For example in the case of anthrax, it is likely that by 24 - 36 hours after an attack, some small percentage of individuals (those with compromised immune system or who had received a large dose of the organism due to proximity to the release point) will become ill with classical symptoms and signs (including a virtually unique chest X-ray finding, often recognized by public health officials if they receive timely reports).

Biological agent:

A sampling of Bacillus anthracis-Anthrax

A biological agent is a bacterium, virus, prion, fungus, or biological toxin that can be used in bioterrorism or biological warfare. More than 1200 different kinds of biological agents have been described and studied to date. Applying a slightly broader definition, some eukaryotes (for example parasites) and their associated toxins can be considered as biological agents.

Bacterial Biological Agents:

Disease  

Causative Agent (Military Symbol)  

Comments  

Anthrax

Bacillus anthracis (N) or (TR)

Brucellosis (bovine)

Brucella abortus (AB)

Brucellosis (caprine)

Brucella melitensis (AM) or (BX)

Brucellosis (porcine)

Brucella suis (US) or (NX)

Cholera

Vibrio cholerae (HO)

Diphtheria

Corynebacterium diphtheriae (DK)

Dysentery (bacterial)

Shigella dysenteriae, some species of Escherichia coli (Y)

Glanders

Burkholderia mallei (LA)

Listeriosis

Listeria monocytogenes (TQ)

Melioidosis

Burkholderia pseudomallei (HI)

Plague

Yersinia pestis (LE)

Tularemia

Francisella tularensis (SR) or (JT)

Antibiotic resistance:

Antibiotic resistance is a specific type of drug resistance when a microorganism has the ability of withstanding the effects of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance evolves via natural selection acting upon random mutation, but it can also be engineered by applying an evolutionary stress on a population. Once such a gene is generated, bacteria can then transfer the genetic information in a horizontal fashion (between individuals) by conjugation, transduction, or transformation. Many antibiotic resistance genes reside on plasmids, facilitating their transfer. If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called multiresistant or, informally, a superbug. The term antimicrobial resistance is sometimes used to explicitly encompass organisms other than bacteria.

Antibiotic resistance can also be introduced artificially into a microorganism through laboratory protocols, sometimes used as a selectable marker to examine the mechanisms of gene transfer or to identify individuals that absorbed a piece of DNA that included the resistance gene and another gene of interest.

Causes:

The widespread use of antibiotics both inside and outside of medicine is playing a significant role in the emergence of resistant bacteria. They are often used in animals but also in other industries which at least in the case of agricultural use lead to the spread of resistant strains to human populations. In some countries antibiotics are sold over the counter without a prescription which compounds the problem. In human medicine the major problem of the emergence of resistant bacteria is due to misuse and overuse of antibiotics by doctors as well as patients. Other practices contributing towards resistance include the addition of antibiotics to the feed of livestock. Household use of antibacterials in soaps and other products, although not clearly contributing to resistance, is also discouraged (as not being effective at infection control). Also unsound practices in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry can contribute towards the likelihood of creating antibiotic resistant strains.

Certain antibiotic classes are highly associated with colonisation with superbugs compared to other antibiotic classes. The risk for colonisation increases if there is a lack of sensitivity (resistance) of the superbugs to the antibiotic used and high tissue penetration as well as broad spectrum activity against "good bacteria". In the case of MRSA, increased rates of MRSA infections are seen with glycopeptides, cephalosporins and especially quinolones. In the case of colonisation with C difficile the high risk antibiotics include cephalosporins and in particular quinolones and clindamycin.

Mechanisms:

Antibiotic resistance can be a result of horizontal gene transfer,[30] and also of unlinked point mutations in the pathogen genome and a rate of about 1 in 108 per chromosomal replication. The antibiotic action against the pathogen can be seen as an environmental pressure; those bacteria which have a mutation allowing them to survive will live on to reproduce. They will then pass this trait to their offspring, which will result in a fully resistant colony.

The four main mechanisms by which microorganisms exhibit resistance to antimicrobials are:

Drug inactivation or modification: e.g. enzymatic deactivation of Penicillin G in some penicillin-resistant bacteria through the production of β-lactamases.

Alteration of target site: e.g. alteration of PBP-the binding target site of penicillins-in MRSA and other penicillin-resistant bacteria.

Alteration of metabolic pathway: e.g. some sulfonamide-resistant bacteria do not require para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), an important precursor for the synthesis of folic acid and nucleic acids in bacteria inhibited by sulfonamides. Instead, like mammalian cells, they turn to utilizing preformed folic acid.

Reduced drug accumulation: by decreasing drug permeability and/or increasing active efflux (pumping out) of the drugs across the cell surface.

Conclusion:

Specific consensus recommendations are made regarding the diagnosis of anthrax, indications for vaccination, therapy for those exposed, postexposure prophylaxis, decontamination of the environment, and additional research needs.

Of the numerous biological agents that may be used as weapons, the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense has identified a limited number of organisms that could cause disease and deaths in sufficient numbers to cripple a city or region. Anthrax is one of the most serious of these diseases.

The traditional approach toward protecting agriculture, food, and water: focusing on the natural or unintentional introduction of a disease is being strengthened by focused efforts to address current and anticipated future biological weapons threats that may be deliberate, multiple, and repetitive.

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