Assessing Effects Of Anthropogenic Activities In Lokhandwala Lake Biology Essay

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How the recent anthropogenic activities like washing, bathing, religious rituals and increase of encroachments along the lake have affected the Lokhandwala Lake, its surrounding and its aquatic life.

Rationale:

Lokhandwala Lake is situated in Mumbai, India, the midst of housing area. It is very old lake which has been existed since many years. This is a man - made lake formed sometime around 1980 as a result of the road leading to the electricity sub-station. The depression formed got filled with water and it became a fresh water lake. Environmentalists claim that 20 years ago seawater would accumulate in the land where the lake stands today. However, when the BSES substation was built, the area was cut off from the sea. The land with its natural depression soon filled with rainwater and is a lake today. The lake is also surrounded by a thick growth of mangroves. However, a recent transit solid waste dumping station has been made by the Brihan Mumbai Corporation (BMC) amidst the mangrove area, thus threatening the mangroves, its biodiversity and also the Lokhandwala Lake as the transit road passes along the lake. Members of Lokhandwala Complex Environment Action Group (LCEAG) are urging residents of Lokhandwala to adopt stretches of mangroves in the vicinity, along with Lokhandwala Lake, and form citizen vigilance committee to ensure its protection and rejuvenation. In the past era the lake was pure and less polluted but as the population started increasing in that area due to increase in housing slums, there has been a constant exploitation of the lake and its resources. Activities like bathing, washing, religious rituals etc. have resulted in the lake being eutrophicated and has almost lost some species of fishes once present. Activities like over fishing have also lead to the decline of these fish species.

Methodology:

In my primary research I will make a survey of the lake to understand the sources polluting the lake and take the sample from the lake to find the parameters of water so as to show the levels of the pollutants in the lake and thus the effects on the biotic environment. As part of the secondary research I will make use of resources like books, internet and data from any prior studies. From the available past data I will then be able to find a comparison between the levels of pollution in the lake during the past years.

Introduction:

The Lokhandwala Lake is spread over 8 acres and is rain fed, drying up completely in April. The lake also attracts aquatic birds and there are about 36 species of birds found around the lake. The lake attracts several migratory aquatic birds and birds of prey. It is the only kind of lake along the coast of Mumbai from Colaba to Dahisar and has been saved with the active efforts of the Lokhandwala Complex Environmental Action Group. LCEAG had been formed in 2001 through the efforts of a few like minded people determined to save the unique natural beauty around Lokhandwala complex. The efforts started in 1999 with the saving of the Lokhandwala Lake which was then being covered with garbage by the Municipal Corporation. 

Since then the Group has been involved with saving the lake and the mangroves and preventing dumping of debris and garbage.

The mangroves and parts of the lake have been destroyed since five years by human activities. Also the recent development of the transit solid waste dumping ground has resulted in an increase in pollution of the soil, mangroves and the lake. Foul odor, increase in disease - causing vectors and an unpleasant sight of the dumping ground have urged the residents of the Lokhandwala to form committee called the Lokhandwala complex Environmental Action Group (LCEAG) and take action to preserve the mangroves and the lake. Even after repeated complaints by residents of lokhandwala and surrounding areas to MHADA authorities, Forest department, BMC and Collector's office for not taking action against debris and garbage dumping in Lokhandwala Lake and mangroves, people staying nearby are really displeased with them. To prevent further damage, the residents of the area had arranged security guards. Since the organizations working towards protection of the mangroves did not have enough funds, the security for the area had to be deployed. Due to increase in dumping, the Forest department had put up green and red boards naming the section of mangroves and the lake as 'protected areas'. But this was an eyewash because behind these boards debris and garbage dumping continued around the mangroves. Only if someone takes care of this 300 acre land, lush green patch of mangroves and the lake will survive. The greatest threat to the lake is that BMC had declared the site to immerse the Ganesh idol and in year 2008, 104 idols were immersed. In the interim, this plot is transit point to dump garbage collected from entire district. Mini compactors dump their garbage here and the larger one picks it up and transfers elsewhere. Around 300 metric tonnes of garbage is dumped by mini compactors per day. The negative ecological consequences in lakes caused by the consequences like disappearance of some endemic species; and eutrophication of lakes with blue-green algal blooms.

