Food Engineering is a field which is a unique integration of various core fields like Electrical, Mechanical, Civil, Chemical, Industrial and Agriculture Engineering. All of the aforementioned Engineering fields have some critical role to play to execute various operations and processes in the Food Industry. Various definitions of Food Engineering have evolved since 1952 and majority of them in general strongly bonds the Science and Engineering Principles to control various Food materials. Hence the dimension of this interface has over the time continued to grow in various fields like of Education, Research and Industries.
The origin of Food Engineering initiated since early 1800's which comprised mainly of quantification and modeling for food preservation. Subsequently, various Mathematical, Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling in food process industry were developed to continuously increase the shelf life and reduce spoilage. Consequently, three fields mainly Thermal Processing, Food Cooling and Freezing and Food Dehydration turned out to be key research areas in Food Engineering. Various food giants in Food Engineering had contributed to Food Engineering field since the start of this 20th century. Additionally, various books have been authored and published by these food giants that have greatly enhanced the education system in the field. Further, various conferences, journals and food engineering societies have been formed and promoted since then which has greatly contributed to the enlargement and efficacy of the field in the present world. Few changes that have been envisioned in the industry since then are like firstly, mergers and acquisitions of companies in food and related industries. Secondly, implementation of new and innovative processes in the industry. Thirdly, changes in expectations of food industry to a more healthy food practices. Fourthly, advancement in computer technology and its role in food engineering. These changes have influenced the environment of food engineers and will be incorporated in future educational programs of food engineers.
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In food engineering the key research focus area is Integration of kinetics with transport phenomenon to accomplish process design. The research model concept encircles in three areas namely Kinetic parameters, transport phenomenon, and process design. Research on kinetic model has increased the availability of kinetic parameters and transport phenomenon has improved understanding of heat and mass transfer in foods. In general, the concept is ideal for optimizing product quality and process parameters. Hence, in general the model in flowchart could be presented as:
In Kinetic model:
k=first order rate constant
A=the concentration or intensity of component.
The rate constants were initially interpreted in food preservation processes but in this case are evaluated and expressed as function of temperature, water activity, pressure, pH etc.
Similarly, in Transport phenomenon model:
Î´N/Î´t = Î±â-¼2 N where;
N=intensity of a process parameter
Î± = appropriate property of food structure.
The expression is used to predict preservation process parameters like temperature, moisture content, pressure and other parameters in microbial populations.
Likewise, in Process design model:
A=intensity or concentration of quality attribute.
The focus of this design model is to assure maximum retention of product quality attributes while ensuring desired reduction in microbial population for safety of shelf life extension.
To produce the safer foods Knorr has demonstrated the kinetics of Escherichia Coli population reductions at high pressures and henceforth retention of product quality in sausage. Besides food processing food supply is another critical factor in food industry. Process improvements like aspetic packaging and processing, better throughput of processing lines and noticeable reduction in product quality attributes has been a major contributor in efficient and cost effective food supply chain. A process flow for aspetic processing and packaging is as shown:
Similarly, freeze drying is another food preservation method to increase shelf life and give better quality to food product. Continuous efforts for evaluation are being carried out to reduce the costs associated with food processing. Furthermore improvements in texture of food have been researched upon recently. Concept of "Water activity "has uniquely provided basis for product and process development. Many relationships between reaction rates in foods and water activity has guided development of various relationships between weight composition, food ingredients and chemistry of food versus processing temperature. Most of the product quality attributes could be now traced in "Food stability map". Another quantitative concept could be found in "State Diagram". This has very well guided the food industry with enhanced knowledge on process parameters to achieve best product quality and increased shelf life. Sample diagrams for the aforementioned items are shown as below.
Food Stability Map
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Extrusion in another process technology with significant impact on food product development. It combines various parameters like pressure, temperature and time to produce products with unique characteristics and properties. The process has been simulated in state diagram and various stages like wetting, heating and mixing, expansion, drying and cooling has been formulated to see the chemical and physical changes in the cycle. This understanding created unlimited array of opportunities for new and innovative products. Through nano scale science various textures of food could be improved. The encapsulation of flavors within nanoscale particles ensures retention of flavor intensity through processing steps for long periods of time during storage and distribution. The future of food engineering will critically revolve around nanoscale science and translation of its outcomes into food industry. The shelf-life could be extended and new and improved packaging could be established using nano scale materials. Food Engineering will play a vital role in establishing robust health and wellness care for the consumers. It will provide good insight into fundamentals to the metabolism of the food and eventually the product and process development cycle. It is no doubt that material and energy balances will become standard tools in evaluation of all operations initiating from point of raw material production to final delivery of the product. The continuous research in preservation process like of refrigeration, drying, canning etc has been a focus in the field and transition of new information from process design to commercial manufacturing in form of technology transfer will continue to be a great challenge and biggest focus of food engineering.
