Alzheimers Disease And Senile Dementia Biology Essay

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Few days ago, I was given a research project. At that time, I was wondering and thinking about some topic to choose. During these days, I have many topics to choose like colon cancer and Alzheimer disease and Steve Jobs. After few weeks, i have make up my mind and I have chosen a topic about Alzheimer disease. The reason i choose this topic because I have the most interest in Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is an incurable disease. It is a form of dementia. People will notice how to prevent Alzheimer's disease. Today, there is more tahn 65 million people suffered worldwide.

In this presentation, there will be some information on how Ad change the brain and affect the entire human lifestyle. It is important in taking care of Alzheimer's disease patient because Ad need a lot of health can be fatal. An elderly people may die not because of Ad but infected or pneumonia. When there is more understanding and giving more caring to AD patient, they will be enlighten and produce a more harmonic society.


Alzheimer's disease, the most crucial health concern among old people, In 2010, there is over 65 million suffered, and 1 quarter of Alzheimer's patient died of infection and pneumonia. In 19th century, Alois Alzheimer discovered Alzheimer's disease, a serial health problem due to brain impairment. Alzheimer's disease is a type of senile dementia. It is different from Senile dementia because dementia is just a state but Alzheimer's disease is a disease and sometimes can be fatal.

Alzheimer's disease is mainly caused by environmental factor. For example, most of the elderly people lack of exercise. So, one lack of exercise, brain might encounter oxidative damage from cerebrum. Besides this, the third cause is when an elderly person have high chance of getting heat disease.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient suffered from memory loss because AD changing brain effectiveness. By shivering the cortex, shrinking of hippocamus and hence it will damage cerebrum. Once cerebrum is damage, he or she will encounter memory loss. When the ventricle keeps expanding, the blood flow rate will become smaller.

There is three stage in AD. The first stage is not very significant. Most of the relatives or family will not found so easily. It is just normal as a elder encounter little memory loss. When in stage 2,it is much more serious than before. The elderly people will encounter serious memory loss like forget where he or she was or keep misplace things around home. When in third stage, he will encounter personality change and become nervous and quiet. Some of the AD patient will died because of pneumonia or infection of other disease.

As the stage reach 3, family will found that was the sign of AD. But, there is no permanent treatment for Alzheimer's disease. AD patient can only take drugs to slower the AD progress. Hence as the part of the family, they must be responsible and caring so that they can feel there is someone with him. As the problem of misplace things, family can locate a place where to put things. But, it could be prevented by exercise regularly and maintaining a balance diet since young. The most important step to maintain a balance lifestyle.

In conclusion, Since Alzheimer's disease is a fatal and effects people in many ways. However with proper prevention, we could maintain a better life and health.

Table of content

What is senile dementia?

Senile dementia is caused by a series of disorders like Alzheimer's disease which causing memory loss. The definition for 'dementia' is the loss (usually gradual) of mental abilities such as thinking, remembering, and reasoning. It is not a disease, but a group of symptoms that may accompany some diseases or conditions affecting the brain. There are many different types of dementia, each with their own causes People with dementia have significantly impaired intellectual functioning that interferes with normal activities and relationships. They also lose their ability to solve problems and maintain emotional control, and they may experience personality changes and behavioral problems such as agitation, delusions, and hallucinations. Memory loss is a common symptom of dementia.

There are many disorders that can cause dementia. Some, such as Alzheimer's disease, lead to a progressive loss of mental functions. Alzheimer's disease has cause the nerve cells to lose connection with other neurons.

Anonymous. (n.d.). Dementia. Available: Last accessed 2th february 2011.

Difference between Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia

Senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease is almost the same because it cause memory loss due to brain impairment, but it is different in many aspect. For an instance, dementia us a symptom and Alzheimer's disease is a disease. Secondly, Dementia is caused by disease and infection, strokes and other factor, but the Alzheimer's disease is caused by presence of plaque and tangle which is in the brain. Hence, Alzheimer's disease target brain.

David Roeltgen, MD. (2007). The Difference Between Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease. Available: Last accessed 2th february 2011.

