Application To TCI Personality And Brain Function Data Biology Essay

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The sample distribution of the TCI personality traits for the 20 normal subjects is presented as side-by-side box plots in Figure 5.7. From Figure 5.7 it can be seen that all the TCI personality traits are non-gaussian and skewed. All traits are right skewed except HA (Harm Avoidance) and RD (Reward Dependence). The range of the medians across all the temperament traits is within 0.40-0.60, indicating a central tendency for these traits (see also Table 5.4).

Figure 5.7 Distribution of personality scores for the 20 normal males.

Table 5.4 reports the lower quartile (LQ), median (MD), and upper quartile (UQ) for each personality trait. Significant clusters of activation (relationship between increasing level of personality scores and increasing blood flow) or deactivation (relationship between decreasing level of personality scores and increasing level of blood flow) were found in relation to all seven TCI traits. This is now reported in detail.

The results for the ICA-SPM model for NS is detailed in Section 5.6.1, showing the significant clusters found for each TCI trait, grouped by the different quartile contrast.

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Table 5.4 Lower quartile, median and upper quartile values for the personality scores.

Temperament

Character

NS

HA

RD

P

S

C

ST

LQ

0.48

0.31

0.45

0.51

0.56

0.59

0.26

MD

0.53

0.40

0.55

0.56

0.61

0.66

0.31

UQ

0.61

0.46

0.6

0.66

0.71

0.75

0.47

The results of 6 models for HA, RD, P, SD, C and ST are presented in Appendix C, Tables C.2-C.7. The first column of the relevant contrast Tables gives the contrast (i.e. Q1Q4 which is a contrast between the Q1 and Q4 quartile groups) also specified is, whether the region is an activation or deactivation and below this, the location of the cluster is given in anatomical terms. In regard to Table 5.5 and Tables C.2-C.7,

the second column shows the coordinates of the strongest voxel by t-value in the cluster in MNI space (x,y,z), the number of voxels in the cluster(KE) and finally the p-value associated with observing a cluster of size KE compared to the expected voxels per cluster (NE). The bolded p-value are those that are below the Bonferroni corrected significance level (a » 0.008).

5.7.1 Results of Novelty Seeking (NS)

Novelty seeking appears to be significantly related to blood flow, as shown in Table 5.5. Within the novelty seeking model, a contrast between Q1 and Q4 showed a significant relationship with blood flow in the left sub-gyral (KE = 134). This implies that as the levels of novelty seeking increase from Q1 to Q4, blood flow is significantly increased in the left temporal lobe.

The strength of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for each NS quartile group is plotted versus NS quartile group in Figure 5.8. This shows a general increase in blood flow from Q1 to Q4. Whilst Q1 is not significantly higher in rCBF than Q2 there does not appear to be a decrease. Six clusters of activation between Q1 and Q4 were found (Table 5.5). These are now described anatomically.

Table 5.5 Results of the contrast for Novelty seeking.

Novelty Seeking

Cluster

(x, y, z)

KE

p-value

Activation Q1Q4

Left Temporal Lobe:

(-26,-48,16)

134

0.006+

sub-gyral BA20

Left Sub-lobar:

lateral ventricle

Left Parietal Lobe:

(-54,-16,22)

80

0.001

postcentral gyrus, Inferior parietal lobule,

Right Parietal Lobe:

(26,-32,44)

86

0.001

sub-gyral

Right Frontal Lobe:

(12,-22,64)

60

0.004

Precentral gyrus

Right Temporal Lobe:

(40,-32,-4)

63

0.003

sub-gyral

Left Sub-lobar

(-24,-32,10)

80

0.001

extra-nuclear

Activation Q2Q4

Right Frontal-temporal space

(56,16,-4)

473

0.000

Left Frontal Lobe:

(-68,12,-4)

110

0.009

superior temporal gyrus BA22

Right Frontal Lobe:

(22,24,24)

155

0.003

sub-gyral, middle frontal gyrus,

Right Frontal Lobe:

(-24,-34,8)

99

0.012

sub-gyral

Right Limbic Lobe:

anterior cingulate

Left Frontal Lobe:

(-26,16,32)

156

0.002

sub-gyral, middle frontal gyrus

Right Temporal Lobe:

