Bio Monitoring of Roadside Plants Exposed to Vehicular Traffic Pollution

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Bio Monitoring of Roadside Plants Exposed to Vehicular Traffic Pollution in and around Jamia Millia Islamia New Delhi.


Abstract— one of the important causes of forest destruction is certainly the automobile exhausts and the resultant air pollution of vehicular traffic. Experiments on air and biological monitoring were conducted in order to ascertain impact of pollution on various plants along the roads in and around Jamia Millia Islamia. The important plant species along the roads includes Neem (Azadirachta indica), Peepal (Ficus religiosa) Banyan (Ficus benglensis) White fig (Ficus infectoria). For biological monitoring leaf area, total chlorophyll and plant protein was evaluated to study the effect of air pollutants released by automobiles. It was noticed that plants along roadsides with heavy vehicular traffic and commercial markets was much affected by vehicular emissions. Significant decrease was observed in total chlorophyll and protein content was observed with reduced leaf area/size. Though it was concluded from the study, those plants can be used as best indicators for vehicular pollution and there is a need to protect plants along roadsides and to plant resistant species at these polluted sites.

  1. INTRODUCTION
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Plantation along roadsides offers one of the important methods for control of pollution because plants have long been known to act as a sink for various air pollutants [1]. Vehicular pollution is one of the important factors responsible for the forest decline in urban and suburban areas because automobiles or vehicular traffic predominantly and significantly releases different pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) suspended particulate matter (SPM), Oxides of sulphur (SOX), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide(CO) which cause detrimental effects on plants and surrounding ecosystems[2].Monitoring impact of air pollutants on local plant species is a serious ecological issue and depends on several factors such as climatic conditions, physico-chemical properties of pollutants and their residence time in the environment[3].Therefore impact of pollutants on physiological and biochemical characteristics of plants is often used as a tool for evaluation of environmental pollution.[4-7].However several reports have shown that plants automatically develop characteristic resistance against various pollutants depending upon various eco-physiological factors in space and time [8]. It appears that plant resistance against a particular pollutant also depends on the cyto-genetic buildup of that plant species [9].

  1. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

Study Area: The study sites included in this process was residential, market and heavy vehicular traffic area in Okhla New Delhi. The mean monthly temperature ranges between 10 to 20o C .The vegetation is typically mixed deciduous type. Of all the sampling locations the traffic density is very high on the roads. The plants near these sites are continuously exposed to heavy vehicular emissions. University area was considered as a control site. The ambient air quality of this location is good as compared to other two sites as there are very less chances of exposure of plants to the automobile pollution.

Air quality: The ambient air quality data was processed for air quality index (AQI). Air quality index was calculated for winter season only. The mean of three samples in each month was for taken for calculating Air Quality Index (AQI) [10].The ambient air quality monitoring data was obtained from CPCB New Delhi that was conducted at these sampling sites for particulate matter (PM) Oxides of sulphur (SOx), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO). The classification of air quality index was carried out according to CPCB [11].

Biological monitoring: Monitoring of pollution with the help of plants is simple, cheap and convenient method to ascertain the adverse effect of air pollution on vegetation. Plant growth parameters such as leaf area [12] total chlorophyll [13] and protein [14] in leaves were studied to evaluate the impact of air pollution on plants.

Statistical Analysis: The data was subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multi-comparison of ANOVA at 95% confidence interval was carried out for all parameters of plants. [15]

  1. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS

Table 1: Air Quality Status at various study/ sampling Sites.

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S.no

Study location

Nov. 2013

Dec. 2013

Jan. 2014

Feb. 2014

Avg. AQI

AQI Status

1

Residential area

104

106

108

110

1 07

Moderate

2

Market area

248

260

268

244

255

poor

3

Traffic area

300

306

305

309

305

Very poor

4

Control

65

62

60

45

58

Good

Table 2: Leaf area (cm2) of selected plants along roadsides at different sites (N=10) at each site.

S.no

Sampling location

A.indica

Ficus religiosa

Ficus benglensis

Ficus.

infectoria

P – Value

1

Residential area

10.1

134

188

216

2

Market area

8.3

127

172

215

6.1x10-8

3

Traffic area

7.33

122

163

203

4

Control

12.66

142

210

217

Table 3: Plant protein (µg/mg) of the selected plant species along roadsides in study area (N=10).

S.no.

Sampling location

A.indica

Ficus religiosa

F.benglensis

F.Infectoria

P – Value

1

Residential area

8.3

7.75

12.25

10.5

2

Market area

5.25

6.65

8.4

7.9

6.68x 10-8

3

Traffic area

3.45

4.65

ND

6.45

4

Control

14.3

12.0

155

14.55

Table 4: Total Chlorophyll (mg/g) of the selected plant species along roadsides in study area (N=10).

S.no.

Sampling location

A.indica

F.religiosa

F.benglensis

F.infectoria

P – Value

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This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Examples of our work

1

Residential area

2.05

1.62

2.15

2.45

2

Market area

1.85

1.46

1.95

2.25

0.000637

3

Traffic area

1.26

1.4

1.55

1.9

4

Control

2.37

2.4

2.55

2.9

  1. CONCLUSIONS

Rapid urbanization and increased vehicular traffic in developing countries releases large amount of toxic gases in the urban environment that not only endangers human health but also affect the plant life to a great extent, thus plants provide one of the best information regarding air pollution.

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  13. Hiscox,J.D & Israelstam,G.F. A method for the extraction of the chlorophyll from leaf tissue without macerations. Can.J.Bot. 57, 1332-1334 (1979).
  14. Bradford, M.M.A rapid and sensitive method for quantification of microgram quantities of protein using principal of protein dye binding. AnnuaI.Biocam.72, 248-259 (1976).
  15. Armitage, P. and G. Berry: Statistical methods in medical research. IIIrd Edn. ISBN 0-632-03695-8, Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publication, New Yark, pp. 103-115 and 207-214 (1994).