Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

M2

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that affects both children and adults and is featured by problems with attention, impulsively, and hyperactivity. There are three types of this disorder. The first type is Predominantly Inattentive. The symptoms are not being able to pay attention to details, completing tasks, and very easily distracted or forgetful. The second type is predominantly Hyperactive- Impulsive. The symptoms for this type is fidgeting and talking a lot, always having to move, sometimes feeling restless, butts in when others are talking, talking when they shouldn't, have a hard time waiting their turn. The third type is a combined type of the first two. Here they have a combination of the inattentive and the hyperactive- impulsive symptoms.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is not a new disorder. It was first found almost a century ago, the helpful effects of medications has been known about for little over fifty years now. The behaviors that are shown from this disorder were once called hyperactivity, then in 1980 it was officially called Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), and then again in 1987 the name changed to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It was change to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder to show that the hyperactivity is a major part of the disorder. A person can have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and not be hyper. Some people still use the name Attention Deficit Disorder to refer to people that do not have the hyperactivity. Other people use both terms for the disorder, but the official name is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

A lot of people ask "How common is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?". In the United States the percent is three to seven of kids have the disorder. By most reports it is three times more likely for boys to have it then girls. The average of kids in the United States with the disorder in classrooms is at lest one. One forth of kids with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder feel great worry, strain or discomfort, even when there is nothing to fear. The feeling is scarier, stronger and more common then normal fears, they can affect the kid's thoughts and actions. The rate of the disorder in adults is less precise; many researchers think that anywhere from one-third to two-thirds of kids who have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder will continue to have the problems as adults. In the United States Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the highest, researchers tell us that the disorder is also very common around the world.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was once thought to only affect kids; it has now been recognized as a disorder that carries on into adulthood. In adults the ratio of men to women with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one to one. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a disorder that starts in childhood that may move with them into adulthood. Research on adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is still in an early stage of expansion. The present data for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder highlight a childhood appearance and there is a growing body of evidence that suggest that the pinpointing features of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder take a different form in adults. One illustration of this is within the area of hyperactivity. Although a common trait in children is hyperactivity, it is likely to be less obvious in adults. The "on the go" performance seen in kids with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is replaced in adults with restlessness, difficulty relaxing, and a feeling of constantly being on edge. Many people think that there is a different disorder for adults but there is not. In a lot of cases, doctors help adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder develop new skills, attitudes and ways of relating to other adults. There is no disorder that is called adult-onset Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Some tips to help adults deal with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are to first of all give your self a break. Usually the biggest struggle is an interior one.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is known to affect both boy and girls but, for girls and women it presents some unique issues. There are lots of girls and women who are affected by this disorder. Many of them don't get the help that they need to deal with it. Many don't even know they have the disorder. It is very difficult to make a diagnosis on girls and women because they are usually less and sometimes not hyper, less rebellious, and more obedient. The absence of troublesome behavior delays the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in girls. When women are diagnosed, lots of them recall hard and painful memories of childhood experiences in school that was probably caused by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. At the time they were attributes to sluggishness or lack of skill. Low-self regard is the result of chronic criticism and very frequent among women with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Women and girls with the disorder are more likely to get depression then men and boys are with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Some very high expectations have been over the year deeply engraved in many women.

Many people wonder what cause Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. No one knows for sure but many say that it is highly genetic. Current research has found evidence that the main cause of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is genetic, due to the joint effect of several different genes. There are other possibilities, some are biological and other are environmental. In the light of such range of possible causes and because cases of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder differ so much between people. Many researchers believe that there is no one cause. Because Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is genetic if a parent has it there is a fifty percent chance that the kids will have it. If a kid has it then there is a forty percent chance that one of the parents has it too. The resolution of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the adult then there is an increase in chance that the child will have the symptoms as an adult also. At the present time Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is in people who identify with some of the symptoms at different times in their life. Stress can also cause symptoms comparable to those of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, but it is not a cause. Recent research doesn't support the idea that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is caused by extreme sugar intake, food additives, too much watching of television, or bad parenting skills. There have been many misconceptions, one of them is the common one that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is over diagnosed; the fact is that the disorder is in reality under-diagnosed. Other circumstances might occur with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, making it hard to appear at an obvious diagnose.

More then half of those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder also have other mental disorders. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can be connected with Tourette's syndrome, a disorder that is featured by physical and verbal tics. Tourette's affects just a minute percent age of those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. There are fifty percent of people with Tourette's that also have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In accumulation to mental disorders, many people with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder also have learning disabilities such as Dyslexia. Researchers guess that twenty to thirty percent of kids with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder also have an exact learning disability. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is not a learning disability. When a person has Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and another mental disorder or learning disability, medical professionals often have a hard time diagnosing precisely what the person is suffering from. The symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can also be similar to some other conditions such as Depression, Anxiety Disorder, or Bipolar Disorder making it even harder to correctly diagnose someone with the disorder.