List and briefly describe the contribution of 10 food engineers from around the world that have been relevant to the profession (500 to 1000 words). Please do not cut and paste!!!
Karel Marcus: He is the primary leader in finding out the effect of molecular weight on glass transition. A paper "Glass Transition in Poly (Vinyl Pyrrolidone) effect of molecular weight and diluents" published in 1992 in Biotechnology program mentions about this relationship. The relationship in present literature is also known as state diagram.
Marcel Loncin: He was chemical engineer and has done significant contribution in emulsion and drying technologies in food processing industry. This included drying in various forms and separation equipment design to implement aforementioned technologies. Additionally, some works on influence of surface active agents on the drying rate of solids have also been published. There has been also a research prize named after Marcel Locin which is awarded annually by Institute of food technology.
Ted Labuza: He has done significant contribution in water activity and practical aspects of moisture sorption isotherm measurement and its use. He was able to determine that it is actually the water activity and not the moisture content that is the root cause of the problem pertaining to shelf life loss, texture changes etc.
d) Dennis R.Heldman: He has been a leading contributor in the field by establishing novel researches in freezing processes to maximize food product quality. Various relationships of surface heat transfer coefficient to product dimensions and characteristics has been determined through his researches. Influence on freezing rates, storage temperatures and thawing conditions on quality of frozen foods has also been provided under the leadership of Dr. Heldman.
e) Q.Tuan Pham: He has contributed to the field of food engineering through optimizing the refrigeration processes in the food industry. He has also provided prediction on calorimetric properties and freezing time of foods from composition data. In these formulations various effects like sensible heat by calculating precooling, phase change and sub cooling times are also considered.
f) J.Kuprianoff: He has contributed greatly in food industry by distinguishing the various forms of water like bound, free etc. inside the food which largely contributes to water activity or moisture content in food complex systems. Such types also critically comment on the food rehydration and dehydration cycle.
g) H.A.Leniger: He is the pioneers to integrate chemical engineering with the food complex systems to form food engineering. Study of chemical reactions initiated by addition of chemicals with raw and auxiliary materials has been researched and developed by Dr. Leniger. He has also studied the complexities of Newtonian flow in pipes and ducts. Besides, similar concepts in high temperature during short time extrusion cooking have also been applied. Such processes are considered to be thermal processing and its criticality to food quality.
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h) T.Lovric: He has been the leading researcher on biochemical and processing aspects of food. For example lycopene has been detected in tomatoes which are responsible for color of the vegetable using spectrophotometry. Further, aroma of Rhine Riesling and wine was also established to determine most intense odor-active compounds using Gas chromatography. He has also studied the rheological properties of aqueous solutions of food additives. Additionally, study of phenolic compounds that contribute majorly to aroma and taste of numerous food products was also established by Dr. Lovric.
i) R.P.Singh: He has been the leading researchers in integrating computer simulation with food engineering. He has worked on numerous projects ranging from thawing and drying simulation techniques to degradation of quality of stored food in shelf using computer analysis softwares. Such simulations also tell about various other characteristics like sensory properties, water activity to approximate shelf life etc. Dr. Singh has also played a vital role in establishing robust grounds for wheat production across the globe.
j) D.B.Lund: He has been the leading researchers in establishing the sterilizing temperatures of the food product. On the similar lines he has developed kinetics of thermal softening of food and corresponding physical changes. He has published materials on the textural degradation via use of activation energies which is induced when vegetable is kept in thermal environment. With a same view he has also predicted the quality factor retention in both conduction and convection methods.
Please list and briefly describe 5 important concepts introduce by food engineers and closeley related colleagues. This concepts should be or relevance because of the changes promoted and the impact in the food industry and the analysis of engineering problems.
