Aroma And Flavouring Agents Biology Essay

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An aroma compound, also known as odorant, aroma, fragrance, flavour, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odour. A chemical compound has a smell or odour when two conditions are met: the compounds needs to be volatile, so it can be transported to the olfactory system in the upper part of the nose, and it needs to be in a sufficiently high concentration to be able to interact with one or more of the olfactory receptors.


From the last fifteen decades, most of the people were aware of the flavouring agents and aroma (i.e. smell). They used this concept in their everyday's product like in tea, in wine etc. Now, the world used the same concept in an intigrated way which leads to the new study called "aroma and flavouring agents" in the language of chemistry.


Process of producing flavouring agents...

The invention relates to a process for producing aroma-containing food products in which exogenously and/or endogenously formed enzyme complexes are separated from specific pure or mixed cultures of microorganisms, which develop certain characteristic flavoring and aromatizing agents. The enzyme complexes are subsequently added to an aqueous solution or suspension of a substrate. The isolated enzyme complexes are optionally concentrated or standardized beforehand under careful conditions. The mixture of the substrate and enzyme complexes subsequently undergoes biochemical rapid ripening under suitable conditions until the desired aromatizing and flavoring agent concentration is obtained.

1. A process for producing aroma-containing food products comprising

(a) separating exogenously or endogenously formed enzyme complexes from cultures of microorganisms suitable for developing specific aromatizing and flavoring agents,

(b) adding the separated enzyme complexes to an aqueous solution or suspension of a substrate whose composition corresponds to that of the basic food stuff to be aromatized,

(c) permitting the resultant mixture to undergo biochemical high speed ripening under conditions suitable for the formation of aromatizing and flavoring agents,

(d) terminating the biochemical high speed ripening by extensive inactivation of the enzyme complexes after the desired aromatizing and flavoring agent concentration has been reached, and

(e) adding the ferment solution or suspension containing the desired aromatizing and flavouring agents to a food substance to be aromatized in sufficient quantity to bring about aromatization.


Smell flavour, or simply, flavour, are engineered and composed in similar ways as with industrial fragrances and fine perfumes. To produce natural flavours, the flavour must first be extracted from the source substance. The methods of extraction can involve solvent extraction, distillation, or using force to squeeze it out. The extracts are then usually further purified and subsequently added to food products to flavour them. To begin producing artificial flavours, flavoHYPERLINK ""ur manufacturers must either find out the individual naturally occurring aroma chemicals and mix them appropriately to produce a desired flavour or create a novel non-toxic artificial compound that gives a specific flavor.

Most artificial flavours are specific and often complex mixtures of singular naturally occurring flavour compounds combined together to either imitate or enhance a natural flavour. These mixtures are formulated by flavorist to give a food product a unique flavour and to maintain flavour consistency between different product batches or after recipe changes. The list of known flavouring agents includes thousands of molecular compounds, and the flavor chemist (flavorist) can often mix these together to produce many of the common flavours. Many flavorants consists of esters, which are often described as being "sweet" or "fruity".


Aroma formation starts after a short time and can be continuously checked during rapid ripening by regular sampling operations and analyses, because generally one or more of the characteristic control substances for the particular known aroma type to be produced are known. Checking can be carried out relatively simply and rapidly and has proved very reliable for this particular process stage. Thus, aroma formation during the biochemical rapid ripening process in accordance with the present invention, is therefore preferably controlled by means of control substances characteristic of the particular aromatizing and flavouring agents and optionally by headspace analysis.

As aroma formation is an extremely complicated biochemical process, which reacts very sensitively to changes in the process conditions, it is advantageous to determine by trial runs the optimum conditions for the particular substrate and enzyme complexes. Only in this way is it possible to ensure that the overall complex of formed aromatic substances in the main process at the end of rapid ripening is in accordance with expectations, i.e. is at least very close to a "genuine" aroma or flavour formed in conventional manner by long-term ripening.

The desired aroma formation takes place within a few hours and the action period is dependent on the nature of the enzyme complexes, the substrate composition and the concentrations used. The time for ending or breaking off aroma formation is determined by analytical methods, e.g. by determining the free fatty acid content of the solution by headspace analysis. Rapid ripening is appropriately stopped by suitable denaturation of the enzymes, preferably by flash-pasteurization. The rapidly ripened product is subject to short-time heating in the flow process to a temperature above 80° C., preferably to flash or HTST pasteurization at about 120° to 140° C. for about 1 to 15 seconds, but for no more than 1 minute, the enzymes being substantially inactivated. The aroma concentrates obtained can then be stored in a sterile state.


There are three principal types of flavourings used in foods.



Natural flavouring substances

Flavouring substances obtained from plant or animal raw materials, by physical, microbiological or enzymatic processes. They can be either used in their natural state or processed for human consumption, but cannot contain any nature-identical or artificial flavouring substances.

Nature-identical flavouring substances

Flavouring substances that are obtained by synthesis or isolated through chemical processes, which are chemically identical to flavouring substances naturally present in products intended for human consumption. They cannot contain any artificial flavouring substances.


· Air freshening

· Bathing

· Compresses

· In facial creams and body lotions

· Floral waters

· Foot and hand baths

· Hair care

· Jacuzzis

· Massage

· Saunas

· Showers

· Steam inhalations


Aroma and flavouring agents may touch the height of the sky because it is being used in every ceremonies, parties, clubs, parks, cars and even in hospitals.


We can now conclude that how the importance is the role of the aroma and the flavouring in our day to day life via chemistry processes.