The dumping ground has displaced several native bird species and these have been taken over by invasive species like the kites, crows and lesser egrets. The human activities at the lake have also reduced the occurrence of migratory birds and several other native bird species.

Aim - To calculate the total dissolved oxygen of the Lokhandwala lake by winkler's method and by DO sensors.

Introdction:

Dissolved oxygen can be defined as the most important indicator of health of a water body and also its capacity to support the species living in the lake. If the required ammount of DO is present in the lake then only there will be balance in the aquatic ecosystem of plants and animals, hence DO plays a vital role in maintaining the aquatic system. Waste water containing organic pollutants depletes the dissolved oxygen and may lead to death of marine organisms.

Requirements for DO analysis by Winkler's method:

Chemicals:

0.025 N Sodium thiosulphate

Winkler's A reagent

Winkler's B reagent

Starch solution (1%)

Concentrated Sulphuric acid

Glassware:

Conical flasks

Beakers

Measuring cylinders

DO bottles

Pipettes

Burette

Burette stand

Variables:

Dependent variables: Amount of oxygen dissolved in water.

Independent variables:

Control variables:

Hypothesis:

The initial stage was to check the levels of dissolved oxygen in the water body so as to understand the aquatic life that can be supported by the lake. Since the lake is used for several domestic purposes like bathing, disposal of industrial waste, hence my assumption is that the levels of DO will be less than the minimum levels required to support aquatic life. Also since several organic wastes are disposed into the lakes, aerobic degradation of these wastes will result in decrease in Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels.

Method:

Fill the DO bottles completely with the sample avoiding any air bubbles.

Add 2ml of Winkler's A reagent and 2ml of Winkler's B reagent to the sample.

Replace the stopper of the DO bottle and mix the contents thoroughly

Allow the flocs to settle for a few minutes.

Remove the stopper and add concentrated sulphuric acid carefully to dissolve the flocs. Mix well till the liberated iodine is uniformly dispersed.

Take 100 ml of the sample in a conical flask and titrate against 0.025 N sodium thiosulphate till pale yellow color appears.

Add a 2ml of starch and continue titrating till the blue color changes to colorless.

Data collection:

Analysis of Dissolved Oxygen during monsoon in the month of August:

Burette reading

2.7 ml

Dissolved Oxygen (DO) (mg/L)

=

=5.4 mg/L

Table: Showing the DO levels of Lokhandwala Lake measured for 60 seconds with the help of a DO sensor after monsoons:

Time (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

Time (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

Tine (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

1

3.3

21

2.5

41

1.3

2

3.1

22

2.5

42

1.3

3

3.6

23

2.5

43

1

4

2.9

24

2.5

44

1.9

5

3

25

2.4

45

2.8

6

2.9

26

2.2

46

2.4

7

2.8

27

2.3

47

2.3

8

2.8

28

2.3

48

2.1

9

2.8

29

2.3

49

2.2

10

3

30

2.3

50

2.1

11

2.9

31

2.2

51

2.5

12

2.3

32

2.4

52

2.3

13

2.2

33

2.2

53

2.2

14

3.1

34

2.1

54

2.1

15

3.1

35

2.1

55

2.1

16

2.5

36

2.7

56

1.9

17

2.3

37

2.2

57

2

18

2.5

38

2.9

58

1.9

19

2.5

39

2.7

59

1.9

20

2.7

40

2.6

60

2

Average value of DO- 2.7 mg/L

Fig: Graph showing the DO levels (in mg / L) of Lokhandwala Lake estimated using DO sensor.

Discussion:

The minimum levels of Dissolved Oxygen required to support in any aquatic ecosystem is 3-4 mg/L. Dissolved Oxygen levels falling beyond the minimum levels is a cause of concern because as the levels deplete, the capacity of the water body to support life also decreases and as a result the water body completely loses its vital biodiversity. Organic wastes added to water bodies to play a role in depleting the Dissolved Oxygen levels. Since these wastes are broken down in the process of aerobic degradation, the large population of micro-organisms utilizes the dissolved oxygen to carry out the process. If the rate of utilization of dissolved oxygen is higher than the regeneration capacity, the water bodies gradually lose their dissolved oxygen content.

