Amino Acid Protein Measurement Biology Essay

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The smallest unit of Protein is Amino acid .Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. They band together in chains to form the stuff from which life is born. Amino acids make up 75% of the human body. They are essential to nearly every bodily function. Every chemical reaction that takes place in your body depends on amino acids and the proteins that they build

One of the best-known essential amino acids is tryptophan, which performs several critical functions for people. Tryptophan helps induce normal sleep, helps reduce anxiety, depression, and artery spasm risk and helps produce a stronger immune system. Tryptophan is perhaps most well-known for its role in producing serotonin.

Amino acids are the structural units that make up proteins. They join together to form short polymer chains called peptides or longer chains called either polypeptides or proteins. These polymers are linear and unbranched, with each amino acid within the chain attached to two neighboring amino acids. The process of making proteins is called translation and involves the step-by-step addition of amino acids to a growing protein chain by a ribozyme that is called a ribosome.

Amino acids are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group and a side chain that varies between different amino acids. These molecules contain the key elements of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Amino acids are critical to life, and have many functions in metabolism. One particularly important function is to serve as the building blocks of proteins, which are just linear chains of amino acids, or more precisely, amino acid residues (the remaining part of an amino acid once a water molecule has been lost due to peptide bonding).


Monosaccharide is the smallest unit of carbohydrate, Some Monosaccharide have a sweet taste. Examples of Monosaccharide's include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose), galactose, xylose and ribose. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides such as sucrose and polysaccharides.

Monosaccharides are often called as single or simple sugars and are the simplest of all carbohydrates. They are the building blocks of all higher carbohydrates. Monosaccharides are aldehydes or ketones and generally have two or more hydroxyl groups. They are the important fuel molecules needed by our body and cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates. All the Monosaccharides have a general molecular formula (CH2O)n

Monosaccharides are further classified, based on the number of carbon atoms in a molecule, into trioses, when the carbohydrate contains 3 carbon atoms, tetroses, when the carbohydrate contains 4 carbon atoms, pentoses, if the carbohydrate contains 5 carbon atoms and so on. There is another system of classification of Monosaccharides, based on the placement of its carbonyl group. The monosaccharide is called an aldose if its carbonyl group is an aldehyde and a ketose, if the carbonyl group is a ketone. These two systems are often combined and the Monosaccharides are known as aldotriose, aldotetrose, ketotriose and ketotetrose


Fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have a chain of four to 28 carbons. . Fatty acids are produced by the hydrolysis of the ester linkages in a fat or biological oil (both of which are triglycerides), with the removal of glycerol.

Fatty acids are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids derived from, or contained in esterified form in, an animal or vegetable fat, oil, or wax.

It is proposed that the blend of fatty acids exuded by mammalian skin, together with lactic acid and pyruvic acid, are distinctive and enable animals with a keen sense of smell to differentiate individuals.

Fatty acids that are required by the body, but cannot be made in sufficient quantity by the body from other substrates, therefore must be obtained from food and are called essential fatty acids. In the body, essential fatty acids are primarily used to produce hormone-like substances that regulate a wide range of functions, including blood pressure, blood clotting, blood lipid levels, the immune response, and the inflammation response to injury infection.

The human body can produce all but two of the fatty acids it needs. These two, linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) are widely distributed in plant oils. In addition, fish, flax, and hemp oils contain the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Other marine oils, such as from seal, also contain significant amounts of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), which is also an omega-3 fatty acid. Although the body to some extent can convert ALA into these longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids, the omega-3 fatty acids found in marine oils help fulfill the requirement for these essential fatty acids.

The essential fatty acids are important in several human body systems, including the immune system and in blood pressure regulation, since they are used to make compounds such as prostaglandins. The brain has increased amounts of linoleic and alpha-linoleic acid. Fatty acids play an important role in the life and death of cardiac cells because they are essential fuels for mechanical and electrical


The normal body temperature of a healthy, resting adult human being is stated to be at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit or 37.0 degrees Celsius. Though the body temperature measured on an individual can vary, a healthy human body can maintain a fairly consistent body temperature that is around the mark of 37.0 degrees Celsius.

The normal range of human body temperature varies due to an individual's metabolism rate, the higher (faster) it is the higher the normal body temperature or the slower the metabolic rate the lower the normal body temperature. Other factors that might affect the body temperature of an individual may be the time of day or the part of the body in which the temperature is measured at. The body temperature is lower in the morning, due to the rest the body received and higher at night after a day of muscular activity and after food intake.

Body temperature also varies at different parts of the body. Oral temperatures, which are the most convenient type of temperature measurement, are at 37.0 °C. This is the accepted standard temperature for the normal core body temperature. Axillary temperatures are an external measurement taken in the armpit or between two folds of skin on the body. This is the longest and most inaccurate way of measuring body temperature, the normal temperature falls at 97.6 °F or 36.4 °C. Rectal temperatures are an internal measurement taken in the rectum, which fall at 99.6 °F or 37.6 °C. It is the least time consuming and most accurate type of body temperature measurement, being an internal measurement. But it is definitely, by far, not the most comfortable method to measure the body temperature of an individual.