Molecular weight Versus Glass Transition (State Diagrams): This concept was largely developed by Karel Marcus. It basically mentions the effect of molecular weight on glass transition. Any given food complex has weight fraction of solids which influences the melting and boiling points of the food This eventually effects the glass transition temperature of the food and signifies the content of water or water activity within the food. All these concepts are put forth in a single diagram called the State diagrams.
Water activity and practical aspects of moisture sorption isotherm measurement and its use:- This concept was largely developed by Ted Labuza and J.Kuprianoff. It states that when the water is present in the foods; it enters the glassy state, and the movement of water is so slow that it is effectively bound. Water potential is a quantitative measure of the binding energy of water in food. Common moisture sorption isotherms have been developed that explain various effects on moisture content and water activities of the product through temperature of the surroundings. It also illustrates and compares the water activity and moisture content.
Kinetics of reaction in food complex systems:- This concept was largely brought by D.B.Lund. The concept basically was evolved due to the rising importance of not only the nutritional quality but also the flavor, color, and texture. For understanding all these behaviors it is necessary to create mathematical models w.r.t food complex systems and understand the reaction kinetics going inside the food during processing. Three main criteria that are required to understand the reaction kinetics is
i) Stoichiometry ii) Order and rate of reaction iii) Mechanism.
Momentum, Heat and Mass transfer in food:-.This concept was initially pioneered and developed by Marcin Loncin. It was seen during the drying of foods that sorption equations and Fourier and Fick laws are primarily utilized to describe the transfer of heat and mass in the solid. Mathematically it was determined that the total system should be balanced and a transfer phenomenon is the medium through which phase changes occurs through forced or natural changes in environmental conditions.
Mobile Refrigeration Systems:- The invention of mobile refrigeration in around 1949 revolutionized' the food industry and the methodology of engineering problems especially w.r.t mathematical modeling during their shelf lives. It also removed the problem of food spoilage during transportation. It became also a good solution to replace ice which was causing pollution and sewage dumping. The pioneer in these efforts was Sir Frederick Jones.
List important conferences around the world dealing with Food engineering.
Food Automation & Manufacturing Conference and Expo (FAM)
It is one of important conferences that deal in automation of processing lines via implementing latest state of art robots, precision machine control. It also is a community that evaluates return on investment (ROI) on plant automation projects in food industry. Its latest upcoming event is on 3rd April, 2011 in Florida.
International Conference on Food Engineering and Biotechnology(ICFEB)
It is one of the conferences in food engineering that bring together scientist, leading engineers, industry researchers and scholar students to share their experiences and research results and challenges encountered during their researches. It latest upcoming conference is at Tokyo, Japan on 25th May, 2011.
International congress on Engineering and Food(ICEF)
It is one of conferences that contribute to the solution of vital problems in world of increasing problems pertaining to severe constraints of limited resources of raw materials, energy and environment. Its latest conference will be held in Athens, Greece on 22nd May, 2011.
International Microwave Power Institute(IMPI)
It is one of the conferences that include all the scientists, researchers, product developers who are interested in microwave/RF technology. Its latest 45th annual symposium will be held at Louisiana, USA on 8th Jun,2011.
Pacific Fisheries Technologists Conference (PFT)
It is a conference that broadens the professional network, discuss current seafood issues and exchange information on current research in seafood technology. Its latest conference was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada on Feb13th, 2011.
International Society of Food Engineering (ISFE)
It is a forum that facilitates communication among professionals working of food engineering in academia, industry or government from around the world. It conducts various conferences in food engineering and Ibero-American food engineering conferences.
Please list and briefly describe 10 journals dealing with food engineering topics.
Journal of Food Science: It was established in 1936.It is published by John Wiley and sons on behalf of food technologists in Chicago, Illinois. The journal publishes papers largely encircling food chemistry, food engineering, food microbiology, nutrition and sensory analysis.
The International Journal of Food Science & Technology: It promotes new techniques and knowledge in food industry to serve industrial researches providing high quality referred original papers in food science and technology.
Journal of Agriculture and Food chemistry: It promotes the papers in agriculture and food chemistry arena. These papers gives a greater understanding of the role chemistry plays in the global economy, health, safety, and the environment and is given the unique opportunity to exchange ideas with leading experts in the field.
