Advances In Nanotechnology Divulge Field On Nano Medicine Biology Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

In recent years Nanoparticles source ameliorate and received a lot of engrossment because of its promising and literally reformed in each field which is not being explored before. Developing of target based delivery system has improved and affirmed by using characteristic materials to provide superior drug delivery systems by their therapeutic and toxicological properties(1-2). In this review we are going to explain the possibility of novel Nano drug usage in cancer (3).This will be the next milepost in Nano drug therapy and its application 'Nanomedicine' which exploits our molecular biology knowledge to dispatch medical problems and can sharpen effective novel veins in biotechnological research to cure diseases.(4)

Cancer persistently kills about 3500 per million human populations around the world. Cancer momentum involves in multiple stages that involve initiation, promotion, progression, and finally metastasis. Massive varieties of chemo preventive agents are used to treat various types of cancer. But that drug backslides to cure cancer because some cancer cells develop resistance to multiple anticancer drugs. Most cases of cancer are complicated not only in the cellular level but also in the chromosome level (5-6)

In addition, it is tough to deliver a drug to the affected cells without causing bystander effects on neighboring cells. These things make it difficult to treat cancer. In recent years, some strong debate is going on to use a striking drug delivery system which can avoid or at least reduce the potential drawbacks in treating cancer. To treat cancer, anticancer drugs must be elegant and effective; the drug must be able to reach the exact tumor tissues and invade the exact barriers in the body with slightest loss of their volume or activity in the blood. Secondly, after arriving targeted Nano drug should reduce drug toxicity and more efficacious drug distribution will help to drive or overcome these barriers in drug delivery. This will be the greatest challenge in Nano medicine. (7, 8)

In drug delivery it is substantial to understand the interactions of nanomaterial with the living cellular niche - external receptors, drug release, multiple drug jurisdictions, stability of therapeutic factors and molecular mechanisms of cell signaling involved in pathology of the disease under consideration. The underlying molecular mechanisms in the interactions of nanoparticles accompanying with cell-surface receptors and their responses in living system is needed for the widespread application of Nano delivery systems in medicine. Understanding chemical properties of these specific targeted delivering molecules is very useful alterations in genetic makeup of cell-surface receptors which thereby changes in signaling pathways with the progression of disease, or drug degradation. Better capturing of the mechanism of uptake and there intracellular network, custody, and protection from degeneracy inside a cell are required for embellish worth of the encapsulated therapeutic agent. (9, 10, 11)

Design of Nano medicine - based drug delivery Systems

The promotion of modernistic Nano engineered based drug can be used in targeted drug delivery at the site of diseased cell to improve the uptake of inadequately dispersible drugs. The specific site targeting drugs should biologically be available. Assorted source of anti-cancer drugs have been including paclitaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil [13] and dexamethasone accomplished systematically by using nanomaterial Dexamethasone is a chemotherapeutic agent which controls both anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects by docking with cytoplasmic receptors which subsequently becomes drug-receptor complex which is transported to the nucleus resulting in the expression of certain genes which control cell proliferation. A submicroscopic aggregation of molecules or nanoparticles has been effectively interrogated for their use in cancer therapy. (12,13,15) These drug-loaded with nanoparticles propagate the release of drug at higher doses like small missile for perpetuate period of time extensively inhibited proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cell. Colloidal drug delivery systems are used to improve the efficiency and the specificity of drug action, liposomes. (14)

The activeness of drug delivery systems can be accredit to their small size by reducing drug toxicity, through proper command at time release of the drug and correction of drug pharmacokinetics and biological distribution. Very often, the activity of chemotherapy fails because of hindrance by developing certain resistance against some tumor cells multiple anticancer drugs.

In profuse cases, The cancer cells begin by articulating protein resistance developing as p-glycoprotein, that is proficient in elevate anticancer drugs out of a cell as fastly as they cross through the cell's surface membrane. (16, 17)

