Analysing The Potential Uses Of Nanobots Biology Essay

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Nanorobot: "A nanorobot is a tiny machine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision at nanoscale dimensions, that is, dimensions of a few nanometers (nm) or less, where 1 nm = 10-9 meter".[1]

Nanorobots contain probable applications in the gathering and preserving of complicated systems. Molecular manufacturing is a process to construct devices, equipments, or circuits. For molecular manufacturing process nanorobots may function on the atomic or molecular level. Self-replication is a method in nanorobots may also generate copies of itself to change exhausted units.

Researchers from medical industry have extraordinary attention on nanorobots. Nanomedicine has been raised to a higher level because of nanorobots. Nanorobots has been recommended that a fleet of nanorobots may serve as antiviral agents in patients with diseases that do not react to additional predictable measures, or in immune systems. There are several other prospective medical applications, plus renovate of spoiled tissue, unblocking of arteries exaggerated through plaques, and possibly the creation of entire replacement body organs.

Durability is the major advantage of nanorobots. Theory says that nanorobots can remain prepared for years, or centuries. Nanoscale systems be capable of operate a lot quicker than their superior counterparts for the reason that displacements are minor; this provides mechanical and electrical proceedings to take place in less time at a specified speed. [1]

3. Nanomedicine:

"Living organisms are naturally-existing, fabulously complex systems of molecular nanotechnology". - Dr. Gregory Fahy

The mentioned quotes increases the exciting opportunity that machines constructed at molecular level might used to heal a variety of problems in human body. This function of nanotechnology to medicine field is normally known as nanomedicine. [2]

Nanomedicine is the method of treating, diagnosing and preventing disease and painful injury, of relieving pain, and improving human health, nanomedicine uses molecular tools and molecular information of the human body. [3]

4. Applications of Medical Nanorobotics:

4.1 Role of nanorobots in drug delivery:

Researchers concerned in the growth of pharmaceuticals have tacit that drug delivery is a basic element of drug development,and a broad series of drug delivery systems has as a result been designed. Preferably, all these systems would get better the strength, absorption, and therapeutic attention of the drug inside the objective tissue, also allow reproducible and long-standing realese of the drug at the end site.

In addition to dropping the occurrence of drug administration and as a result humanizing patient comfort, novel drug delivery systems would present shield and get better the pharmacokinetics of simply degradable peptides and proteins, which frequently contain half-lives within vivo.

For the pharmaceutical commerce the field of drug delivery represents a deliberate tool for increasing drug markets, for the reason the new delivery technologies might repackage standard drugs, present a spirited edge once the expiry of patents and avoiding opposition from generics.

Signifying this benefit clearly, 13% of the present word wide pharmaceutical market is linked to the sale of products so as to contain a drug delivery system.

The concluding intend of pharmaceutical research is the delivery of any drug at the correct time in a safe and reproducible way to exact objective at the essential level. For lot of drugs, on the other hand, these ultimate necessities constitute buildup relatively than a wish. For example, even if the oral route is one of the favorite methods of drug delivery, for the reason that is noninvasive, sufficient peptide or protein drug delivery has not so for been attained by this route. Drug delivery is sensible due to the acidic conditions of abdomen, the first-pass effect of the liver (i.e., the failure of drug as a outcome of metabolic processes that take place before it enters the systemic circulation), and the conflict exerted via the intestine - all of which modify, destroy, or decrease absorption of almost all macromolecules, therefore sinking their bioavailability. As a result, millions of diabetics global have to self-administer insulin injections every day, annoying a high percentage of disregards in this treatment.[4]

4.2 Nanorobots in Cancer:

4.2.1 Cancer:

Damage of genes which manage the growth and separation of cells causes Cancer. The information for central functions of cells are carried by genes. Cancerous cell required supply of blood to mature. A hormone similar to molecule causes nearby blood vessel to mature towards the cell to provide the oxygen and other nutrients. By destroying or by stopping the blood supply to the cells or rectifying the harmful mechanism of the genes might cure the cancer. By confirming the expansion of the cells, detection/diagnose is possible for cancer.

4.2.2 Cancer Detection:

4.2.2.1 Conventional Detection:

Cancer can be detected by observing the substantial growth or changes in the organs by CT Scans or/and Xrays and using biopsy cell culture will confirm. Conversely the restriction of this method is that it is less sensitive and after the extensive growth of the cancerous cells detection is possible. Once the cancer reaches such an advance stage treatment is not possible often.