Since the Lokhandwala lake, experiences several human activities, which add up to the organic burden the levels of Dissolved Oxygen are known to deplete. The Dissolved Oxygen was tested during two phases i.e. one during the monsoon and other was post monsoons. From the analysis it can be seen that the level of dissolved oxygen during monsoon was 5.4 mg/L and the post monsoon levels were 2.8 mg/L. The levels of dissolved oxygrn post monsoon are seen to be depleted from the levels during monsoon thus suggesting that degradation of organic wastes has occurred.

The levels of dissolved oxygen are higher during the monsoons and this may be due to dilution of the lake water by the rains. However it can be noted that organic wastes are continuously being added to the lake resulting in the decreased levels of dissolved oxygen. This analysis thus proves my hypothesis that aerobic degradation is very high and hence the decreased levels of dissolved oxygen in the post monsoon sample.

The first reading was collected during the monsoons and estimated chemically by Winkler's Method. This reading does not support my hypothesis that the levels of DO will be lesser than the minimum required value supporting life as the minimum DO required to support life in any aquatic ecosystem is 3 mg / L. My finding shows that the DO level of the lake during monsoons was 5.4 mg / L, and this level is higher than the minimum permissible levels. Thus, the lake can support adequate aquatic life during th monsoons.

However, the DO levels estimated by using DO sensor post monsoons is much less than the DO estimated during monsoons. The DO levels recorded were 2.58 mg / L.The amount of dissolved oxygen post monsoon may not support an adequate aquatic life as 2.58 mg/L shows falling levels of DO. The low levels of DO may further deteriorate if the rate of degeneration of wastes continues and this may cause a loss of aquatic life.

Evaluation:

While performing an expeiment through Winkler's method there would have been inaccuracies in the measurement of burette reading or titration, excessive temperatures may have resulted in reduction of oxygen in the sample.

For accuracy I could have been more careful and should have taken two to three readings. Temperatures must be kept as low as possible.

While collecting water from the lake I had to be very careful because while collecting the water if bubbles were formed then DO would have inreased due to which I might have got different results.

I collected water very carefully so that bubbles don't form and DO doesn't increase.

Conclusion:

After performing experiments I can conclude that since the DO levels during monsoons are 5.4 mg/L and post monsoon the level of DO are 2.58 mg/L, hence the results shows that the DO levels can support aquatic life exist in the lake. This supports my assumption as the results I got are close to permissible standards, hence can support species present in the lake.

Aim: To check the pH (acidity and alkalinity) of water

Introduction:     pH is defined as a measure of the acidity of alkalinity of water, expressed in terms of its concentration of hydrogen ions. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is considered to be neutral. Substances with pH of less that 7 are acidic and substances with pH greater than 7 are basic. The pH of water resolves the solubility (amount that can be dissolved in the water) and biological availability (amount that can be utilized by aquatic life) of chemical constituents such as nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) and heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium, etc.)

Variables:

Dependent variable: pH of water.

Independent variable: Temperature

Controlled variable: area of collection of water sample and season

Method:

The first reading (i.e. during monsoons) was taken using a ph meter.

The second reading (i.e post monsoons) was estimated using a pH sensor

Hypothesis:

The initial stage was to check the levels of pH in the water body so as to understand whether the lake is more acidic or alkaline. Since the pollution levels in the city is high and day by day there is an increase in the anthropogenic activities thereby adding pollutants to the lake, I assume that the pH levels of the lake may be alkaline as activities like bathing and washing cause in the pH levels.

Data collection:

During monsoons: the pH levels measured were 6.39

After monsoons: After taking 3 readings I got an average reading of 7.45 mg/L

Table: Showing the pH levels of Lokhandwala Lake for 60 seconds, measured by a pH sensor

Time (in secs)

pH

Time (in secs)

pH

Time (in secs)

pH

2

7.29

22

7.21

42

7.21

4

7.28

24

7.21

44

7.21

6

7.25

26

7.20

46

7.20

8

7.28

28

7.21

48

7.22

10

7.22

30

7.22

50

7.21

12

7.21

32

7.21

52

7.21

14

7.20

34

7.21

54

7.20

16

7.21

36

7.21

56

7.22

18

7.22

38

7.20

58

7.21

20

7.20

40

7.21

60

7.21

Average pH: 7.45 mg/L

Discussion:

The minimum levels of pH required to support life in any inland water body is 6.5 - 8.5. pH levels falling to acidic levels is a cause of concern. As the pH levels fall the water will be highly acidic due to which many aquatic organisms will be affected. Also if the pH is higher then also it creates a problem. Pollution can lead to higher algal and plant growth, due to thid pH levels may increase. Although these small changes in pH are not likely to have a direct impact on aquatic life, they greatly influence the availability and solubility of all chemical forms in the lake and may aggravate nutrient problems. For example, a change in pH may increase the solubility of phosphorus, making it more available for plant growth and resulting in a greater long-term demand for dissolved oxygen. I have carried out two experiments, one during monsoons and other after monsoons. The value which I got during monsoons is 6.39 which were less than required. Since the pH was less, the water in the lake is acidic which may affect aquatic organism present in the water. Due to increase in pollution in the city chemicals are mixed with rain water which leads to decline in pH of the lake. Activities like bathing, washing etc also leads to decrease in pH of the lake. But during the monsoons the chemicals which are present in the atmosphere also contribute to decrease the pH of water. After monsoons I got the pH as 7.45 which are norrmal according to the standard permissible values. Hence we can say to maintain the value of pH pollution should be reduced, strict actions should be taken for other anthropogenic activities which are done near lake.

Evaluation:

While performing an experiment through pH meter the values were fluctuating continuously, so it was diificult to take the exact value.

So I took three readings and took the exact values of pH levels.

Conclusion:

The results shows that the pH level during monsoons are 6.39 mg/L and post monsoons the results that I got was 7.45 mg/L, hence the pH levels in the lake is normal as both the values are near to 7 mg/L which shows that they are almost neutral but due to fluctuations in the values aquatic life is affected. This doesn't support my assumption as the pH levels are almost neutral.

Total dissolved solids (TDS)

Aim: To calculate the weight of solid particles in lake water.

Introduction: Total dissolved solids (TDS) clinch inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water of the lake. The prime elements are usually the calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate and, particularly in groundwater, nitrate. The effect of presence of dissolved solids in water is that it changes the taste of the water. The palatability of drinking water has been rated, by panels of tasters, according to TDS level as follows: excellent, less than 300 mg/L; good, between 300 and 600 mg/L; fair, between 600 and 900 mg/L; poor, between 900 and 1200 mg/L; and unacceptable, greater than 1200 mg/L.(37) Water with extremely low TDS concentrations may also be unacceptable because of its flat, insipid taste.

Variables:

Dependent variable: Total dissolved solids

Indepedent variable: Crucible

Control variable: Quantity of water taken (in ml), Area of lake, season, and time of the day

Hypothesis:

The initial stage was to check the solid particles present in the water so as to understand how much solid is present in the water. My asumption is that the dissolved present in the water will be around 900 ppm, though there are anthropogenic activities happening in the lake but it doesn't affect thelevels of TDS as compare to other parameters like DO, pH.

Method:

Take the crucible and measure the dry weight of it.

Take 25ml of lake water in the pre - wieghed crucible and heat the water till the water completely evaporates.

After evaporation keep the crucuble in the dessicator for one day till it completely cools down.

After it cools down, measure the weight of that crucible and subtract that weight from initial weight of crucible.

Data Collection:

Initial weight of the crucible (A) = 5.3 Gms

Weight of the crucible + dissolved solids (B) = 5.4 Gms

Final weight = B - A

Final weight= 5.4 - 5.3 = 0.1gms

Discussion:

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) cause toxicity during increase in salinity, changes in the ionic composition of the water and toxicity of individual ions. Increases in salinity results in shift in biotic communities, limit biodiversity, exclude less-tolerant species and cause acute or chronic effects at specific life stages.

The minimum level of TDS allowed by permissible standards is 2100 gms. If the TDS levels are exceeded then the major problem will arise for the people as there will be lot of harmful chemicals present in the water due to which water will be highly impure. TDS is the also one of the main component to calculate the purity if water. Through this method we can conclude that the water can be drunk or not.

In the Lokhandwala lake there are many anthropogrnic activities are held due to which many unwanted substance are mixed with water and the required minerals are washed away which leads to low amount of TDS. But the amount of TDS shouldn't be too low because if the TDS is very low then the water will not be suitable because of its flat, insipid taste.

