An Avocado Is A Fruit Biology Essay

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An avocado is a fruit and not a vegetable that grows on a tree and can be technically classified as a berry. The avocado is from evergreen tree which is native to Mesoamerica. Its natural range covers diverse environmental conditions from the central highlands of Mexico where frosts occur to the rain forests of northwest Columbia.

They have a taste that ranges from rich, creamy and buttery to light and fruity, depending on the variety. There are many varieties of avocados, several of which are grown commercially. The Hass variety is the most popular commercially grown variety and has a deep, rich flavor. Avocados are ready to eat when they are slightly soft and yield to gentle pressure. The skin is peeled away and the flesh of the fruit is eaten. Avocados can be eaten by themselves or used for guacamole, sandwiches, salads, omelets, desserts and much more. (Smith et al. 1992,)

History

In 1519, Spanish soldier of fortune Hernando Cortez (1485-1547) set foot in Mexico City, the first white man to do so. Cortez found that the avocado.

The avocado is native to the area stretching from the eastern and central highlands of Mexico through Guatemala to the Pacific coast of Central America. There is evidence that avocados have been utilized in Mexico for 10,000 years.

The Spanish Conquistadors were the first Europeans to discover the fruit, native to the Americas, which the indigenous people of Mexico, Central America and South America had been using for thousands of years.

Avocado its name comes from Latin America Nahunta word, meaning "testicular" fruit shape obvious reference. It is found in Mexico about 291 BC avocado easier to significant name because Sir Henry's Sloan, who created it in 1669. Naturalist Sir Hans Sloan was the first to use the name "avocado," in a catalogue of Jamaican plants he published in 1696.

During the 1700s, European sailors used the avocado as a spread for biscuits, which led to the name "midshipman's butter." Avocado trees were introduced to California by 1856, when tree brought from Nicaragua was noticed growing near San Gabriel.

In 1911, Carl Schmidt, a plant explorer, collected bud wood of a seedling that eventually became the 'Fuertes'. This variety was the basis of the California avocado industry for many years.

Avocados were introduced in Florida by 1850, and, in the 1930s, autumn and winter varieties were adapted. While commercial varieties of avocados arrived in Chile from California in 1928, avocados have been growing in that country since colonial times. The avocado arrived in Indonesia in 1750, Brazil in 1809, Israel in 1908, and South Africa and Australia in the late 19th century.

In the late 1920s, Mr. Rudolph Hass discovered what would become the Hass variety. It is currently the most widely grown commercial and popular avocado variety.

Early Spanish explorers found Aztecs enjoy avocado, but it has long been considered a tasteless food. The Aztecs also used avocados as a sexual stimulant. This is Spanish explorers brought avocado English.

The first Florida crop included to the gardener Henry Ryan plantation in 1833. However, avocado and did not become a commercial crops, until the 20th century. Except in California, Florida, Hawaii, they generally planting, most consumer exit from the fruit. Finally, in the 1950 s, avocado to become popular for salad project and consumption become more common.

In 1995, 40.9% of American families consumed of avocado. (Peggy, 2012)

Geography

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Mexico is the world leader for avocado growing, accounting for almost 35% of global production. Other important avocado producers include the USA and Indonesia (each with 7% of the world total), Colombia (6%), Brazil (5%) and Peru (4%).

Land Aspects- Frost free, is the ideal avocado north, there is a warm climate. The site should be flat, or of a very slight slope, to allow easy mechanical access.

Climate- Growth and fruit appropriate temperature is the most important requirement, the successful development of avocado. Suitable for planting avocado microclimate temperature must meet the following requirements:

Occasional winter frosts warmer than -4°C

Day temperatures above 19°C during flowering (September to November)

Night temperatures above 10°C during flowering

No frosts during flowering

Soil- Soil The avocado tree has shallow feeding roots that need a good permeability and well drained soils. Ideal soil should have the following features:

A depth of more than 1.5m

Be uniform and free draining

Not be compacted or have impervious layers

Have moderate fertility

Have a high organic matter component

Wet poorly drained soils will lead to major problems with root rot

Types of avocado

Hass Avocados

Hass avocados are commonly seen year-round in the United States and some other areas. Generally easy to peel and usually weigh between 5 and 12 oz.

Bacon Avocados

Bacon avocados are common in the mid-winter months when other varieties are less prevalent. Bacon avocados have a fairly thin green skin that only gets slightly darker when they reach full maturity. Bacon avocados are usually about 6 to 12 oz.

Fuerte Avocados

The fuerte avocado is harvested from late autumn to early spring. The fuerte variety was the most common in the western part of the United States, which is oval shaped, the fuerte has a pear shape.

Reed Avocados

Reed avocados are large, round avocados that usually weigh between 8 and 18 oz. and are widely available in the summer months.

Pinkerton Avocados

Pinkerton avocados grow in the winter and yield more fruit than most avocados because of their small seeds. Approximately 8 to 18 oz. (Peggy, 2012)

Propagation, Planting, Harvesting

Propagation

Seeds: Rapidly lose their viability: ~28 days. Fresh seeds germinate in 4-6 weeks. Seeds germinate well if placed in warm, moist compost and are only partially buried. You can remove the brown seed coat and cut a thin slice off the apex and base of the seed to aid germination. When roots and leaves are well formed, carefully plant seedlings in deep pots to establish before planting out. Avoid repotting to avoid root damage. Progeny from seedlings are variable.

Cuttings: Generally difficult.