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(46,-62,4)

106

0.010

middle temporal gyrus

Right Sub-lobar:

(44,-12,4)

78

0.023

insula BA13

Right Frontal lobe:

(52,4,46)

134

0.004

precental gyrus

Left Occipital Lobe:

(-6,-94,-6)

49

0.063

lingual gyrus

Right Sub-lobar:

(4,-8,2)

112

0.008

thalamus, extra-nuclear

Left Occipital Lobe:

(-28,-68,-2)

189

0.001

sub-gyral, cuneus BA18, ligual gyrus

Left Frontal Lobe:

(-34,30,-18)

70

0.030

inferior frontal gyrus BA47

Right Limbic Lobe:

(8,-26,28)

63

0.038

cingulate

Left Frontal Lobe:

superior frontal gyrus

Left Parietal Lobe:

(-28,-50,62)

48

0.065

superior parietal lobule

Note: + Bolded p-values are significant (Bonferroni adjusted)

Figure 5.8 Strength of rCBF versus quartiles: Qj, (j =1, 2, 3, 4)for Novelty Seeking (NS).

Cluster KE = 134 is located in the left sub-gyral showing a significant activation between Q1 and Q4. A cluster of size KE = 80 is found in the left postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, which has a significant activation from Q1 to Q4 quartile groups. Cluster KE = 86 is located in the right sub-gyral and Cluster KE = 60 is located in the right precentral gyrus. These are all showing significant activations. Figure 5.9 (3 plots on the left hand side) shows the location of the activation cluster between Q1 and Q4, viewed through, the sagittal (top right), coronal (top left), and axial (bottom left) of the brain.

Figure 5.9 Location of activation clusters for novelty seeking (NS) between Q1 and Q4.

(A= activation, R= red, G= green, P= purple).

Cluster KE = 473 (see Table 5.5) is associated with a significant increase in rCBF from Q2 to Q4 and was located in the right frontal-temporal space. Graphing the strength of rCBF versus NS quartile group (Figure 5.8) reveals a downward trend from Q2 to Q4. The second cluster KE = 110 (Table 5.5, Activation Q2Q4) has a significant increase in blood flow and this cluster is located in the right superior temporal gyrus (p = 0.003, Table 5.5). Cluster KE = 155 overlaps a cluster of activation ( KE = 99) in the right sub-gyral is also found in the left middle frontal gyrus with a significant activation between Q2 and Q4. Cluster KE = 99 is also located in the right anterior cingulate (p = 0.012, Table 5.5).

A cluster of KE = 156 voxels is found in the left sub-gyral and middle frontal gyrus showing a significant activation from Q2 to Q4 (p = 0.002, Table 5.5). Cluster KE = 106 is located in the right temporal lobe (middle temporal gyrus) and cluster KE = 78 was found in the right sub-lobar (insula BA13) showing significant activations (p < 0.03). Cluster KE = 189 overlaps with a small cluster of activation (KE = 49) (p = 0.001, Table 5.5) in the left lingual gyrus associated with a significant increase in blood flow from Q2 to Q4. A small cluster (KE = 48) of voxels found in the left superior parietal lobule shows an activation between Q2 and Q4 (p = 0.065, Table 5.5). Figure 5.10 shows the location of activation clusters between Q2 and Q4 of NS.

Figure 5.10 Location of activation clusters for novelty seeking (NS) between Q2 and Q4.

(A= activation, R:=red, G=green, B=blue).

5.7.2 Results for Harm Avoidance (HA)

The cluster KE = 300 increases significantly in blood flow as harm avoidance increases from Q3 to Q4. In Figure 5.11, there is a clear increasing relationship between Q3 and Q4. Also small clusters are found between rCBF and harm avoidance (see Appendix C, Table C.2) quartile groups but these are not statistically significant. Figure 5.12 shows the location of the activation clusters between Q3 and Q4 for HA.

.

Figure 5.11 Strength of rCBF versus quartile group for Harm Avoidance(HA).

Figure 5.12 Location of activation clusters for harm avoidance between Q3 and Q4.