Brain changes in Alzheimer's disease patient

Brain comparison

In Alzheimer's disease, there is an overall shrinkage of brain tissue the ventricles, or chambers within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid, are enlarged. In the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Hippocampus, which is part of the limbic system, degenerate. The ability to perform routine tasks also declines. As Alzheimer's disease spreads through the cerebral cortex (the outer layer of the brain), judgment declines, emotional outbursts may occur and language is impaired.

Plaque & tangle

Dead nerve cell

Nerve (nervous system) is the body communicator center. Brain nerve helps in memorize, recognize, sense and control part of your body. If the nerve cell damage, there is no functional for it. He will be unable to recognize and remember things.

The significance for Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of amyloid plaque. Neurofibrillary tangles are insoluble twisted fibers found inside the brain's nerve cells. They primarily consist of a protein called tau, which forms part of a structure called a microtubule. The microtubule helps transport nutrients and other important substances from one part of the nerve cell to another.

As the disease progresses, more nerve cells die, leading to changes in behavior, such as wandering and agitation. In the final stages of the disease, people may lose the ability to recognize faces and communicate; they normally cannot control bodily functions.

Anonymous. (n.d.). Brain With Alzheimer's Disease. Available: Last accessed 1th january 2011.

Stages of Alzheimer's disease

3 Stages of Alzheimer's disease






Frequent recent memory loss, particularly of recent conversations and events. Repeated questions, some problems expressing and understanding language.  Writing become difficult.  Depression and apathy can occur.  Drastic personality changes may accompany functional decline


2-10 yrs

Pervasive and persistent memory loss impacts life across settings. Rambling speech, unusual reasoning, confusion about current events, time, and place.  Potential to become lost in familiar settings, sleep disturbances, and mood or behavioral symptoms accelerate.  Slowness, rigidity, tremors, and gait problems impact mobility and coordination.  Patient Need structure, reminders, and assistance with activities of daily living.


1-3+ yrs

Confused about past and present. Loss of recognition of familiar people and places.  Generally incapacitated with severe to total loss of verbal skills.  Unable to care for self.  Falls possible and immobility likely. Problems with swallowing, incontinence, and illness. Extreme problems with mood, behavioral problems, hallucinations, and delirium. Patients need total support and care, and often die from infections or pneumonia.

Melissa Wayne, MA and Jeanne Segal. (November 2010). Alzheimer's Disease Signs, Symptoms, and Stages of Alzheimer's Disease. Available: Last accessed 3th january 2011.

Sign and Symptoms for Alzheimer's disease

1. Memory loss that affect daily life

1.1 As the Cerebral cortex affected, he will encounter memory loss. It is just like dementia and forgetting important dates.

2. Challenges in planning or solving problems and poor judgment

2.1 When the nerve cells afflicted, the message send in brain will be affected.

3. Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home, at work or at leisure

3.1 This is due to brain damage

4. Confusion with time or place

4.1 This is the effect of damage nerve cells.

5. Difficult in Verbal Communication

5.1 This is the effect of damage nerve cells.

6. Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps

7. Changes in mood and personality

7.1 AD patient become impatient and no interest in social activities.

Anonymous. (n.d.). Alzheimer's Association - Know the 10 sign. Available: Last accessed 3th january 2011.

Cause of Alzheimer and risk factor for Alzheimer's disease

ï‚· Age

1.1 Advancing age is the number one risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease. One out of eight people over the age of 65 has Alzheimer's disease, and almost one out of every two people over the age of 85 has Alzheimer's. The probability of being diagnosed with Alzheimer's nearly doubles every five years after age 65.

ï‚· Family History:

1.1 People who have a parent or sibling that developed Alzheimer's disease are two to three times more likely to develop the disease than those with no family history of Alzheimer's. If more than one close relative has been affected, the risk increases even more.

1.2 The second kind of gene is a "deterministic gene" and is much rarer than risk genes. Deterministic genes are only found in a few hundred extended families around the world. If a deterministic gene is inherited, the person will undoubtedly develop Alzheimer's, probably at a much earlier age.

