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The aim of feeding technologies for desired products, by adaptation of better feeding strategies, is to obtain desired product such as milk, meat and wool from farm animals. The farm animals are playing important role for man's economics as well because they convert raw material in more useful products for example grass and fodder are not direct use to man farm animal eat grass and fodder and convert into milk meat and wool which are very useful to mans. Meat and milk have more nutritive value as compare to cereal and fodder. For getting desired product in the shape of milk, meat and wool the most important things is feeding it play vital role for enhance production.
However the total expenses of feed in farm animal herd is 60-90% that's why it is necessary to improve production through economical way.
According to an estimate in Pakistan in 132.43 million animals need 10.9 million ton crude protein and 90.36 million ton TDN (total digestible nutrient), however availability of crude protein is 6.7million and TDN availability is 69 million ton. Pakistan is deficient in crude protein 38.10 and also deficient in TDN in 24.02%.The basic reason behind this human population are increasing and demand of cereal crop is increasing and also construction in cultivate land. In the result land is decreasing for fodder cultivation. It is estimated that the land is decreasing the rate of 2% for every 10 year. Other reason is that the availability of green fodder in Pakistan is not available round the year. The fodder is least available in May and June, similarly in December and January. In future the increase of human population as well as animal's population the land is decreasing for cultivation as the result threat of decrease in animal production. However it is necessary for getting better production from animal one should search alternative resources for feed and also introduce recent feeding technologies for enhanced production of animals.FILL.In one of the research it is claimed if we provide balance feed according to requirement of animal we can enhance production up to 50%.Our goal is to get optimum production from farm animals in limited resources. The alternative to it include the residues of the crops such as wheat straw, corncob, maize gluten molasses and urea are most important. If we implement techniques for example in straw treated with ureathat is the cheapest source as well as the example is molasses mineral blocks and by implementation of scientific knowledge we can enhance their nutritive value. In this article for adaptation of these feeding strategies we can boost livestock products such as milk ,Meat and wool .
Feeding strategies for enhancement of milk production
Following are the important steps for enhancement of milk production through feeding.
The feed should contain carbohydrates, proteins Minerals, vitamins, water.
Try to improve digestibility
The digestibility in the buffalo is improved through microbial growth in the rumen so make suitable environment in the rumen for microbes. The research show that if animal take more feed the result is more production of milk.
Balance nutrition is the key factor for enhance milk production. In the herd for milk production the environment role is 75% in which nutrition is the major and other 25% role is of the genetics.balance nutrition can boost the milk production.Improper nutrion have advarce affect on milk production.
It is most important element.A dairy cow consume 27-36 liter of water per day.The dairy animal have more requirement as compare to other animals. Dairy animal require 4-6 litre water for every 1 litre above its maintainace requirement. Adlibium supply of water increses milk yield up to 3% and fat10%.
Quality of the feed Roughes
High quality than as the result high output.Medium quality than milk out put will be medium. Low quality leads to low output of milk Quality of the feed should be good. So always provide fresh forage to the dairy animals always cut the fodder at an early stage that way the digestibility of forage is high. Mature pasture are not given to the animals because it has lignin and they are not palatible as the result the digestibility of the animal will be decreases.
Fresh forage should be given to the animal 10% for there live body weight for example if an animal weight is 400kg than fresh forage should be given 40kg.
Mostly try to fulfil the requirement of the animal from green fodder because it is cheap and basic feed of animal.If we cannot measure its quality than we cannot manage it
Thum rule for concentrate is more than 4kg milk for every 3kg milk give 1 kg concentrate to the animals.The concentrate(wanda) its has cotton seed cake,rape seed cake wheat
Bran, corn gluten, Ricepolish DCP, salt maize.for using concentrate the farmar get income 3000 Rupees to 4000 Rupees addition profit per year per animals.the produse also claim that adoption this technology 3% farm can get more profit.
Urea molasses block.
This is very impartant technology for enchance milk production.It is cheap source of energy and it is available in abundance in Pakistan.IT is also khown as multinutrient block. It is balance for nutrition and also enchance intake of the animals .these are economical in animal feeding.Molasses with other feed ingradent such as urea (non protein sourses)cam mixing and make a block are made hydraulic press to make a block about 500 pressure is best to make a block. These block is kept into feeding trough of the animal .
Strategies for meniral blocks
Always block should started small quantity and with the passage of time when animal useful provided ad-libidum with gren fooder and wheat straw.Block also have capacity increase utilization of roughage,and animls intake is also increases .as the result the production is enchance through mineral block.this technology is very secces ful in in our country.
Research result for rle of enchane milk production.
There is an research in india the effect of block on the milk production .the trail is done in different village .Those who use block ther milk productionand as well as fat % increases.
Composition of molassis block it contain molassis , urea , minerals wheat bran.