Layering: Air-layering is successful with some cultivars, with Mexican-types rooting well. This is best done in spring and early summer.

Grafting: Grafted or budded trees are more predictable in quality. Grafting is mainly done by whip, side- or cleft- grafting. Mexican- type rootstocks make the strongest growth, are hardier and are often used. Trees are sometimes top- worked.

Planting

Space plants at least 6-7 m apart; branches can die back if they touch those of their neighbor. Trees benefit from organic mulch, and from staking until established. Best site in a protected, warm area.

Harvesting

Avocados are harvested with hand-held poles and baskets. In flat areas in California, man-positioning machines are used to lift the pickers. Fruits are picked when mature but still hard. Determining when to harvest avocados can be difficult and may require experience. A slight change in skin color, loss of glossiness, or a brown seed coat is a sign of maturity. Pruning shears or special clippers should be used to harvest avocados. The pedicel should also remain attached to the fruit. (Chia, C. L. et. al. and Yokoyama, K. M., et. Al, 2009)

Culture

European sailors used the avocado as a spread for biscuits, which led to the name "midshipman's butter". In Japan sushi avocado dishes are well-liked in international cuisine. Early Spanish explorers found Aztecs enjoy avocado, but it has long been considered a tasteless food. The Aztecs also used avocados as a sexual stimulant.

Culinary (Unknown, 2004)

Slices of avocado are widely served in sandwiches and on toasted bread as a snack. Even avocado puree has varied uses such as it can be spread in hotdog and hamburgers and also used as a thickener in various liqueurs. Sushi avocado dishes are well-liked in international cuisine.

Being a fruit, avocado is used for various culinary purposes but it is popularly eaten raw or added to various fruit salads in raw form.

The subtle-flavor and creamy texture of the fruit makes it a very popular ingredient of avocado recipes such as avocado juice, avocado salad and avocado dip. All these avocado dishes are well-liked in almost all households.

Various seasonings and spices can be mixed in the avocado dips to provide flavor to the dish. In the list of sweet dishes, avocado recipes are quite popular. It is often included in several ice creams and milkshakes and other desserts. Salads and juices are some other additions to the list of avocado dishes. In savory dishes also avocado is a well-liked ingredient.

Medical/Non- Culinary (Ruby S, 2009-2012)

From the ancient times avocado is used as an excellent beauty aid. They truly offer wealth of health and significant beauty benefits. You can easily use Avocado in your daily beauty routine and save some money too. Here are the various beauty uses of Avocado.

Take one avocado, half teaspoon of olive oil and one egg yolk. Mash it thoroughly in a bowl. Apply this mix to wet or damp hair. Leave it on for 20 to 30 minutes. Massage it in your scalp properly. Rinse with warm water and shampoo your hair as usual. So can Amazing soft, silky and shiny hair.

It is also believed to be an effective sexual stimulant and is used to make ointments aimed at delaying old age.

Change Agents

Hernando Cortez- In 1519, Spanish soldier of fortune Hernando Cortez (1485-1547) set foot in Mexico City, the first white man to do so. Cortez found that the avocado was a staple in the native diet

European sailors- In 1700s, European sailors in the 1700s called it midshipman's butter because they liked to spread it on hard tack biscuits

Manashita Ichiro- Avocado in sushi was the idea of a Japanese chef Manashita Ichiro in Los Angeles about 40 years ago who used it as a replacement for Toro because it offered a similar'malty' mouth feel,It was subsequently used in California rolls. It's a Japanese invention.

Innovation (April, 2011)

Avocado oil- Avocado oil may have anti-ageing properties like those attributed to olive oil. Avocado oil is very rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and extremely low in saturated fat. It also contains no cholesterol.

Avocado Face Mask- Gives deep cleansing which helps in getting rid of the dirt and grime accumulated on the face, it opens up the tiny ducts for cleansing and clearing the dead skin cells and thereby prevents acne breakouts.

Avocado Sushi- Avocado in sushi was the idea of a Japanese chef in Los Angeles about 40 years ago who used it as a replacement for Toro because it offered a similar'malty' mouth feel,It was subsequently used in California rolls.

Avocado Butter- Our Avocado Butter s produced by hydrogenating cold pressed Avocado Oil with other vegetable oils. The light hydrogenation process creates butter with good oxidative stability and a smooth, silky feel.

Nutrition

Per 230g avocado including Calories 384 KJ, Fat 55%, cholesterol 0%, Sodium 1%, Carbohydrate 7%, Protein 5g, Vitamin A 7%, Vitamin C 34%, Calcium 3%, Iron 8%. (Unknown, 2010-2012)

Resources (Unknown, 2012)

Human Resources-

Natural Resources- Avocado growing need air, sunlight, water, soil, especially free frosts and warm climate. Wet poorly drained soils will lead to major problems with root rot.

Mechanical Resources- Workers can use man-positioning machines to lift them to pick mature fruit.

Future Trends

Contemporary uses& Current applications (Unknown, 2004)

In bakery to avocado flavor cakes, biscuits and bread.

In Japan, sushi avocado dishes are well-liked in international cuisine.

Being a fruit, avocado is used for various culinary purposes but it is popularly eaten raw or added to various fruit salads in raw form.

In restaurant, various seasonings and spices can be mixed in the avocado dips to provide flavor to the dish. It is often included in several ice creams and milkshakes and other desserts. Salads and juices are some other additions to the list of avocado dishes. In savory dishes also avocado is a well-liked ingredient.

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