Air Pollutalatants And Metallic Concentrations Biology Essay


Querol et al. particulate matter studied which is executed in Spain from 1999 to 2001and this studied is carried out in series. Sampling sites were selected according to climate geographic location and anthropogenic sources. A lot of variations from rural background to urban check sites. Particle size determined with help of gravimetric high volume sampler and automatically adjusted device for different particles size Measurements were carried out with gravimetric high-volume samplers and with automatic devices fordi8erent PM grain sizes, focusing on PM10 and PM2.5. A concurrent meteorology study was performed to determine the influence of air masses for the purposes of to diagnosis those particles which are transported to long range distance particularly African dust outbreaks. And to detect long-range transport processes, especially African dust outbreaks, adjusting the PM levels in the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. While, chemical compositions and source distribution analyses were found and discussed as a function of the di8erent monitoring sites and during PM episodes.

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Hu et al. (2011) studied that lead is transferred to plant organ through lead present in air in foliar form .The estimated value of lead present in air is still unclear. In this studied aerosol, a wild plant(Aster subulatus) and the soil under studied were collected and lead content was 96.5 � 63.5 ng m_3 in total suspended particulates (TSP) and the value of size segregated of aerosol(SSA)< 2.10 1m, higher than that in coarser fractions(>2.1m) (6.38 � 3.71 ng m_3).The level of deposition indicates that aerosol and soil affected mainly due to anthropogenic activities and traffic burden and the lead is more accumulated in fine fractions of size segregated aerosol than coarse one. The level of lead concentration in A.subulatus was found more in roots than leaves and more in leave than stem. There is liner relationship of lead isotopes ratio (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) in soil, plant, and aerosol sample. Binary isotopes model is used to calculate mean ratio206Pb/207Pb ratios in TSP and in SSA, estimated addition of air born lead in plant leaves was found 72.2% and 65% respectively, indicating that lead is present in air is main cause responsible for lead deposition in leaves .Both methods of lead isotopes tracing simple binary lead isotopes model can estimated the level of air born lead into plant leaves may be threat of concern for danger assessment of the experience to airborne Pb pollution.

Zheng et al. (2010) performed an experiment to estimate spatial variation the dust contain metal concentration in street of Huludao,a city of china. There were several smelting industries around Huludao city. The studies conducted on adults and infect to check the effect of cancer caused by of Hg, Cd, Cu and Zn conducted an experiment to evaluate the spatial variation metal concentration in the street dust in Huludao city of China. Huludao city has numerous metal smelting industries. The street dust comprises of Hg 5.212, Pb 3903, Cd 723.2, Zn 79,869 and Cu 1532 mg kg-1. The level of Metal concentration in the sample was much greater as than their concentration in the soil. It was determined that atmospheric aerosols enrichment is the main cause of their dispersion .Moreover, industries and traffic pollution do the same things. Cancer effect is produced in adults and kids due to their exposure to metal through nose mouth and dermal contact with metal through nose, mouth and dermal contact. Children are much more vulnerable to these metals through respiratory tracts.

Raajasubramanian et al. (2011) showed an experiment to check the effect of dust on fertility and productivity as well on some leguminous crops. Experiment was conducted in Tamilnadu, a city of India. The sample of dust collected from site is cement factory garden soil is mixed with help of electro static precipitator. The seed were collected from research center and combination with university of agriculture .The seeds are of Vigna catjung, Vigna mungo, Mill sp., Cajanus cajan, Abelmoschus esculentus, Glycine max, Capsicum annum, and Vigna radiate.Application of dust to these plant when their age was seven days old @ of 10 g kg-1 of pot. Repeat dust application to plants three times a week. An automatic sprayer was used for the purpose of spraying dust. In order to study the fertility status of pollen Alexander method was used. Productivity of plant was study after seven days .Student test was used to investigate. It was determined after studies that dust has harmful effect on open pollinated flower and notes the effect on pollen fertility of some plant and reducing crop yield up to 20 to 30%.

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Mico� et al. (2008) conducted an experiment to analyze the effect of bioavailability and toxicity of Co regarding root elongation of barley (Hordium Vulagre) was studied. The soil properties affect the bioavailability and toxicity of Co to barley. There are 10 different soils with different soil properties were treated with 7 doses of CoCl2.Soil properties greatly affected by the presence of CO toxicity. By the addition of actual concentration resulting 50% inhibition (EC 50) ranged from 45 to 863 mg kg -1.This indicating that nearly 20- fold variation among soils.Morover, we found Co toxicity in reference to Co concentration and free Co2� activity in soil solution. . The EC50 values disclosed that difference among soils of 17- and 29-fold, established due to Co concentration in soil solution and free Co2� activity, respectively (Hordeum vulgare L.) root elongation was investigated. Ten soils varying widely in soil properties were amended with seven doses of CoCl2. Soil properties greatly influenced the expression of Co toxicity. The effective concentration of added Co causing 50% inhibition (EC50) ranged from 45 to 863 mg kg_1, representing almost 20-fold variation among soils. Furthermore, we investigated Co toxicity in relation to Co concentrations and free Co2� activity in soil solution. The EC50 values showed variation among soils of 17- and 29-fold, based on the Co concentration in soil solution and free Co2� activity, respectively.Co threshold values and particular soil under studied were carried out by single regression Single regressions were carried out between Co toxicity threshold values and selected soil properties. Models found presented that soil effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) and exchangeable calcium were the most stable single forecasters of the EC50 values based on soil added Co.

