Contrast media is a diagnostic agent used for radiology departments to improve quality or to get a visual image that is needed. Contrast media used to view organs or blood vessels where it is soft tissue that cannot be seen by general X-ray examination. Contrast media can be inserted into the patient's body by injection (through a vein, artery or lymphatic), by mouth or through the anus.
There are several types of contrast media that can be used in imaging. Iodine contrast media can be used to run this test and it is injected into the patient's body. It can also be through the mouth. Barium sulfate can be given by mouth and by rectum. Gadolinium injection are used to test the use of magnetic resonance imaging or MRI.
Proven effectiveness of contrast media in one way above. When a contrast medium is injected, it will make the channels and organs of patients appear opaque and white on the x-ray film when the X-ray taken.
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Angiography procedures, vessels will look thick and opaque when the X-ray taken. Contrast media is then excreted by the kidneys urografi for intravenous procedures. Here we can see urinary system appears opaque on X-ray film. Various organs and structures can be viewed and studied.
To give a barium meal through the mouth will give the stomach X-ray images. Stomach will look opaque or white on X-ray film. This will occur when the patient is given a barium enema through the anus. The colon will appear opaque on the X-ray film. Radiographers from here can see a patient's digestive system.
Gandolinium the contrast media is given to patients by injection of magnetic resonance imaging. This will cause the blood vessels and organs appear white on an MRI image.
Current grant through an intravenous contrast media did not give any negative side effects to patients. It is also easily and quickly eliminated by the body. When iodine contrast media injected into the patient's body, it will cause a burning sensation in the affected areas. Sometimes, it can cause patients to feel queasy. Therefore, patients are advised not to take any food if the patient is in prose radiological examinations involving contrast media. Rarely, iodine contrast media can cause an allergic reaction to the patient.
Barium sulfate is one of contrast media used for radiological examination and it proved to be harmful to patients. Barium will be expelled by the body within a day or two.For pregnant women, the use of contrast media is not recommended because there are no proven safety of the fetus.
Types of contrast media
There are two types of ionic iodine contrast media and non-ionic. Both types of contrast media are commonly used in radiology because it is not harmful to patients. Contrast media was used to show blood vessels and changes in the tissues of patients. It can also be used to make urinary tract tests, uterus and tubes filopio. This will cause the patient to feel like want to throw away the water. It is like putting metal in the patient's mouth.
Iodine is the agent of intravenous contrast media used by radiographers to perform procedures involving contrast media. Contrast media compound may be bound in an organic (non-ionic) or in an ionic compound. Widespread use of ionic agents have been developed and it depends on the conditions that can cause additional complications. Organic agents are covalently bound iodine is not very effective because these agents are not separated into molecular components. side effects that may occur because most of them were done after injecting Hyperosmolar. This to provide more iodine atoms in each molecule. If more iodine, images of blood vessels on X-ray films will then more clearly and thick.
There are a variety of different molecules. For example molecules of organic iodine is Iohexol, Iodixanol and Ioversol. Iodine-based water-soluble contrast media did not harm the patient. These contrast media agents can be purchased to solve this problem. Almost all organs can be used iodinated contrast agents. Often it is used intravenously, and it can also be used in intraarterilally, intrathecally (in the spinal discography) and intraabdominally of any body cavity or space .
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Agents iodine contrast media used in the tests like angiography, Venography, VCUG (voiding cystourethrography), HSG (hysterosalpinogram), and IVU (intravenous urography).
Media contrast agent used
The use of ionic contrast media that are proven effective because it has a high osmolarity. hence, the contrast media used in accordance with the patient's body. Examples of non- ionic contrast media are Diatrizoate (Hypaque 50), Metrizoate (Isapaque coronar 370) and Ioxaglate (Hexabrix). This is a contrast media are ionic and have high osmolarity.
For contrast media that are not ionic, contrast media usage is now more widespread. This is not due to ionic contrast media is low osmolarity. This is because its use does not endanger patients. Also proved effective as it can make the image more clearly. This because iodine is much more helpful in making the image brighter. These contrast media can still be used on all types of imaging tests. For example, ionic contrast media is Iopamidol (isovue 370), Isohexol (omnipaque 350), Ioxilan (oxilan), Iopromide and Iodixanol (visipaque 320).