There is no exacted way to diagnose Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The idea of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is said to be controversial, but in the late 1990s there was controversy only in the media, not in sound professional circles. Doctors can't use blood tests, brain scans, or any kind of ultimate test that can be used to diagnose someone who has Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Instead it is diagnosed based on observing behavior. Doctors watch for whether a person takes a lot, is distracted easily, or has a hard time fallowing directions. Whether these behaviors are shown as challenging and as symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, can depend on a lot of different observers and what he or she believes is developmentally and ethnically suitable. A diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is very subjective. Some people believe that it is not a real disorder, just a suitable explanation for difficult behavior. In Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder literature, many critics disagree that society dose not have enough acceptance for kids who show difficult behavior. They uphold that instead, the trend is to tag these kids with an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosis and treat them with the medications. Some people believe that the enthusiasm and energy that comes with the disorder can be good if a person learns how to use the strengths and manages the negative problems.

Most people think that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has a damaging impression on a person's life. Untreated Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can have life-time penalty. Compared with the universal residents, people with untreated Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can have elevated rates of divorce and job loss. They also have elevated rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving tickets. Kids with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder use more psychological health services; also have more repeated emergency room visits and elevated rates of walker, cyclist, and driving accidents than kids who don't have the disorder.

All of these things put a great amount of stress on their parents. It doesn't matter if the kid is boy or girl, parenting either is evenly stressful. Mothers of kids with the disorder account much higher levels of stress, then mothers of kids who have other never-ending conditions, and they're more likely to become depressed. Parents of kids with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are also more expected to experience enlarged non-attendance and decrees in efficiency in the work force then parents of kids with out the Disorder. This places a lot of strain on marriages. Learning how to deal with a kid who has this disorder is very important it will help both you and the child. So to do this effectively and consistently is a big part of a lot of treatment plans.

Like all constant medical conditions, there are no cures for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The most common treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is medication and the most common set of drugs used is stimulants. These drugs include Methylphenidate, with many brand names such as Concerta, Metadate, Methylin, Rilain; Amphetamine, Dextrostat; Dexmethylphenidate, Foculin. Adderall carries a "black box warning" about potential for substance mistreatment and also warns people with a heart condition not to use the medication because of the risk of serious cardiovascular trials and sudden death. Potential side effects of weight loss, slow growth, and tics. These should be cautiously weighed alongside the benefits before prescribing the drug. Most side effects can often be dealt with by lowering the dosage. These medications work by affecting the chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. It seems that counterintuitive stimulants will help people who seem to be already over stimulated, these medications do help both adults and kids focus and become less spontaneous. There are two types of medications, short-action versions and long-acting versions. The short-acting versions that last about four hours and the long-acting versions that are taken only once or twice a day. The most frequent side effects from stimulants are decreased hunger, not being able to sleep, anxiety, headache, and rapid heart rate. Medication can help to manage the core symptoms such as the ones know as hyperactivity and distraction. The most important thing is to get some kind of treatment, but not necessarily drugs.

The brains of kids and teenagers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are three to four percent smaller then those of kids who don't have the disorder, medication are not the cause. Researchers have suggested that drugs may actually help the brain mature. There has been some concern that long-term use of stimulants might lead to substance abuse. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is viewed as a life-long condition continuing from early childhood; it is often recommended that patients continue drug therapy with stimulants through adulthood. This usually doesn't happen. We know a little bit about the long-term effects of stimulants medication. There have been few longitudinal studies done on kids with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder getting stimulant therapy into adulthood. It is not known if long-term use of stimulants is linked with greater increases of adult substance abuse. There has also been concern that stimulants drugs affect kid's growth, with some research showing a connection. Kids who use the long-acting form of methylphenidate for twenty-one months showed no significant differences in growth patterns between kids taking the medication and those not taking it. For a lot of people these drugs noticeably reduce the hyperactivity and the inability to focus, work and learn. They can also help physical condition, such as hand writing. Drugs alone aren't enough to cure Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It will just help control the symptoms while you are taking the drugs. Stimulants have only instant profit, so once a dose wears off the symptoms come back. Drugs help you pay better attention to and complete your work. They can't make you smarter or help you get better grades. The drugs alone won't make yourself feel better or to be able to deal with issues. These problems need other kinds of treatment and support. For long lasting progress doctors advise that drugs along with treatment be used to help in these other areas. Many researchers believe that the most significant. Long lasting gains appear when drugs are combined with behavioral therapy, counseling, and realistic support.

