Biological Aspects of Health and Disease

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Biological Aspect of Health and Disease

What are the functions of the systems listed below

Using examples explain how important each system is

Using atleast two examples, example how each system interacts with the other two and how these interaction effect the behaviour of an individual

Central Nervous System

It is made up of brain, brain stem and spinal cord which are the main control and information centre.

The brain deals with and translates sensory messages transmitted from the spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord are safeguarded by connective tissue known as the meninges. The spinal cord sends messages from body organs and send messages from the brain to other parts of the body. Neurons send messages to the central Nervous system from the internal organs which have nerves that consist of axons and dendrites which are to conduct and send signals.

It helps receiving and processing sensory messages, reflecting, observing, generating and comprehending language and regulating motor brain. Fore brain has structures known as thalamus and hypothalamus which is for motor control, relaying sensory messages and controlling autonomic functions.

Autonomic System

It controls automated body functions which include heart rate, blood pressure modulation metabolism and digestion.

It regulates the muscles in the skin around blood vessels, in the eye, in the stomach. Regulates glands, involuntary activity of the heart, intestines. It helps maintain internal balance and stability, it is always working and is automatic and helps in secretion of bile, saliva and heart beats.

Is part of the peripheral nervous system comprising of sympathetic and para sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for emergency actions, controlling the glands of the endocrine system. Activation leads to the secretion of adrenaline, raised blood flow to muscles, raised heart rate and Fight or Flight response. Parasympathetic is used when body is at rest and stores the energy for use later. Effects include raised stomach activity and decreased blood flow to the muscle.

Endocrine system

Acts as a communication device within the body working in connection with the nervous system to communicate with the body’s nervous system; here signals move slowly but lasts longer

It helps secrete sex hormones found in the female and male reproductive system, also helps secrete insulin and glucagon to regulate sugar metabolism.

Pituitary glands found in the brain, produces growth hormones and regulates secretions of thyroid gland, pancreas. Adrenal medulla found at the top of the kidneys affects seep and emotional arousal.


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Regina Bailey (2014) Organ system retrieved from http:/

Boundless (2014) Psychology retrieved from http:/


Frontal Lobe which helps interaction with the environment reactions to our surroundings, judgements on daily routines, emotional responses, language and sexual drive. Parietal Lobe Location of visual attention, location for touch perception, goal directed voluntary, movement manipulation of objects, integration of different senses that enables understanding a single concept. Occipital Lobe used for vision and reading, if there is problem the following can occur; difficulties with visual field , may lead to difficulty in locating items in the environment , difficulty identifying colours, may create hallucinations, inability to recognize movement of an object, problems with reading and writing. Temporal lobe is used for the auditory memories, some hearing, visual memories, music, fear, speech, sense of identity. Cerebellum which works with coordination and controlled movement, equilibrium , some memory for reflex motor acts; problems which may occur consist of loss of capability to manage fine movements, unable to work , incapable to reach out and grasp items, shivers , faintness, unclear speech , unable to do quick movements. Brain stem, here this part helps with breathing , heart rate swallowing , reflexes for seeing and hearing , regulates autonomic nervous system, affects level of alertness, capability to sleep, balance. Examples of problems may include, decreased ability to breathe and control respiration, difficulty swallowing food and liquids, difficulty with steadiness and movement, dizziness and nausea, sleeping difficulties. Dementia is a condition associated with an ongoing declines of the brain and its abilities, problems include; memory loss, thinking speed, mental agility, language problems, understanding, misjudgement. It causes uninterest in the usual activities, have problems controlling their emotions. A sufferer may lose understanding and compassion, they may hear or see things that other people do not; affects mental abilities, making organising and planning difficult, independence is decreased. Earlier diagnosis leads to right treatment and support, physical examination, some mental exercises to measure problems with the memory. It may be difficult to diagnose mainly if the symptoms are mild. Specialists like neurologists, psychiatrist have experience of treating dementia. Tests will be carried out like brain scans such as Computerised Tomography Scan or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan. Lumbar puncture can be done to measure levels of certain proteins to measure levels of certain proteins in the spinal fluid. No cure but there is medication to help treat symptoms to help improve the brain’s functioning and to slow the progression of the symptoms.

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Enchanted learning (2001) Human Anatomy retrieved from http:/

Dementia Care Central (2014) About Dementia retrieved from http:/

TAQ 3 (1)

When stress happens the body might engage the Fight or Flight response a large amount of adrenaline released very fast which has a big effect on the body.

Flow diagram showing fight or flight on the body during stress

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Biology reference (2014) Stress response retrieved from http:/

TAQ3 (2)

Stress response makes the body recreate in a different way, some of the body changes include; increased blood sugar levels by encouraging the liver to convert glycogen into glucose, increases the heart rate, raised blood flow to the muscles, intestinal muscles relax among others. The amount of water in blood should be kept more or less the equal always, so there is the same volume of water acquired in the food and the volume gone during sweating, evaporation, urine and faeces. This is achieved by the action of hormone Anti Diuretic Hormone (ADH) For example, If a person sweats a lot the hypothalamus transmits information to the pituitary which secretes ADH, that goes in the blood to the kidneys to save water, making urine concentrated; the level of the water can go up as water is ingested by the procedure of respiration. And on the other hand, in case it is cold and not a lot of water is lost through sweating the hypothalamus sends messages to pituitary gland releases less ADH then the kidney removes water through urine making it dilute and the blood water levels returns to normal.