Evaluation:

While collecting the water from the lake one should wash the bottle properly before collecting the water so that the results come accurate.

I should have taken the new bottle while collecting the water from the lake so that there is no risk of getting unwanted particles in the bottle.

While performing the experiment washing the crucibe was also important otherwise the results would have been different. Also weighing of crucible was important.

I should have weighed crucible three to four times so that I I get the proper reading and hence my results come accurate.

Conclusion:

The results show that the TDS was 850 ppm, which is normal as permissible standards allow 800 ppm. But during the monsoons TDS levels increase as it's a season of immersion Ganesh statues hence the content of Plaster of Paris (POP) rises which contributes to an increase in the TDS levels. Tjis support my assumptions as the levels of TDS are normal and hence the water in the lake will be pure.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):

Aim: To subtract the amount of dissolved oxygen present in the lake on day 5 and on day 1.

Introduction: Biochemical oxygen demand or BOD is a chemical procedure for determining the uptake rate of dissolved oxygen by the biological organisms in a body of water. It is not a precise quantitative test, although it is widely used as an indication of the quality of water. Sources like industrial wastes, antibiotics in pharmaceutical or medical wastes, sanitizers in food processing or commercial cleaning facilities, chlorination disinfection used following conventional sewage treatment.

Requirements: DO bottles, beakers, DO sensor.

Variables:

Dependent variable: Amount of dissolved oxygen present in the water

Independent variable: Temperature

Controlled variable: Light

Hypothesis:

I assume that the levela of BOD will be high due to the large quantities of organic wastes being disposed in the lake. The degradation of organic waste will deplete the DO levels by the fifth day.

Procedure:

Take the sample in beaker and measure the DO through DO sensors.

Keep the sample of water in DO bottles and keep it in the dark place for five days.

After five days measure the amount of DO of the water through DO sensors.

Subtract the DO of fifth day from the DO of first day.

Data collection:

Table: Showing the BOD levels of Lokhandwala Lake for 60 seconds, measured by a DO sensor

Time (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

Time (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

Tine (in secs)

DO (mg/L)

1

4.276539

21

0.982596

41

1.006552

2

1.525602

22

0.91472

42

0.850838

3

1.569522

23

1.317983

43

0.97461

4

1.525602

24

1.290031

44

1.234134

5

1.541573

25

0.89875

45

0.862816

6

1.76117

26

0.822889

46

1.006552

7

1.88095

27

1.13831

47

1.485675

8

1.83703

28

0.822889

48

0.938676

9

1.47769

29

1.086405

49

0.950654

10

1.433771

30

1.206185

50

0.990581

11

1.713258

31

1.142303

51

0.79494

12

1.146295

32

1.505639

52

0.966625

13

1.525602

33

1.126332

53

0.874794

14

1.190215

34

1.158273

54

0.97461

15

1.014537

35

1.054464

55

0.790948

16

1.134317

36

1.162266

56

0.858823

17

1.106369

37

1.254097

57

0.95864

18

0.978603

38

1.234134

58

0.990581

19

1.757177

39

1.178237

59

0.707102

20

1.445749

40

1.325969

60

2.004723

Average value of BOD- 1.24 mg/L

Fig: Graph showing the BOD levels of Lokhanwala lake estimated using DO sensor:

DO measured on Day 1 (A) = 12.8 mg/L

DO measured on Day 2 (B) = 1.24 mg/L

BOD = A - B

= 12.8 - 1.24

= 11.56 mg/L

Discussion and Conclusion:

Estimation of hardness from the Lokhandwala Lake

Aim: To estimate the hardness of the given water sample by EDTA - Eriochrome Black T method.

Introduction:

Hardness in water is that characteristic which prevents the formation of lather or foam when such hard water is mixed with soap. It is caused by the presence of certain ions of calcium and magnesium dissolved in water which form a scum when reacted with any detergent or soap. Hard waters are undesirable to use because they lead to greater soap consumption, sealing of boilers, causing erosion and incrustations (deposition of fine material of minerals on the surface) of pipes n industries and carrying potable water.

Requirements:

Chemicals:

0.01M EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid)

Alkaline buffer (pH 10)

Eriochrome Black T indicator

Water samples

Glassware:

Burette - 1

Burette stand - 1

Pipette - 10 ml - 2

Conical flask - 250 ml - 2

Beaker - 100 ml - 2

Variables:

Dependent variable: Hardness of water.