Journal of Food Engineering: This journal publishes papers in areas that are interfacing between food and engineering, particularly that are relevant to industry like engineering properties of food, measurement, control, packaging, storage and distribution, engineering aspects of design and operation of food processes. The current editor-in-chief is Dr. R. Paul Singh.
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology: It is a journal that gives experimental and theoretical research findings that have the potential for helping the food industry to improve process efficiency, enhance product quality and, extend shelf-life of fresh and processes food products.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering: It is devoted to the advancement and dissemination of knowledge concerning fermentation technology, biochemical engineering, food technology and microbiology. The editor-in-chief is Hisao Ohtake.
International Journal of Refrigeration: This journal has published special issues on alternative refrigerants and novel topics in the field of boiling, condensation, heat pumps, ice-slurry systems food refrigeration, carbon dioxide and magnetic refrigeration at room temperature. The editor-in-chief is H.Auracher.
Journal of Food Process Engineering: It publishes the best original research on applications of engineering principles and concepts to food and food processes. The processes include any physical properties and changes to the food product that result in preservation of the food, extending to transportation, product shelf-life, or improvements in the product quality attributes.
Food and Bio products Engineering: It is only journal that exploits the synergy between biotechnology, bioprocessing and food engineering. The developments in plant or processes that can be given quantitative expression are encouraged. The journal is especially interested in papers that extend the boundaries of food and bio products processing.
Bio systems Engineering Journal: It is the research in engineering and the physical sciences that represent advances in understanding or modeling of the performance of biological systems for sustainable developments in land use and the environment, agriculture and amenity, bio production processes and the food chain. The papers generally report the results of experiments, theoretical analyses, design of, or innovations relating to, machines and mechanization systems, processes or processing methods, equipment and buildings, experimental equipment, laboratory and analytical techniques and instrumentation.
International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering: It is a journal which invites novel sustainable technologies in energy, agriculture and food systems area. It is published jointly by US-based Association of Overseas Chinese Agricultural, Biological and Food Engineers (AOCABFE) and Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (CSAE). This journal provides a home for the latest high-quality research concerning the agricultural, food and biological engineering and the application of bio-agricultural engineering techniques in all areas of agriculture. The journal features works of great significance, originality, and relevance in all the concerned areas.
Please list and briefly describe 15 books dealing with food engineering topics.
Innovation in Food Engineering: New Techniques and Products: This book consists of Application of Hybrid Technology Using Microwaves for Drying and Extraction, Aseptic Packaging of Food--Basic Principles; and New Developments Concerning Decontamination Methods for Packaging Materials. Latest Developments and Future Trends in Food; Packaging and Biopackaging Uses of Whole Cereals and Cereal Components for the Development of Functional Foods. The author of the book is Maria Laura Passos and Claudio P Ribeiro.
Trends in Food Engineering: The book presents Structure- property relationships, food rheology, and the correlations between physiochemical and sensory data. It also presents developments in food processing such as minimal preservation and thermal and non-thermal processing. Current topics such as biotechnology, food additives, and functional property of proteins are basically discussed in three separate sections. Specific topics include plastic materials for modified atmosphere packaging, physical and microstructural properties of frozen gelatinized starch suspensions, and vacuum impregnation in fruit processing. The book is authored by Jorge E.Lozano
Encyclopedia of Food Engineering: - This book is authored by Care W. Hall, A. W. Farrall and A. L. Rippen. It basically contains from aerobic reactions to convective heat transfer in foods to soil dynamics, water vapor properties and much more. It is exhaustive, clearly written, and meticulously detailed one stop shop for all hot keywords in Food Engineering.
Introduction to Food Engineering:- It is authored by R.Paul Singh. It presents the concepts and unit operations used in Food processing. It covers various important topics like Supplemental Processes, Filtration, Sedimentation, Centrifugation, Mixing, and Extrusion Processes for Foods, Packaging Concepts and Shelf Life of Foods. Further, various emerging technologies such as high pressure and pulsed, Electric field Design of plate heat exchangers, Impact of fouling in heat transfer processes, Use of dimensional analysis in solving problems also cover major portion of the book.