4.2.2.2 Nano Technology Detection:

Nanoparticles are small amount of nm and the sizes of few microns are cells. So nanoparticles can access the DNA molecules/genes by entering inside the cells and, there are possibilities to find the defect in the genes. In their initial stage itself DNA molecules can be detected. In vivo or in vitro only I could be achievable. Nanotechnology will be shown final that nanoparticles shows possible of cancer detection in its initial stage.

4.2.3 Cancer Treatment:

4.2.3.1 Conventional Treatment:

Surgery is the one of the treatment, which is removing the cancerous part, though the constraint is that once the organ is lost and the cancer might emerge again. Surgery is not available for all kinds of cancer in future. Radiation therapy is another way of treatment, using radiation of particular frequency band and the force, cancerous cells are burnt. Even the other healthy cells also burnt are the disadvantage in this method. The burnt part might turn into dead and not functional, because cancerous cells burning are not uniform. Chemotherapy is the third option of treatment, using drugs toxic to cells or by stopping cells from captivating nutrients required to divide the cells or stop the mechanism in charge for division of the cell for killing the cancerous cells. The three aspects of the cancer treatments will be affected by combination of drugs already given normally. Disadvantage of this treatment is dangerous to healthy cells, if the caner in the advanced staged this treatment rarely got successful.

4.2.3.2 Nanotechnology Treatment:

Absorb particular wave length of radiation and get heated using designed particular nanoparticles. These type of designed nanoparticles burns the cancerous cells by entering into it if irradiated by appropriate wave length radiation. This is one type of the analogue of radiation therapy. As said before nanotechnology worn to generate therapeutic agents that aim exact cells and distribute toxin to kill cancerous cells. Nanoparticles detect cancer related molecular changes, by circulating through the body. Nanoparticles monitor the efficiency of the interference by supporting imaging release a therapeutic agent. [5]

4.3 Nanorobots in Dental Field:

Nanotechnology will play a vital role in the Dental field. At present nano technology is used for much application in dentist industry. The applications like to maintain strength, luster and as a resist wear. Silver Nano particles control the growth of bacteria in teeth so it protects the teeth from decay.

4.3.1Bottom-up approach in nanodentistry: 

4.3.1.1 Local anaesthesia 

Dentist uses micron size dental robots as a local anaesthesia. These millions of active analgesic robots will be instilled to the patients gingival. In will make contact in surface of crown. After further process it reaches pulp and deactivates all sensitivity in any particular spot which will be commanded by dentist.

4.3.1.2 Hypersensitivity cure 

Sometimes there will be some kind of pressure transmitted hydrodynamically to the pulp which may cause dentist hypersensitivity. This may create higher surface density of tubules. Dental nano robots will remove those selected tubules in minutes with permanent cure.

4.3.1.3 Dental durability and cosmetics 

Tooth strength and look can be improved by replacing upper enamel layers. That can be done with pure sapphire and diamond. This will provide more fracture resistant as nanostructure particles include some carbon nanotubes.

4.3.1.4 Orthodontic treatment 

Orthodontic nanorobots will directly operate the periodontal tissues, quick and trouble-free tooth straightening, rotating and vertical repositioning. That can be done within an hour.[7]

4.4. Nanorobots in Diabetes mellitus:

Diabetes is a syndrome of disorganized metabolism, generally due to a grouping of genetic and ecological causes, ensuing in unusually high blood sugar levels. There are two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is generally connected to fatness which promotes insulin resistance. In lot of fat individuals, insulin resistance is remunerated for by raised insulin production, It will occur only if there is an increase in β cell mass. Type 2 diabetes is related with loss of β cell mass, normally caused by auto immune-induced irritation and apoptosis. As a result both type1 and type2 diabetes result in insufficient insulin protection because both are harmfully affected by the death of β cell in the pancreas.

4.4.1 Nanotechnology in the detection of insulin and blood:

A method to quickly compute minute amount of insulin and blood sugar level is a min step headed for developing the capability to assess the health of the body's insulin-producing cells, this method uses nanotechnology and it can be obtained by the subsequent ways-

4.4.1.1 By microphysiometer:

The microphysiometer is made from multiwall carbon nanotubes, which are similar to many flat sheets of carbon atoms stacked and rolled into very small tubes. The concentration of insulin in the chamber can be instantly associated to the current at the electrode. Nanotubes are electrically conductive and function dependably at pH levels features of living cells. Insulin levels are measured periodically by collecting small samples at regular intervals through current detection method. The sensor finds insulin levels regularly by measuring transmit of electrons formed when insulin molecules oxidize in the existence of glucose. The current in the sensor increases and decreases, when the cell generate higher insulin molecules, by permitting monitoring insulin focus in real time.