RNA Nanoparticle mediated delivery system

Todays Nano drug therapy Focuses hot off the fire in RNA nanotechnology inherently defined on Nano scale and is a notably concern successor for such an applications due to its amazing divergence, extensibility and versatility in structure and function. Specifically, the fashionable modern usage of RNA interference (RNAi) to regulate the gene expression. It has become a quintessential tool for researchers working to find therapeutic solution for several diseases. RNA interference is carried out by double-stranded helices of RNA that are introduced exogenously into the cells as small interfering RNAs (siRNA) or that have been produced endogenously from small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) (18,19,20). RNAi has become a vital molecular tool which has a vast potential for therapeutic applications. Detailed research on the structure and function of small RNAs, siRNAs and miRNAs, which stimulate RNAi has thrown light on the RNAi machinery. In particular, it has highlighted on the function of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), and has provided guidelines to efficiently silence genes for functional research and therapeutic applications of RNAi. 21

Nano fragments-mediated target delivery by Short interfering RNA is an emanate as a vigorous potent method in regulating gene expression with an excessive applications. This is the next milestone in clinical studies by translation based on nucleic acid therapy with significant advances in nanodrug delivery system. Quantum dots (QD) are notably used in guiding RNAi delivery. PLGA and PLA based Nano deliveries are also used as another proximity in vitro RNAi delivery. Albeit they have seen some triumph in the delivery of siRNA using various nanomaterial's. Without a marker it is difficult to expose transfection efficiency and transmission of drug.

Freshly in recent years, a et al [18] manufactured by synthesizing chitosan nanoparticles through encapsulated quantum dots. This was used to deliver the nanomaterial into human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2/neu) siRNA. http://angiochem.com/sites/default/files/publications/BBB-Gabathuler.pdf

Such a peculiar Nano transporter helped the presence of the siRNA fluorescent QDs in the chitosan nanoparticles in guiding. Specific marked fluorescent markers were used in HER2 antibody by focusing the HER2 binding receptors on the cells of SKBR3. Cy-5 helps in conceiving visualizing uptake by using a fluorescent microscope and aggregation of nanotubes. These could be highlighted as a plausible application, by innovative chitosan-based target system in RNA-intercede therapy of both systemic & mucosal disease. There are addition promoter could be used in visualizing the aspiration, by using imaging and encapsulating method like magnetic resonance, PEBBLE.

RNAi in Cancer biology research:

The capacity to silence particular genes using RNA interference (RNAi) has wide therapeutic applications for the treatment of several diseases or the augmentation of tissue formation. siRNAs are usually short sequence which is about 21-nucleotide which is a pivotal molecule in the RNAi pathway which is been employed in various research field. http://www.scribd.com/doc/25436597/Anticancer-Therapeutics The basic underlying competency to sequence distinctively by down regulating gene expression which let to elevate magnified by boosting an interest progressively in rapid manner through siRNA-based therapeutics http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20135697 . siRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which mediates the sequence-specific binding of mRNA and cleavage.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20135697

MicroRNAs are foremost extensive class of short double standard RNA molecules dawn from innermost genomic DNA sequence. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.24782/pdf They are quite similar with siRNA but the difference is unlike siRNA that binds perfectly to the complementary target mRNA and cleaves the target, miRNA incorporates a single strand into the target mRNA and silences it. http://www.nature.com/tpj/journal/v7/n5/pdf/6500429a.pdf.

But the drawback is that it is conjectured that a single miRNA may calm up to 100 unlike mRNA targets. For this purpose, the uses of miRNA as the strategic therapeutic agent have not been testified. Yet, it still holds the key for the future therapeutic approach. http://www.kelly-landes.org/journals/cc/MishraCC7-7.pdf

Though RNAi are widely used in medical research for controlling gene expression, there are still lots to be explored in this field.

Though RNAi has the potential to become a most powerful therapeutic drug, its delivery into the site remains a major limitation. To overcome these limitations, a delivery system is needed and the generation of nanosized particles for this purpose is being investigated. http://www.nature.com/mt/journal/v18/n9/pdf/mt2010136a.pdf. This will enhance the delivery of siRNA-based drugs. These nanoparticles are generally designed in such a way that it is capable of overcoming the barriers encountered by the siRNA when entering the cytosol.

Gold Nanoparticles:

Gold nanoparticles are used in fighting cancer. They are directed to the site of the affected cell and hitting them with a laser has been shown to be a promising technique in fighting against cancer, but it also has some short comings. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.200703183/pdf

There are regions in which laser light can't reach. If the cancer affects these areas it is always going to be a challenging aspect. For this, scientists at the Georgia Institute of Technology have shown that by directing gold nanoparticles into the nuclei of affected cells, they can overcome this problem and kill them where they lurk. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/02/100216140402.htm or http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja9102698 . These gold nanoparticles are also used in carrying the RNA.