Advances in food engineering:- It contains most recent developments in Food engineering. Some of them are like water relations of foods and their role in dehydration processes; measurement of food properties and their role in optimizing food processing operations; advances in heat and mass transfer and their application in improving food processing operations; innovations in equipment design and plant operations; structural and rheological considerations in food processing; reaction kinetics in food processing, packaging, and storage; and food engineering research and development in Indonesia. It is authored by R.P.Singh & M A Wirakartakusumah
Food engineering research developments:-It includes but not limited to, the application of agricultural engineering and chemical engineering principles to food materials. It also covers Design of machinery and processes to produce foods, Design and implementation of food safety and preservation measures in the production of foods, Biotechnological processes of food production, Choice and design of food packaging materials and Quality control of food production. It is authored by Terrance P.Klening.
Food Engineering 2000:-It is authored by Pedro Fito Maupoei; Enrique Ortega-Rodriguez; Gustavo V Barbosa-CaÌnovas. It covers topics mainly like Microstructural and Imaging Analyses, Rheological Properties of Fluid Foods, Multilayer Sorption Isotherms, Structural Changes in the Minimal Processing of Fruits and the study of fruits. It also covers the Study of Critical Variables in the Treatment of Foods by Pulsed Electric Fields.
Solving problems in Food Engineering:- It is authored by S Yanniotis. This book covers mathematical problems in fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and the most common unit operations that have applications in food processing, such as thermal processing, cooling and freezing, evaporation, and psychometrics and drying. Hence, it is an excellent compilation of conceptual and quantitative Food Engineering problems.
Unit operation in Food Engineering:-It is authored by Albert Ibarz; Gustavo V Barbosa-CaÌnovas. It covers various topics like molecular transport of momentum, energy, and mass; rheology of food products; transport of fluid through pipes; circulation of fluid through porous beds; filtration; separation processes by membranes; thermal properties of food; heat transfer by conduction; heat transfer by convection; heat transfer by radiation; thermal processing of foods; food preservation by cooling; dehydration; distillation; absorption; solid-liquid extraction; and adsorption and ionic exchange.
New Food Engineering research trends: It is authored by Alan P Urwaye. It covers majorly new researches in the growing field of food engineering. Some of topics included in book are Ionizing irradiation of foods, Fruits and vegetables dehydration in tray dryers, Ultrasound in fruit processing, Protein hydrolysis with enzyme recycle by membrane ultrafiltration and Far-infrared heating in paddy drying process, It also consists of novel two-stage dynamic packaging for respiring produce.
Food Engineering Principles and selected applications:- It consists of various techniques employed in food industry. It also contains equations related to transfer of mass, heat and momentum, equilibrium between phases, various mechanical operations, applied biochemical kinetics, cleaning, disinfection and rinsing. It is authored by Marcel Loncin and R.L.Merson.
Introduction to Food Process Engineering:- A basic introduction to the principles of food process engineering, like physical properties of food, traditional fluid mechanics, and heat transfer via conduction, convection, and radiation. It also covers topics like transport phenomena, momentum, energy and mass balances, as well as a new topic on macroscopic balances. It is authored by Albert Ibarz, Gustavo V. Barbosa-Canovas.
Elements of Food Engineering:-It is authored by Ernest L Watson; John C Harper.
It majorly deals with production, preparation, processing, handling, packaging, and distribution of food. The subject matter is treated from unit operations point of view, i.e., materials, handling, cleaning, separating, disintegrating, pumping, mixing, heat exchanging etc., to packaging.
Food Engineering Laboratory manual:- It is one of the manuals that basically shows the approach on laboratory experiments; topics covered include safety, preparing for a laboratory exercise, effectively performing an experiment, properly documenting data, and preparation of laboratory reports. The chapters cover unit operations centered on food applications: dehydration, thermal processing, and friction losses in pipes, freezing, extrusion, evaporation, and physical separations. It is authored by
Gustavo V Barbosa-CaÌnovas; Li Ma; and Blas Barletta.
Automation for Food Engineering: food quality quantization and process control:-It is authored by Yanbo Huang; A Dale Whittaker and Ronald E Lacey. It covers concepts, methods, and theories of data acquisition and analysis, modeling, classification and prediction, and control as they pertain to food quality quantization and process control. It also covers the application of such advanced methods as wavelet analysis and artificial neural networks to automated food quality evaluation and introduces novel system prototypes such as machine vision, elastography, and the electronic nose.