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Biology reference (2014) Stress response retrieved from http:/


Drugs are substances that possess an out come on the body, medicines are drugs that aid people troubled by pain or disease. Recreational drugs are used for pleasure, they are classified as depressants or stimulants can be addictive. All drugs can destroy the liver if misused because it breaks them down in the body. Sharing injections may lead to diseases from infected blood for example HIV and Hepatitis. Depressants delay information in the brain and in the nerves examples are Alcohol which are found in beer, wines and Spirits; Cannabis, heroin and solvents which are illegal. The effects of depressants are; feeling of ill-being, reduced inhibition, decreased thinking, reduced muscular actions, inaccurate view of the surroundings, liver, heart, brain damage which is long term, raised risk of mental illness and many more. Stimulants quickens information in the brain and through the nervous system, creates alertness. For example, Caffeine found in coffee, tea and cola makes you feel more energetic and confident, can damage the liver and heart, can cause difficulty to sleep, head pains and being nervous. Amphetamines, ecstasy and cocaine are stimulants that are illegal. These provide energy and confidence, can damage the liver and heart, can cause memory loss and increased risk of mental illness.

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BBC Bitesize KS3 (2014) Science retrieved from http:/


In western societies if you have a professional job, then you expect to be under an abnormal amount of stress and there is not much can be done about the situation, that is the way it is; the cost of living so the people have to work hard to make ends meet. Stress is the state of tension experiences by individuals facing too many demands. Pay bills and mortgage, taxes and so on making stress levels high. Lack of control being unable to influence decisions that affect your job for example, schedule, and work load could lead to stress, lack of resources needed to do the work. Failure to communicate well with workers about major changes to the business leading to uncertainty about their future. Unclear job expectations that may be about the level of power you have or whatever is expected from you, you may not feel comfortable at work. There is too many expectations and so many changes in work practice. Because of the opportunity and technology being accessible, rather than allocating a task over a few days, whoever is in charge will want a job done immediately for example by lunch time. Non adaptive place of work dynamics, may be facing bullying at work, one may feel undervalued by work mates or boss micro manages your work can lead to job stress. Ineffective management which may result in workers feeling they have no sense of direction or excessive management that may make the workers feel undermined and affect their self-esteem. Incompatibility in values; in case of differences in values from employer does business or handles grievances, mismatch may eventually take its toll. Poor job fit, when you job is not right for the worker’s interests and skills it may raise levels of stress overtime. Bad career growth and physical surroundings can too contribute to stress in professional jobs. Excessive of actions; that is when a job is always repetitive or confusing, constant energy is required to stay motivated which can lead to fatigue. Lack of social support being isolated from the job and in individual life one can become more stressed. Unable to balance work life then the job consumes much of the time and energy that you don’t have the effort to be with relatives and friends you may get stressed quickly. The information technology development and globalization may increase workplace productivity hence stress levels raise on employees. Technology is believed to get employees feeling more productive at work, less load. Technology is going so quickly for some people contributing to more stress. A poor physical working environment for example excessive heat, cold, noise, inadequate lighting, uncomfortable seating, malfunctioning equipment and many others. Technology raises stress due to necessity of acquiring new skills, likelihood of losing data because the computer crashes or pressure for emails and voicemail. Changing to new technologies for example the internet, networks and individual communications have overwhelmed today’s professional jobs and demands on workers. Stress and fatigue will come from different kinds of task demands. Using technology advancement causes worry and concerns about job stability, lack of career prospects or level of pay. Insufficient training and career development in technology leads to job insecurity. Employees require additional training to improve employability and that leads stress. Struggling to understand technologies can also cause stress. Blame culture with in a job where employees may be anxious not to get a job right or to accept to doing mistakes. Various chain of command asking for employees with each manager asking their work to be prioritised. Extremely high assignments, with impractical closing dates making people feel hurried, under pressure and overwhelmed. Work stress increases in times of economic stress. Difficulty settling into fresh promotion some may be fulfilling the new job demands and adjusting to potential changes in relationships with workers. People being asked to do a job with insufficient experience or training. Bad working relationships causes a sense of isolation. Inefficient workloads gets people feeling that their skills are being underutilised. Stress can be reduced in the following ways; by reducing the impact of high demand if they have high control over their work. Getting support from colleagues and managers can reduce high demands and bring about less control. Employers and managers need to understand the causes of stress of employees so that they can offer help or make plans to address issues. Regular exercise can relieve stress activity that raise the heart rate and makes you sweat can effectively lift the mood, relax the body. Most employers in professional jobs in the western world are responsible for ensuring the health, safety and welfare of their workers. They are also required to conduct risk assessment for work related stress. Prevent exhaustion by knowing how much work to take on. By taking on lot, you might end up doing nothing.

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Mayo Clinic (2014) Adult Health retrieved from http:/

NHS (2014) Conditions retrieved from http:/