DNA Nanoparticles:

Synthetic DNA is used to make nanoparticles, called DNAsomes that are efficient in drug delivery and genetic therapy. DNAsomes can carry the drugs as well as RNA molecules designed to hinder the expression of specific genes. http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/30/7/1558.full.pdf+html.

This is an improvement over other drug-delivery systems such as liposomes or polymer nanoparticles. Moreover, unlike other delivery systems this is non toxic to the cells. DNAsomes contains short stretch of synthetic DNA designed to be complementary in a part of their length so that they will join into microscopic Y-shapes.

To this lipid molecule is attached, and fluorescent dyes can also be used for tracking. Either drugs or RNA are chemically attached to the unit, then many units combine to form sphere that can enter cells and deliver their material. http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/April11/DNAsomes.html .

DNA Nanoparticles can also be used to identify the genes that are being expressed inside a cell. http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2008/January/11010801.asp

[Y Ke et al, Science, 2008, 319, 180 (DOI: 10.1126/science.1150082)]. Through this method specific target molecule can be detected directly with high sensitivity as the probe is built using a single DNA molecule, which is shaped like a tile and measures only 60nm by 60nm. These tiles are the first ever experimental application of the 'scaffolded DNA origami' method developed by Paul Rothemund at Caltech in Pasadena, California in 2006 [2] PWK Rothemund, Nature, 2006, 440, 297 (DOI: 10.1038/nature04586). This involves a single DNA strand folded and stapled in place by multiple shorter strands which can self assemble into multiple identical copies.

Probes that are designed for a specific RNA sequence are inserted into the tiles, and are mixed with the test sample so that the target sequences bind to form a DNA/RNA hybrid. Then the tiles are adsorbed on to a surface containing mica. The resulting surface shape is read by atomic force microscopy - which uses a sharp probe drawn over the sample to produce an image.

DNA nano particles are also used for gene delivery. Microinjection of DNA nanoparticles generates approximately ten fold increase in trans-gene expression as compared to naked DNA in various tissues depending on the route of injection. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007410#pone.0007410-Farjo1

Lipid in Nanotechnology:

Scientists are designing lipid molecule in such a way that it delivers the drug. These particles consist of concentric fatty spheres that are capable of carrying synthetic proteins. Mostly they are used as vaccines to deliver viral proteins. http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v10/n3/full/nmat2960.html. They are Interbilayer multilamellar vesicles formed by crosslinking the head-groups of adjacent lipid bilayers within multilamellar vesicles. http://www.arscerebri.com/ucsd/useful/Articles/Novel%20Surgical%20Technology/NanoIII.pdfThey entrap protein antigens in its vesicle core and immune-stimulatory molecules in the vesicle walls under extracellular conditions. http://www.sadgurupublications.com/ContentPaper/2012/9_117_SRCC_2%281%292012_P.pdf

http://ctf.frm.uniroma1.it/didattica/att/f033.9636.file.pdf

These lapid based nano vessicles form an extremely virulent whole protein vaccine, which provokes endogenous T-cell and antibody responses comparable to that of other strongest vaccine vectors. Though they elicit a strong immune response they are much safer.

Conclusion

However, the onset of advanced technologies for lofty-throughput expression engraving of RNA as Nano medicine by different untouched youthful source of techniques will make next generation to be high hope in targeted drug therapeutic. Thus these inflated sources of cells inner well organized molecule RNA can be used as nanoparticles in remedial usage as targeted drug therapy can Steve as powerful constructive block for imminent future targeted therapeutic.so in the near future. MiRNA-mediated Nano drug therapy is the best feedback present core for innovative research. In the near future this type of methodology will be the key to reduce the effect of various diseases. But there are some negative aspects there are possibilities it has very poor success in gene therapy delivery Somia, N., and Verma, I. M. (2000) Gene-therapy: trials and tribulations. Nat. Rev. Gene toxicity in the cell types are poorly ignored by this process of nano delivery so fundamental research is going on still in Nano toxicity. The future should rather concentrating in new method of system delivery we have to understand the molecular organization of the diseases and understanding positively this RNA interference will show a promising source for the future Nano medicine.La Van, D. A., Lynn, D. M., and Langer, R. (2002) Moving smaller in drug discovery and delivery. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 1, 77-84.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.