It is also new technology used that improve milk production as well as enchance fat %.it has also enchance growth rate and increase reproductive efficiency.
It contains calcium 26%, Phosphorus 19.0%, Sodium 02.5%, Magnium 01.5%, trace Elements 02.0%. Feeding procedure milk booster is recommended to be added in concentrate ration as per dosage and mix properly before feeding.
Dairy animals 80-100mg
Young calves 30-40gm
Sheep and goat 10-15gm
By using milk booster the milk production and milk fat is improve on practical basis.
Improvement in milk composition by using minearal cacium phosphorus
This research is done in lactating Nili-Ravi on NARC .the buffalo is divided into three different groups A, B , C containing four buffalo.
For group A fed on ration Ca and P 100% means according to NRC requirement
For group B fed on ration Ca and P 80 % means below requirement
For group C fed on ration Ca and P 120% above requirement
Effect of Ca and Pa supplementation on dry matter intake and milk yield in lactating buffalo
TMR(TOTAL MIX RATION)
It is also fed to the dairy animals,used when there is problem in the supply of green fooder.
For the use of total mix ration the balance diet shouil be provided to then the animals if total mix ration is used then there is no need of green fodder.
Suaitable space should be given to the animal 2feet per cow
Feed must be available every time.
By pas protein also increases the milk production
In research shows that if biotin fed 15mg per cow daily than milk yield in ky in a weak.
Naicin if add in the milk 6-12gram than milk yied and milk protein is increase.
Iodinated casiein is known bas tyroprotein .it is said that if fed to dairy animal the milk production should be increase upto 20%.
In research that if we fed Lactobacillus species and streptococcus species to lactating animals than milk improvement reported 0.8kg/day.
Lactobacillus also useful when intake of the animal should be low it play role for enhance intake.
Steps for improve milk fat
When in the feed high concentrate low fiber than as the result milk fat depression .
High intake of concentrate increase propionic acid and decrease acitic acid
Balance dient should be provided the ration between concentrate and forage should be 60%concentrate 40%forage.
studies shows feeding soybean fat percent increase up to 3.4-4.5
Research shows that adding coconut supplenation the fat is improve 3.6% - 3.97%
Palm oil ration also increase fat up to 3.6% -3.99%.
for adding cotton seed fat should be improve 0.19%
Research that adding fat increase milk yield 4-7% and fat% increase 0.2%-0.8%
Increase quality diet
Use long stem forage the diamet more than 1/8 inch
New research prove that adding sodiumbicarbonate ,calcium hydroxide ,magnium carbonate magnium oxide, sodium bentonite .lactose whey also play role for improvement of fat %
Feeding strategies for meat production
Meat is important source of protein.In our country the protein society of Pakistan suggest that it is nessary of protein requirement of an individual are 27.4gram protein daily.But according to an idea that now protein is available in Pakistan 17.4gram daily.The meat production is low due to insuffient dient of the animls.
Sourses of meat in Pakistan
Meat is mostly comes froms culled animals,fattening animls .growing animals
Fattening of the animals
Fattening is simply deposition of the unused energy in the shape of fat. Fattening is the best method to obtaining the meat from the animals .For fattening small ruminant and large ruminat concentration should be given 60% and wheat straw should be given 40%. if green fooder available than there is no need of wheat straw.In fattening (intensive feeding) feeing within the confined areas is best.when perchase the animal.try to give feedlot fattening fed slowly. The feeding strategies is that starts feeding with high roughage ration and then slowly shifted into (feedlot fattening feed)high energy ration.this is prophalactic measure of the acidosis and diarrhea.feed should be fed daily mostly morning and evening at fixed time. For newly arrived animal mineral should be given because they are mostly mineral deficient and also give palatabal feed to thenewly arrived animals for improve there digestlbility.provide the clean water.
are also used in ruminant diet for because it improve the digestibility of the the animals and it also increase the propionic acid production its other function is to reduce acidosis and bloat.
And for this purpose probiotics is also used.
TMR(total mixed ration)
TMR is mostly used in fattening of the ruminant .the composition of total mixes ration is 15% crude protein and TDN(total digestible nutrient)should be 65%.for fattening if we use this composition we can enchan live body weigt in buffalo calve up to7oogm to 900gm per day depending upon the age of the animals and also environmental condition of the animals the best age of the fattening the buffalo calves about one year and sheep and goat about 6 month age is best foir fattening .In this age they ferform well and gain abrupt weight.total mixed ration should be given 24 hour.Try to maintain the palatability of the animals.
Nutrient requirement for fattening
The energy is the basic requirement fir fattening. The energy should be provided in the form of net energythe sourse of net energy is the from starch,sugar,protein ,cellolose.
The vitamin is also neccary rof fattening animals
Growth is cheapest farm of wight as compare to fattening
In case of growth the protein should be 25% and water75%.