Two types of contrast media can be distinguished by the character. Between properties that can be compared to the properties with ionic and non-ionic. The osmolarity is compared with the ionic contrast media have high osmolarity while the non-ionic contrast media have low osmolarity. The other comparison between this two contrast media are the levels of iodine that have in both contrast. The ionic contrast media have low level of iodine but have certain media contrast have high level of iodine. Different with non-iodine contras media, it contains high level of iodine in it.
Barium sulfate is used primarily to see the patient's digestive system. Barium sulfate is like a mixture of white water and parallel to the water insoluble to be given to patients to see the gastrointestinal tract. Types of barium used for barium enema is a radiological examination and DCBE (double contrast barium enema), barium swallow (oesophageal investigations), barium meal (stomach inquiry) and double contrast meal, barium follow through (the investigation stomach and small intestine) and CT pneumocolon / virtual colonoscopy.
Before patient do this examination, patient must prepare their self. Patient must fasting for 4-6 hours before do the examination. If the patient has an allergic, they must take the Prednisolone 40 mg, 12 hour before the examination and another 40 mg, that is 2 hour before the examination. For the patient that have the mieloma multiple or myelodysplastic syndrome, patient must take the water enough to prevent the dehydration even in IVU(intravenous urogram) examination. If the patient have diabetes, they are advice to stop take the medication about 48 hour before the examination that have the injection of contrast media with intravena or intraarteria. The patientâ€™s intestinal must empty. This examination must have early preparation before the procedure.
Media contrast use
-type and syllabus
That are have several type of contrast media used for the certain examination, like oesophagus barium is used through mouth. To examine the structure of duodenum patient will give the barium through mouth. To examine the colon, the radiographers can use barium sulfate. For HSG, some contrast media can be used like Urograffin 60%, Lipidol ultrafluid, Hipaque 5%, and endografin. BnO IVP was used Urogrffin 76%, Telebrix 300mg/1amp, Omnipaque 300.
Media contrast for RPG/APG is Urograffin 76%, Telebrix 350mg1/2amp. For patient do the CT scan, Iopamiro giving 350 mg, 350-370 mg Ultravist is effective and the image resulting is more clear. For the patient patients who undergo Cholesistography be given in 2 ways. First through the mouth by giving biloptin / telepaque 3 grams as contrast media. Second is through an intravenous giving Iodipamide (iodine 50%) to patients.
The methods that used are different for each examination. Oral method is use for examination like oesophagography, cardiac analysis, duodenal, and oral cholesystography. For the IV method for the test like BNO-IVP, CT-Scan , cholesysthography IV and arteriography. The intra anal method is to examine see the colon inloop. For intra vaginal method is just be done to woman that want do the HSP (Hystero Salphyngo Graphy). Intra ureter is a method of inserting a test of contrast media for urethrocystography. Intra ductus was to test intra Sialography. Finally, intra-dural is the method of testing the myelography.
Side effect on media contrast
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An initial response from the media contrast to the patient's can lead to death. Between the allergic reactions is moderate (not requiring treatment). The example is, heat evacuation(hot flush), nausea and vomiting, itch, and such as the flu sneezes. Moderate allergic reactions, but not requiring intensive care treatment are urticaria (hives), wheezing (bronkopasma), difficulty breathing (asthma), and hypotension (blood pressure dropped dramatically). Allergic reactions can also be harmful to the patient. This is because it can be lead to death, it can be categorized as severe. Because it can be life threatening and require intensive care patients. Examples of such reactions were stopped breathing, cardiac, and anaphylactic shock. Anaphylactic shock is the most severe reactions. This shock can be fatal to patients.
Procedure and technics
Effective contrast media in several ways, for example by injection, providing meals, and through the mouth. When a contrast medium injected into the patient, it will make the channels and organs appear opaque or white on X-ray film. Angiography test is a test showed vessels and blood vessels. When the injected contrast media, vessels will look thick and opaque when the X-ray taken. Then the contrast media will be in slums by the patient's kidney and urinary system appears opaque on X-ray film. This way, doctors can see any change in the patient's urinary system.
The contrast media through oral is used with car barium meal, will be cause the stomach look dark or bright on x-ray film. So also, when given to patients with contrast media through the anus in the form of barium enema, this shows the changes of the digestive system of the patient.
Patient care after/post care
After the examination was done, the radiographer must ensure that the patient in stable condition. Patients are also advised to drink lot of water to avoid dehydration. Radiographers should be pointed out that the contrast media will be removed from the patient's body through the urine after 4 hours.