Medication is the most common treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder but there are various alternatives that do exist. Many people believe that drugs are the most effective Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder treatment; however a recent research shows that this may not be true. Many experts believe that the most important long-lasting gains occur when drugs is united with behavioral treatment, emotional therapy and realistic support. Some research shows that a mixture of drugs and therapy may be more efficient then drugs alone, particularly when other co-existing psychiatric circumstances occur such as Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, or substance abuse. A lot of people agree that treatment and schooling about how to cope with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can be useful both for those with the disorder and those who interact with them. There are others aspects of the problem that drugs can't treat. Though Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder usually only affects a persons behaviors and cognitive functions, the disorder has a wide range of emotional repercussions.

A growing number of people with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder take medications, non-medical use of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder drugs have also grown rapidly. The level of abuse of prescription drugs, includes stimulants prescribed for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, is no less then abuse of illegal drugs, such as ecstasy, cocaine, and heroin. So researchers say that two percent of teenagers age twelve to seventeen used stimulants nomadically in 2006. The increase amount among those aged sixteen to seventeen was a three point three percent. Research shows that a lot of the abuse Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder medication occurs among students. Many use it to help bust their cognitive functions and academic performance in school. Another thing contributing to increasing abuse of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder medication may be the increase of legal prescriptions, which makes it easier to get medication for non medical use.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder mostly affects a person's behavior; the disorder has wide range of emotional repercussions. Scolding is the only attention some people with the disorder may ever get from their parents while growing up. They have very little happy experiences to build up their self-esteem. When facing daily frustrations that can come with having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can make people fear that they are weird, unusual or stupid. The cycle of irritation, guilt, and rage has gone on so long it takes some time to unravel. In group counseling, people learn that they are not alone and that there is other people who want to help. Sometimes a person with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder needs counseling support, because the problem does affect the whole family. Several different types of therapy are available, different therapists preferring different approaches. Knowing something about the different types of interventions makes it a lot easier to choose a therapist. Psychotherapy works to help people with the disorder like and believe in themselves despite their disorder. In Psychotherapy, people talk with the therapist about disturbing thoughts and feeling, discover self-defeating patterns of behavior, emotions of behavior, and learn other ways to deal with their emotions. As they talk, the therapist tries to help them understand how they can change. People dealing with this disorder usually want to get control of their symptomatic behaviors. Intervention can provide that help that people need. Behavior therapy used with kids and adolescents, giving education to parents about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, teaching them to use normal and constant rewords and punishments with their kids, and coordinating effects with teachers at school.

Some cultural differences affect Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosis rates, with rates differing across the United States and between the United States and other countries. Some people believe it proves that culture plays a really big role in the continuation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Other researchers believe that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can be found all over the world, proving that it is not just a disorder created by certain cultures.

Cover picture

ADHD pictures Google images

www.adhd.co.nz/images/homepage_r1_c1.gif 12/01/09

SA:

Andrea C. Malaya " Overview". ADHD.

Reference Point Press, Inc, © 2009 P.9-19

SB:

Staff writer, "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Net News, Volume 7 number 2. (Author abstract Report)." Eric: Reports.U.S. Department, of Education. 2007. Health Reference Center Academic. Web. 28 Oct.2009. http://find.galenet.com/gps/start.do?prodld=IPS&userGroupName=morenetosage11. © 2007 U.S. Department of Education 10/28/09

SC:

Staff writer, "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Facts to Know." NWHRC Health Center-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. National Women's Health Resource Center, 2005. Health Reference Center Academic. Web. 28 Oct, 2009. http://find.galenet.com/gps/start.do?prodld=IPS&usersGroupName=morenetosage. © 2005 National Women's Health Resource Center 10/28/09

SD:

Staff writer, " Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Treatment." NWGRC Health Center-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. National Women's Health Resource Center, 2006. Health Reference Center Academic. Web 28 Oct, 2009. http://find.galntet.com/gps/start.do?prodld=IPS&usersGroupName=morenenergosage. © 2006 National Women's Health Resource Center 10/28/09

SE:

Staff writer, "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Diagnosis." NWHRC Health center-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. National Women's Health Resource Center, 2006. Health Reference Center Academic. Web. 28 Oct, 2009 http://find.galnet.com/gps/start.do?prodld=IPS&userGroupName=morenetosage. © 2006 National Women's Health Resource Center 10/28/09

SF:

Dr. Christopher Green and Dr. Kit Chee "ADHD-The Facts." Understanding ADHD. The Ballantine Publishing Group © 1994, 1997, 1998 by Dr. Christopher Green. P. 3-4

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.