Independent variable: Temperature.

Controlled variable: Quantity of water taken and area of lake.

Hypothesis:.

My initial stage was to check the hardness of water. The hardness exceeds 800 ppm, requiring treatment. But since water is been dicharged from Reliance power house which is near to the lake which leads to increase in the hardness of water. Hence my assumption is that the hardness will be higher.

Procedure:

Take 10 ml of water sample in a conical flask.

Add 1 ml of alkaline (pH 10) buffer.

Add a pinch of Eriochrome Back T indicator to the sample.

Titrate the solution with 0.01M EDTA solution till the color changes from wine red to blue.

Record the burrete readings and calculate the hardness in mg / L.

Data collection:

Hardness of water (ppm)

850 ppm

Discussion:

The minimum levels of hardness allowed by standard permissible is 800 ppm. But the level of hardness which I got is 850 ppm and its very high which needs to be treated before supplying to the public for different purposes like drinking, bathing, washing etc.

Hardness is calculated in terms of Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and is expressed in ppm (parts per million) or mg/L. In general under normal range of pH, water with hardness of upto 75 ppm is considered soft and that above 75 ppm, crossing 200 ppm is considered hard. Underground water is considered generally harder than surface water as they have more opportunity to come in contact with minerals. The hardness exceeds 800 ppm, requiring treatment. For the water to be used in boilers and for efficient cloth washing in laundries, the water must be soft i.e. around 75 ppm. The prescribed hardness limit for public supply ranges from 75 - 115 ppm.

Lokhandwala lake is used for immersion of Ganesh idols during the festival. Statues of Ganesh contains calcium and there are several statues which are immersed in the lake due to which the levels of calcium exceed in the lake which finally lead to an increase in the hardness of water. Many measures are taken by LCEAG to protect the lake from getting polluted.

Evaluation:

Conclusion:

After performing an experiment I got the result as 850 ppm, which is normal for any water body and also this water can be use for different purposes as the hardness level is normal hence it can form lather while washing and also it can be used for drinking purposes after treating the water.

Evaluation:

There were some problems which I came across while completing my essay. In the summer season when I went to collect water for analysis, the lake was fully dried due to which I could not collect water and I had to wait till rains to perform experiments. I collected water only from the surface and from the edges of the lake so my sampling of the lake was not complete. Also, since the lake contained many pollutants from the earlier mentioned activities I was scared to collect the water. For the general information of the lake, I asked some question to the people living near to the lake but due to lack of knowlegde they were unable to answer. Also while performing experiments I faced many difficulties like taking redings as there were fluctuations in the value in many experiments.

To overcome the above problems I could have planned accordingly. I should have taken several samples from the surface and upto a certain depth to gain almost lake. I should have formed questions in such a way that they could be easily understood and give me detailed information about the lake or I should have consulted LCEAG member who could have been very helpful to me. While performing experiments I took three to four readings in all experiments so the results which I get are accurate.

Conclusion:

Table showing minimum permissible levels for the Mumbai lakes:

Sr.no

DO (mg/l)

BOD

(mg/l)

(5 days)

pH

1

Drinking water Source without conventional treatment but after disinfection

6

2

6.5- 8.5

2

Outdoor bathing (Organised)

5

3

6.5 -8.5

3

Drinking water source after conventional treatment and disinfection

4

3

6 - 9

4

Propagation of Wild life and Fisheries

4

___

6.5-8.5

5

Irrigation, Industrial Cooling, Controlled Waste disposal

___

___

8-8.5

`

Standards for discharge water:

Sr.No

Parameters

Info inland Surface water

On land for irrigation

Into marine for irrigation

Into public sewers

1.

Colour/Odour

_____

_____

_____

_____

2.

Suspended solids, mg/L

100

200

100 (For process waste)

600

3.

Particle size supended solids

Shall pass 850 micron IS sieve

_____

Floatable Solids Max 3 mm Settleable Solids Max 850 microns

_____

4.

Dissolved solid (Inorganic), mg/L, max

2100

2100

_____

2100

5.

Ph value

5.5-9

5.5-9

5.5-9

5.5-9

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