Luo et al. (2010) studied the transfer and bioavailability of crops from soil to vegetables and rice. Total sample were collected from vegetables and paddy fields were 312. The site was situated in suburban areas of of major cities of Fujian province, situated in china. There were a slight deposition showed that its higher than compared with the back ground values ranged from 3.5 to 21.7 mg kg_1.DTPA extracted 0.1e8.5% is used to calculate total Co. The bi Total and DTPA-extractable Co concurrent with soil pH, CEC, free Fe, total Mn, clay and silt content much more in paddy soils as compared to soil of vegetables field. Edible parts of vegetables contain average Co were 15.4 mgkg_1 .While rice contain15.5 mg kg_1. The ratio of plant Co to soil DTPA-extractable Co, TFDTPA) ranged from 0.003 to 0.126 with a median of 0.049.This was transfer factor. The TFDTPA reduced in the sequence of leafy vegetables> fruit vegetables > root vegetables > rice. With increases of DTPA-extractable co TFDTPA of all the crops were increased. . Rise in pH, CEC, organic matter, clay, silt, free iron and total Mn restricted the soil-to-plant transmission of Co to variable degrees. The transfer of Zn, Cu and Cd, is higher than Co except Pb in same site. Cobalt present in rice and vegetables in the projected areas were considered to be safe for the local resident. This was due to the fact that slight anthropogenic input and low transfer potential to the edible plant organs from soil.

Jayakumar and Jaleel et al (2011) studied and test the ability of heavy metals accumulation particularly Cobalt in legume plants soybean (Glycine max).A pot culture experiment was conducted .For this application of cobalt in pot by soil drenching method. The buildup and taken up of cobalt was checked from the plants parts include root, stem and leaves of tested plants. The results indicated that higher level of Cobalt concentration (Co level (100-200 mg kgG1) in the soil) was found in all parts of soybean plants .On the other hands low concentration of cobalt (50 mg kgG1Co level) in the soil. This showed that there was no significant effect on soil by application of cobalt.

By reviewing all the facts regarding heavy metal pollution in plants, soil and water, is a matter of grave concern. These metals are cancer-causing and their presence in the environment affecting processes occurring in plants includes growth, development and physiological process badly. Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization transport vehicles and anthropogenic activities increases the level in soil, air and the ground water. From these they enter in food chain and cause various diseases and disorder.

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Vegetation, soil and water samples will be collected from Iqbal and Madina Town of Faisalabad. The samples will be collected following a grid size of 4 x 4 km. Particulate Matter (TSP, PM10, PM2.5) concentration in air will be determined at a spot by micro dust pro near the road and away from the road. For PM2.5 and PM10 different filters will be used. Calibration of the instrument will be done after 20 samples. The vegetation samples of crops as per accessibility will be collected from different locations. The collected plants samples will be preserved in plastic bags for analysis. These then will be washed with 1% HCl to remove any unknown contamination and final washing will be done with the distilled water. Plant sample after washing will be dried in air and after air drying, the final drying will be done in oven at a temperature of 65-70 OC. Drying process will continue until constant weight is obtained. These dried samples of plants will be ground to powered form with the help of Wiley mill and persevered in plastic zipped bags. Digestion of the dried plant samples will be done by taking a one gram air dried plant material on hot plate using diacid mixture (HNO3:HClO4). The metal concentration will be determined from these digested samples by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The physiological parameter (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance etc.) of plants will be analyzed in the field by using IRGA without destruction of plant leaves and data obtained from crops will be saved for future use. The data will be taken along roadside and away (20 m) from the road. Soil samples will be collected from the same place where the plant and aerosol samples will be collected at (0-15 and 15-30 cm) depths. These soil samples will be air-dried. These air-dried soil samples will be ground to pass through a 2 mm sieve. Extraction of these soil samples will be performed. From the extracted material, heavy metal will be determined by using ASS. Water samples will include ground water (tube well, hand pump), surface water and waste water will be taken as per availability. Water samples will be taken to laboratory and filtered through Whatman No. 40 and will be analyzed for EC, SAR and RSC (US Salinity Lab Staff, 1954). Metals will be determined from the water samples. For the preparation of GIS maps, GPS will be used to determine the position along the latitude and longitude. Latitude and longitude values obtained from the GPS and metal concentration determined will be used in the GIS software arc v9.1 and base map will be drawn. The recorded data will be subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and LSD test 5 % level of significance (Steel et al., 1997).