4.4.1.2 By implantable sensor:

Use of polyethylene glycol beads layered with glowing molecules to observe diabetes blood sugar levels is extremely efficient in this method, the beads are injected beneath the skin and reside in the interstitial fluid. Glucose shows the fluorescent molecules and produces a glow, when glucose in the interstitial fluid reduced to unsafe level. Tattoo is placed on the arms to see this glow. To supervise the key body parameters together with temperature, blood glucose, pulse continuously by developing sensor microchips. A chip would be fixed beneath the skin and convey a signal that might be monitored constantly.

4.4.2 Use of Nanotechnology in the treatment of diabetes:

The major afflictions of present western society are diabetes. Diabetic patients are using insulin injection directly into the bloodstream to control their blood-sugar levels. This distasteful method is necessary because stomach acid wipe out protein-based particles such as insulin, making oral insulin consumption ineffective. The new system is dependent on breathe in the insulin and on a restricted release of insulin into bloodstream. The diabetes treatment includes the appropriate delivery of insulin in the bloodstream which is able to be achieved by nanotechnology in the subsequent ways.

4.4.2.1 Development of oral insulin:

Manufacturing of pharmaceutically active proteins in huge quantities has happen to possible, active proteins such as insulin. The most comfortable and convenient resources for administration of insulin for less persistent and painless diabetes management, leading to superior patient compliance is known as Oral route. However, the intestinal epithelial cells via lipid-bilayer cell membranes to the bloodstream. As a result attention is focused on getting better the paracellular transport of hydrophilic drugs. For the assistance of the assimilation of hydrophilic macromolecules used a range of intestinal penetration enhancers including chitosan. Protein drugs from the cruel environment in the stomach and little intestine are to be sheltered by carrier system, if given orally. Furthermore chitosan improved the intestinal assimilation of protein molecules to a better level than aqueous solutions of chitosan in vivo. The insulin loaded nanoparticles layered with mucoadhesive chitosan may extend their place in the small intestine, penetrate into mucus layer and consequently mediate briefly opening the tense junctions between epithelial cells whereas flattering unstable and bust apart due to their pH sensitivity and /or degradability. Its ultimate destination is to permeate through the paracellular pathway to the bloodstream, through insulin released from the broken-apart nanoparticles.

4.4.2.2 Microsphere for oral insulin production:

Microsphere system is the main promising plan to achieve oral insulin which is naturally a mixture strategy. Microspheres act as protease inhibitors by defending the summarized insulin from enzymatic degradation within its environment and as permeation enhancers by successfully crossing the epithelial layer later oral administration.

4.4.2.3 Artifical Pancreas:

The permanent solution for diabetic patients is development of artificial pancreas. In 1974 the original idea was described. The work concept is very simple: the level of blood glucose continuously measured by a sensor electrode; energizes an infusion pump by feeding the information which is supplied by sensor electrode into a small computer, and using small reservoir the required units of insulin go into the blood stream. Using tiny silicon box also we can restore body glucose, in which tiny silicon box contains animal's pancreatic beta. These pores are huge sufficient to allow for glucose and insulin to pass through the silicon box, but small sufficient to hold back the passage of much bigger immune system molecules. These boxes can be fixed beneath the skin of diabetes patients. This could restore the body delicate glucose temporarily and maintain feedback without any serious risk of infection to the patients.[6]

5. Medical Nanorobotics of Tomorrow

In the future, maybe 10 to 20 years from today, the initial molecular machine systems and nanorobots might unite the medical armamentarium, at last giving physicians the most powerful tools believable to overcome human disease, aging and sick health. Organic structure resources are extremely good at self-assembly, but the most dependable and high-performance molecular machines may be built out of diamondoid materials, the strongest materials acknowledged. Many scientific challenges must be overcome ahead of medical nanorobots can become a reality. constructing diamondoid nanorobots on the whole persistent objective will require both massive parallelism in molecular production and assembly procedures and programmable positional gathering as well as molecularly particular manufacture of diamond structures by means of molecular feedstock. Positionally controlled single-atom covalent bonding (mechanosynthesis) has been achieved experimentally for hydrogen and silicon atoms, but at present only computational simulations support the same expectation for carbon atoms and diamond structures. As a result, the prospect for diamond nanorobotics remains controversial, although considerably less so for other approaches to medical nanorobotics that might use biologic components. Yet if it can be done, the ability to build diamond-based molecular machine systems in large numbers leads, ultimately, to the most powerful kinds of medical nanorobots.[3]

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