ï‚· Lifestyle Factors

1.1 smoking

1.2 high alcohol consumption

1.3 Higher chance of heart disease, higher chance of getting Alzheimer's Disease

2 Oxidative damage from free radical molecule will injured neuron and cause Alzheimer's disease

3 Homocysteine is a kind of amino acid will increase the chance of heart disease. Scientist believe as Homocysteine increase, rate of getting AD is higher.


Carrie Hill. (09 November 2010). Alzheimer's disease. Available: Last accessed 3th january 2011.


1.1 The only treatment for Alzheimer's Disease is only taking medicine to slower the rate of Alzheimer's disease to affect the brain

1.2 There also intake of antioxidant food to try to reduce the impact on it


Step 1: Get exercise regularly.

According to 2009 review of literature from the international Journal of clinical Practice, scientist has proven that physical activities have greatly reduce the risk of getting Alzheimer's disease.

Step 2: Eat a brain-healthy diet

In Alzheimer's disease, inflammation and insulin resistance injure neurons and inhibit communication between brain cells. the American Academy of Neurology recently warned elevated cholesterol in your 40's increases your risk of Alzheimer's.

Eating habits that reduce inflammation and promote normal energy production are brain-healthy.

Step 3: Keep your mind active

According to the 2008 Wall Street Journal review "Neurobics and Other Brain Boosters" The more active and stimulated brain can reduce chance getting Alzheimer's disease. Those who keep doing multiple tasking, communication, interaction, organize, learning or do anything to challenge brain has the greatest protection from other brain disease.

Step 4: Sleep regularly and restfully

Sleeps restore memory. So brain needs regular and restful sleep to process, recall and store information. Work in night will cause deprivation and make cranky and tired. Poor sleeps will significantly damage brain and central nervous system(CNS)

Step 5: Learn to rest and reduce stress

Lifelong stress can double your change to getting Alzheimer's disease. A harmful hormone called cortisol

lifelong stress can double or quadruple your chances of Alzheimer's disease, yet simple daily tools can minimize its effects. The harmful stress hormone cortisol hampers nerve cell growth and connection and accelerates cognitive decline, premature aging, depression, diabetes, and other assaults on your brain

Carrie Hill. (09 November 2010). What causes Alzheimer's disease. Available: Last accessed 3th january 2011.

Effect to Alzheimer's disease

Normally, Alzheimer patient will encounter great change in lifestyles. It is because it affect in mental abilities, emotions and behavior.

Alzheimer's disease which often effect on brain so a person to understand, think and memorize will be affected. The ability to make decision will also be affected. So simple task might be very hard to complete and bad in memorize. AD patient might have confusion among the place. He will lost the

Mental abilities

ï‚· A person's ability to understand, think, remember and communicate will be affected.

ï‚· The ability to make decisions will be reduced.

ï‚· Simple tasks that have been performed for years will become more difficult or be forgotten.

ï‚· Confusion and memory loss, initially for recent events and eventually for long-term events, will occur.

ï‚· The ability to find the right words and follow a conversation will be affected.

Emotions and moods

ï‚· A person may appear uninterested and apathetic, and may quickly lose interest in the hobbies they previously enjoyed.

ï‚· The ability to control mood and emotion may be lost.

ï‚· Some individuals are less expressive and are more withdrawn.

ï‚· However, it is now becoming clear that a person even in the later stages of the disease may continue to feel a range of emotions including joy, anger, fear, love, and sadness.


Changes will develop in the way the person reacts to his or her environment. These actions may seem out of character for the person. Some common reactions include:

ï‚· repeating the same action or words

ï‚· hiding possessions

ï‚· physical outbursts

ï‚· restlessness

Anonymous. (n.d.). The Effect on Alzheimer's disease. Available: Last accessed 3th january 2011.


Since Alzheimer's disease has many causes and stages, but we can prevent it by having a regular exercise and have a balance diet and the most important is to have a good lifestyle. The effect of Alzheimer's disease can cause dementia, confusion among time. It could be fatal because the AD patient might die by infection and pneumonia. Hence, as a part of the family of AD patient, he or she should out more care for them since it cannot be cured.