( A=activation, R=red, B=blue, G=green)

5.7.3 Results for Reward Dependence (RD)

Table C.3 in Appendix C gives the results of our SPM-ICA modelling of reward dependence (quartiled) as a predictor of blood flow. The cluster KE = 316 has a significant activation from Q1 to Q3. It is located in the right

frontal lobe (middle frontal gyrus, sub-gyral and superior frontal gyrus). Figure 5.13 shows the graph of average strength of rCBF versus quartile levels for reward dependence. There is clearly an increasing relationship between Q1 and Q3 (Figure 5.13), but this is not significantly different from Q1 and Q2 (Table C.3). Figure 5.14 shows the location of significant activation clusters between Q1 and Q3 for reward dependence.

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Cluster KE = 1269 which is the largest activation region cluster within the reward dependence trait has a significant activation from Q1 to Q3. It is located in the left frontal and limbic lobes (superior frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus BA32). Cluster KE = 298, which is located in the left sub-gyral and temporal gyrus BA20, cluster KE = 321 is located in the right middle frontal gyrus BA6, cluster KE = 304 in the left sub-gyral and precentral gyrus BA6, and cluster KE =331 is located in the left postcentral gyrus BA2 and middle frontal gyrus BA9. All show a significant activation from Q1 to Q3. Figure 5.15 shows the location of activation clusters between Q1 and Q4, and between Q2 and Q4 for reward dependence.

Figure 5.13 Strength of rCBF versus quartile levels for Reward Dependence (RD).

Figure 5.14 Location of activation clusters for reward dependence (RD) between Q1 and Q3 (A=activation, R=red, B=blue, G=green).

Figure 5.15 Location of activation clusters for reward dependence (RD) between quartile groups. (A=activation, R=red, B=blue, G=green, P=purple).

Three significant activation clusters were found between Q1 and Q4 for RD. Figure 5.15 shows decreasing blood flow from Q1 to Q4 of RD. Cluster KE = 684 is located in the left middle frontal gyrus BA9, cluster KE = 454 in the left anterior cingulate, and cluster KE =415 is located in the left lentiform nucleus, extra-nuclear and insula.

Figure 5.16 Location of activation clusters for reward dependence (RD) between Q2 and Q3.

(A=activation, R=red, B=blue, G=green, P=purple).

Clusters KE =331 and KE =684 overlap and in fact KE =331 is entirely contained in KE =684. Activations are found in the left frontal (sub-gyral and precentral gyrus) and occipital (lingual gyrus) lobes but these are not significant for Q1 to Q4 (RD).

There are seven significant activations with a large cluster KE =382 (left insula) between Q2 and Q3. Figure 5.16 shows that there is a significant increase in blood flow from the second quartile group to the third quartile group. There are three activation clusters: KE =263 (Left Frontal Lobe: sub-gyral), KE =158 (Left Parietal Lobe: inferior parietal lobule BA40) and the small cluster KE =52 (Left Occipital Lobe: middle occipital gyrus) that are not significant (see Table C.3 in Appendix C). Figure 5.16 shows the location of activation clusters between Q2 and Q3 for reward dependence.

One deactivation cluster is found between Q1 and Q2 but this is not statistically significant and also no significant difference is shown in Figure 5.17. The relevant cluster KE =44 is located in the right limbic (parahippocampal gyrus) and temporal (sub-gyral) lobes. Three deactivation clusters are found but these are not statistically significant from Q2 to Q4 (see Figure 5.17).

Figure 5.17 Location of deactivation clusters for reward dependence (RD) between Q1 and Q2 and Q2 and Q4. (A=activation, D= deactivation, R=red, B=blue, G=green, P=purple).

Cluster KE =89 (Figure 5.17) is located in the right parietal lobe (postcentral gyrus), cluster KE =120 (Figure 5.17) is located in the left frontal lobe (middle frontal gyrus BA8) (see RD: DQ2Q4 (89:B, 120:R, 40:P, 96:G)). The smallest cluster KE =40 is located in the left temporal lobe (Sub-gyral). Figure 5.17 shows also the location of deactivation clusters between Q1 and Q2, and between Q2 and Q4 for reward dependence.

Increasing levels of reward dependence are related to activations in the left frontal lobe (sub-gyral), limbic lobe (parahippocampal gyrus). Also there are activations in the right frontal lobe (inferior frontal gyrus, sub-gyral), parietal lobe (postcentral gyrus) and limbic lobe (anterior cingulate). These activations are associated with the RD contrast between Q4 and both of Q2 and Q3 (see Figures 5.14-5.17).

