An Overview Of Eukaryotic Cells Biology Essay


Eukaryotic cells are a cell type that has a nuclear membrane surrounding the genetic material. In it several metabolic activities occur and this is assisted by the various bodies that are in the cell namely; the nucleus and organelles. They are found in complex organisms, that is both plants and animals and have several functions. These include nutrient absorption from food and also transmitting impulses from nerves.

MicroRNAs is a group of endogenous, small, non-coding RNA molecules that are

thought to be responsible for the regulation of up to 30% of gene expression (Xie X, et al. 2005). Recent investigations have revealed that miRNAs have unique expression profiles in different cancer types at different stages and play an important role in the initiation and progression of many diseases (Gandellini et al. 2009)

Being that cancer is one of the most common diseases in the 21st century it has become a topic that is vital in majority of the medical studies and research done. There are various natural methods that have been given to the world to help prevent cancer. For example what foods to eat, what lotions to apply, what to and not to drink, what supplements to swallow and so on. One thing stands out though; the human body has its own mechanism of protecting itself from cancer. Knowing how the human body protects itself from the cancerous growths is an area that has gone microscopic study over the years and has brought out several positive results.

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The human body has various ways of protecting itself from harm be it external or in form of an internal disease and via the studies done it has been noted that certain molecules have been discovered to have played a part in the prevention of cancerous growths. There are all kinds of cancers from lung, breast, prostate, skin, cervical and colon which all have adverse effects on the human body.

In this particular case we concentrate on the on the miR-205 also known as the microRNA is a molecule in the body that has a main function of regulating how more than half of human genes certain genes express themselves in the human body. These include cellular processes such as cell development, cell proliferation and cell apoptosis that are vital in order to suppress cancerous growths. It is currently believed that miRNAs show their effect by silencing the effect of specific genes. This particular molecule is associated with prostate cancer and how the body naturally protects itself from it via this particular molecule.

Prostate cancer develops in the male reproductive system and may spread to other parts of the body like the lymph nodes and bones. It causes discomforts such as painful urination, erectile dysfunction and problems during sexual intercourse are noted with patients suffering from prostate cancer. Although it tends to develop in males in their fifties, it is not the cause of their death since this type of cancer develops very slowly and symptom free. Many factors such as genetics, viruses, over exposure to medicine and diet have been known to contribute to prostate cancer and treatment includes radiation therapy, surgery and hormonal therapy. Proper diet that consists of oils, fatty acids and vegetables are known to be preventive measure for prostate cancer as well as frequent ejaculation.

On the other hand the results according to a study done in August 2010 by the American Cancer Society revealed that miR-205 was silenced in prostate cancer. Its re-expression induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. It also impaired cell growth, migration, clonability, and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells. Micro-RNA-205 induced the expression of tumor suppressor genes IL24 and IL32 at both the messenger RNA and protein levels.

Thorough research has deduced that the molecule miR-205 was significantly down regulated in prostate cancer compared with match normal tissue. Its re-expression induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and has resulted in the down-regulation of several genes known to be involved in the cancer disease progression. MiR-205 exerts a tumor-suppressive effect in human prostate by counteracting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and reducing cell migration/invasion, at least in part through the down-regulation of protein kinase Cepsilon. MiR-205 activated tumor suppressor genes by targeting specific sites in their promoters. These results corroborate a newly identified function that miRNAs have in regulating gene expression at the transcriptional level. This is according to a study done by American Cancer Society.

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The methods that were used to conduct this study included transfection of small RNAs; quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; in situ hybridization; fluorescence-labeled in situ hybridization; cell cycle, apoptosis, cell viability, migratory, clonability, and invasion assays; immunoblotting; and luciferase reporter, nuclear run-on, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays.

It is very remarkable how the human body helps itself in the wake of trying to prevent illnesses that harm us terminally. The miRNAs are essential parts of our bodies that aid in a way that is quite efficient especially for men who are affected by this particular cancer that the molecules treat. By studying it we are able to understand more how we can use these molecules further to the advantage of the male population and probably come up with a more subtle treatment procedure instead of the ones stated above which tend to be straineous to the individual and his body.