5.7.4 Results for Persistence (P)

Table C.4 in Appendix C gives the results of the SPM-ICA modelling of persistence as a (quartiled) predictor of blood flow. Activations are found in the occipital lobe, temporal, frontal lobes, with deactivations found in the temporal, frontal, and limbic, posterior lobes and insula, regions of the brain; but these are not statistically significant. Figure 5.18 shows no significant difference between the four groups in blood flow (with just four outliers). Figure 5.19 shows the location of deactivation and activation clusters for persistence.

Figure 5.18 Strength of rCBF versus quartiles for Persistence (P).

Figure 5.19 Location of activation clusters and deactivation clusters for persistence (P) between quartile groups. (A=activation, D= deactivation, R=red, B=blue, G=green, P=purple).

5.7.5 Results for Self Directedness (S)

Table C.5 in Appendix C reports the results of SPM-ICA modelling of (quartiled) self directedness as a predictor of cerebral blood flow. Three activations were found between Q1 and Q3 but were not statistically significant. Figure 5.20 shows the average rCBF strength versus quartile groupings for self directedness.

There is a decreasing relationship of rCBF between Q1 and Q3 for self directedness (Figure 5.20) with a drop of blood flow. Figure 5.21 gives the location of activation clusters for self directedness.

Activations are found in the left anterior (culmen) between Q1 and Q4. Figure 5.20 shows a small decrease in blood flow from Q1 to Q4. The largest activation cluster KE =1897 is located found in the right parietal and temporal lobe regions but was not statistically significant. Cluster KE =145 located in the left frontal lobe (sub-gyral) and left sub-lobar (insula, extra-nuclear) shows significantly increased rCBF from Q2 and Q3. Figure 5.20 also indicates that there is a significant decrease in rCBF with increasing self directedness from Q2 to Q3. Cluster KE =118 has a significant activation from Q2 to Q3, and is located in the right frontal lobe (middle frontal gyrus BA9). Cluster KE = 122, located in the right frontal lobe (middle frontal gyrus BA8, sub-gyral and superior frontal gyrus), and cluster KE = 362, located in the left frontal lobe (paracentral lobule BA14 and paracentral lobule BA4), have significant activations from Q2 to Q3 (S). Figure 5.22 shows the location of these activation clusters for the trait self directedness.

Figure 5. 20 Strength of rCBF versus quartiles for Self Directedness (S).

Figure 5.21 Location of activation clusters and deactivation clusters between quartile groups for

self-directedness (S). (A=activation, D= deactivation, R=red, B=blue, G=green, P=purple).

Two clusters (KE = 368 and KE = 476) are activations in the right frontal lobe (middle frontal gyrus BA10, sub-gyral) and left frontal lobe (superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus) between Q2 and Q4 for self-directedness. Figure 5.20 shows little change in rCBF from Q2 to Q4 with no significant difference (and one outlier in Q4). Another two activation clusters (KE = 105 and KE = 44) are found between Q2 and Q4 for S, but these are not statistically significant. Deactivations are not found at all, except cluster KE =40. Figure 5.21 shows the location of activation clusters between Q2 and Q4 for self-directedness, and Figure 5.22 analogously for the self-directedness Q2 versus Q3 contrast.

Figure 5.22 Location of activation clusters between Q2 and Q3 for self-directedness (S). (A=activation, D= deactivation, R=red, B=blue, G=green, P=purple).

5.7.6 Results for Cooperativeness (C)

Table C.6 in Appendix C shows the results of SPM-ICA modelling of the quartiled cooperativeness as a predictor of cerebral blood flow. Cooperativeness reveals the most clusters amongst all seven TCI traits. Nine activation clusters were found between Q1 and Q2 (Table C.6). Figure 5.23 shows there is no difference between cooperativeness Q1 and Q2 in blood flow (except one outlier in Q2). Cluster KE =96 was located in the left limbic lobe (uncus BA34) and Cluster KE =41 is located in the left parietal lobe (sub-gyral). The third cluster KE =82 shows a significant activation from Q1 to Q2 and is located in the right limbic lobe (parahippocampal BA36) (Table C.6). Activation cluster KE =96 is located in the right occipital lobe (lingual gyrus) and the right limbic lobe (posterior cinulate). Cluster KE =104 is located in the right occipital lobe (cuneus BA19). Cluster KE =64 (right limbic lobe: uncus), cluster KE =96 (left limbic: posterior cingulate, right occipital lobe: ligual gyrus), and the smallest cluster KE =40 (right limbic lobe: posterior cingulate BA29) are associated with activations between Q1 and Q2 all of which are contained in cluster KE =96 (Table C.6 and Figure 2.4). Figure 5.24 shows the location of activation of all nine clusters between Q1 and Q2 for cooperativeness are shown in Figure 5.24.

Figure 5.23 Strength of rCBF versus quartiles for Cooperativeness (C).

Cluster KE =124 (Figure 5.25) is related to a contrast between Q1 and Q4 for cooperativeness, and is located in the left frontal lobe (precentral gyrus). No significant difference is found between Q1 and Q4 in Figure 5.23. Cluster KE =97 overlaps with cluster KE =59, which is entirely contained in the larger cluster. In this overlapping region there is a significant activation from Q1 to Q4 for cooperativeness, then a significant activation from Q2 to Q3. Cluster KE =130 (left anterior lobe: culmen), cluster KE =64 (left limbic lobe), cluster KE =54 (left parietal lobe: superior parietal lobule), cluster KE =108 (left occipital lobe: precuneus), cluster KE = 45 (left parietal lobe: sub-gyral), and cluster KE = 50 (right occipital lobe: middle frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus BA6) all show a significant activation between Q1 and Q4 for cooperativeness (Table C.6 and Figure 5.25).

Figure 5.24 Location of activation clusters between Q1 and Q2 for cooperativeness (A=activation, D= deactivation, R=red, B=blue, G=green, P=purple)

Figure 5.25 Location of activation clusters between Q1 and Q4 for cooperativeness (C). (A=activation, D= deactivation, R=red, B=blue, G=green, P=purple).

Figure 5.26 Location of deactivation clusters between Q2 and Q3, deactivation between Q2 and Q4, activation between Q3 and Q4 for cooperativeness (C). (A=activation, D= deactivation, R=red, B=blue, G=green, P=purple, SB: sky blue).

Cluster KE = 183 (Figure 5.26) shows significant deactivations from Q2 to Q3 with respect to cooperativeness and is found in the left temporal lobe (fusiform gyrus and sub-gyral). This cluster overlaps with the cluster of deactivation from Q2 to Q4 (KE = 75). For these clusters, there is an increased blood flow at low levels of cooperativeness, but increasing cooperativeness is related to decreased blood flow at the high level. Cluster KE = 181 overlaps with cluster KE = 69, found in the right occipital lobe (Table C.6). Cluster KE = 69 is entirely contained in cluster KE = 181 (Figure 5.26). Both clusters show a significant deactivation between Q2 and Q3 for cooperativeness. Cluster KE = 97 (left limbic: cingulate gyrus) and KE = 59 (left limbic: uncus BA34) shows a significant deactivation between Q2 and Q3 for C. Cluster KE = 119 (right occipital lobe: lingual gyrus BA18), cluster KE = 139 (right parietal lobe: angular gyrus and inferior parietal lobule), cluster KE = 99 (right occipital lobe: precuneus and cuneus) all

associated with significant deactivation in rCBF between Q2 and Q3 for C .

Cluster KE = 114 overlaps with KE = 183, found in the left anterior lobe (culmen), left posterior lobe (cerebellar tonsil), left temporal lobe (fusiform gyrus) with significant activation between Q2 and Q3 for cooperativeness (Figure 5.26). Cluster KE = 72 (right sub-lobar: extra-nuclear and thalamus), cluster KE = 58 (right frontal lobe: precentral gyrus), cluster KE = 55 (right temporal lobe: middle temporal gyrus) and the smallest cluster KE = 40 (right frontal lobe: sub-gyral) have deactivations from Q2 to Q3, KE = 43 (right sub-lobar: insula BA13) and cluster KE = 50 (left parietal lobe: inferior parietal lobule BA40) as well. Figure 5.26 shows the location of deactivation between Q2 and Q3 for cooperativeness.

There is only one cluster KE = 75 of rCBF deactivation from Q2 to Q4 in the cooperativeness trait. It is located in the left temporal lobe (sub-gyral) which overlaps with KE = 181. Figure 5.26 shows the location of a deactivation between Q2 and Q4 for cooperativeness.

Figure 5.27 Location of activation clusters between Q3 and Q4 for cooperativeness (C). (A=activation, D= deactivation, R=red, B=blue, G=green, P=purple).

Cluster KE = 194 was found in the left frontal lobe (sub-gyral) and left limbic lobe (anterior cingulate) shows a significant activation from Q3 to Q4 in C. Cluster KE = 118 is located in the right middle temporal gyrus BA=21 with significant activation. The largest cluster KE = 370 between Q3 and Q4 is located found in the left middle occipital gyrus. This is significantly related to an activation from Q3 to Q4. Cluster KE = 225 is located in the left cigulate gyrus BA31, left lateral ventile and inter hemispheric and is significantly activated from Q3 to Q4 in C. KE = 181 (right sub-gyral, superior frontal gyrus BA10, and middle frontal gyrus BA9) overlaps with KE = 382 showing a deactivation between Q1 and Q3, located in the right sub-gyral, superior frontal gyrus BA10, and middle frontal gyrus BA9 as a significant deactivation. A small cluster KE = 51, in the right culmen and midbrain shows a significant activation from Q3 to Q4 in cooperativeness. The mean of rCBF for quartile groups of cooperativeness is plotted in Figure 5.23, showing slightly little increased blood flow from Q3 to Q4. The next cluster KE = 88 showed a significant activation between Q3 and Q4 and is located in the left tuber and left inferior temporal gyrus BA37. Cluster KE = 172 is a significant activation from Q3 and Q4 located in the left declive and inter-hemispheric. Small clusters KE = 58 (right insula BA47), KE = 57 (left inferior parietal lobule BA40), KE = 42 (right lingual gyrus BA 18), and KE = 46 (right middle frontal gyrus) are found indicating significant activations between Q3 and Q4 in cooperativeness. Cluster KE = 121 are found in the right cingulate gyrus BA32 shows a significant activation from Q3 and Q4. Cluster KE = 156 associated with a significant increase in blood flow from Q3 and Q4 (in C) is located in the right fusiform gyrus. Cluster KE = 103 (right thalamus) and cluster KE = 90 found significant activations from Q3 and Q4.

5.7.7 Results for Self Transcendence (ST)

Table C.7 in Appendix C shows the results for self-transcendence as a predictor of cerebral blood flow. Clusters KE = 123, KE = 167, and KE = 189 are related to a ST contrast between Q2 and Q3 with a significant activation. These three clusters intersect each other. The first cluster is located in the left middle frontal gyrus and the second cluster is located in the middle frontal gyrus and sub-gyral. The third cluster is found in the left sub-gyral. There is a little change in blood flow between Q2 and Q3 (Figure 5.28). A large cluster KE = 801 (Figure 5.29) is located in the left lateral ventricle and inter-hemispheric showing a significant activation from Q2 and Q3. Figure 5.29 shows the location of activation between Q2 and Q3 for self-transcendence.

Figure 5.28 Strength of rCBF versus quartiles for self-transcendence (ST).

Figure 5.29 Location of activation clusters between Q2 and Q3, and between Q2 and Q4 for self-transcendence (ST). (A=activation, D= deactivation, R=red, B=blue, G=green, P=purple).

There are four small activation clusters between quartiles that are small between Q2 and Q4 for self-transcendence. There is a decrease in blood flow from Q2 to Q4 with two outliers (Figure 5.29). Cluster KE = 54 exhibits an activation in the left superior frontal gyrus BA9 and KE = 52 is located in the right cingulate gyrus. A third cluster showing significant activation from Q2 to Q4 is located in the left sub-gyral. The last cluster KE = 101 is located in the right middle occipital gyrus BA 18 and is significant. Figure 5.29 shows the location of activations between Q2 and Q4 for self-transcendence. A small cluster KE = 46 was found in the left lateral ventricle shows deactivation from Q3 to Q4.