Acute Exacerbation Of Multiple Sclerosis Biology Essay


A 35 year old female patient has been diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Women make up 70% of the MS population but this gender preference remains unexplained. Thus, this patient is naturally more susceptible to getting MS as the patient is a female and falls into the 20-40 year old age bracket. In Scotland, 1 in 500 people have MS with women almost twice more likely than men to get the disease in general1,2. Also, about 1800 to 3400 people are newly diagnosed with MS each year in Wales and England which has accumulated to the present day total of 52,000 to 62,000 people3. MS is a relatively mild disease in most where the myelin sheath that covers each nerve fibre and the axons themselves in the central nervous system (CNS) are slowly lost. In MS, disability accrues slowly. According to the natural history data, the median time to reach disability to a point requiring assistance from disease onset is about 14 years17. Myelin is crucial for impulses to travel quickly along the spine and brain for responses to stimuli and also environmental sensations to take pl54ace appropriately.

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet


Essay Writers

Lady Using Tablet

Get your grade
or your money back

using our Essay Writing Service!

Essay Writing Service

The symptoms that MS exhibit depends on the position of the demyelination process along the CNS4. This is so as different areas of the CNS carry out different information of the body. For example, a common early symptom called unilateral optic neuritis, where there is a sharp pain in the eye during movements or haziness in detecting colours and others, is caused by demyelination and inflammation of the optic nerves4. Optic neuritis may help in early diagnosis if the physician can detect any history of temporary blindness for a week or so, as this is very characteristic of MS1.

Other common early symptoms include numbness, double vision, paraparesis, monoparesis, bladder control problems, optic neuritis, ataxia, or tremor. Common ongoing symptoms include those just mentioned, vertigo, increasing spasticity, depression, emotional lability, gait abnormalities, fatigue, dysarthria, quadriparesis, constipation, incoordination, fatigue, and pain6. Plaques are most frequently discovered in the periventricular areas of the cerebrum, the brain stem, the cerebellum, the spinal cord and as previously discussed, the optic nerves7.

2) treatment ...

Acute episodes of neurological symptoms are thought to be secondary to an episode of demyelination. Demyelination has an inflammatory component, and therefore most treatments that affect the inflammatory process and immune system are used. Nowadays, there are three ways to treat MS, one being a disease modifying treatment which involves immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide, beta-interferons and others, while secondly involving usage of drugs to treat symptoms exhibited by MD patients such as depression, fatigue and spasms and finally corticosteroids to treat relapses6. The most important objectives for the application of these treatment strategies have been to speed up recovery from the neurologic deficits sustained from the new area of inflammatory demyelination, as well as to ease the severity of the attack and reduce potentially long lasting deficits whether physiological or mental 7.

Our patient came in with an acute exacerbation of the disease, which is defined as "episodes of neurological dysfunction that occur spontaneously and are not on the basis of an alternative etiology". Although we do not know if it is a relapse or it is the first time an exacerbation is occurring, we should treat it with identical treatment steps8. The only drugs that can be used for an acute exarcebation are corticosteroids (CS) which should be started immediately with an option to infuse 500mg-1g methylprednisolone intravenously daily for between 3 and 5 days or to give a high-dose oral methylprednisolone of 500 mg-2 g strength daily for between 3 and 5 days also8. These treatments suggested by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) will reduce the possible relapses that might occur but the prognosis will remain unchanged1.

CS are very potent effectors in the prevention and suppression of inflammation caused by chemical, immunological, infectious, and mechanical stressors. Because of their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, these agents have been in the frontline to treat MS6. CS has pretty much replaced adrenocorticotropine hormone (ACTH) as 1st line treatment since it was introduce in 1970. This is because ACTH is theoretically supposed to hasten recovery from an exacerbation by stimulating the production of endogenous glucocorticosteroids (GCS) which will then suppress neuroinflammatory activities but this stimulation is highly variable and inconsistent9.

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet


Writing Services

Lady Using Tablet

Always on Time

Marked to Standard

Order Now

High IV doses of CS for a short term has been proven by many well-regarded clinical studies to provide symptomatic relief, improve motor function and promote faster recovery of clinical attacks5. This was evident in a meta analysis conducted in 2000, where the recovery of patients that had an acute episode based on the Expanded Disability Status Scale score (EDSS) showed that the recovery rate of the patients who were on the high dose regimen of over 500mg day proved to be statistically significantly higher than patients on the low dose 48mg maximum daily regimen10. However, long term usage of corticosteroid may not be beneficial in controlling further relapses as inflammatory agents such as Interleukin-10 (1L-10) and Chemokine Ligand 12 are only reduced during short-term treatments and are not affected in the long term11. IL-12 may not even be influenced by steroid treatment11. This is further supported by one systematic review which included four placebo controlled Randomised Clinical Trials (RCT) comparing the effects of ACTH, prednisolone and methylprednisolone given for 9-18 months, one Controlled Clinical Trial and six RCTs which concluded that there were no significant effect on long-term functional improvements or on relapse occurrence12. However, there were numerous side effects commonly associated with CS treatment reported such as herpes simplex, herpes zoster, severe pedal oedema, acute anxiety and severe depression reported12.

Other drugs which are given for MS are largely for rehabilitation after an acute episode. There are no good, safe preventive treatments with those with primary progressive MS1. Immunosuppressive agents are one such an example in MS treatments and the most widely used drug currently is an anti-proliferative agent, Azathioprine (AZA)13. Its high usage is probably due to it costing about 10 pounds/week/patient which is much cheaper than other immunomodulators such as interferons rather than its efficacy profile1. AZA is a purine analogue that is metabolized rapidly to the cytotoxic and immunosuppressant derivatives 6-mercaptopurine and thioinosine acid, the latter competing with DNA nucleotides14. AZA has been included in only a few clinical trials as it has lost its patent protection and hence has no resource to fund expensive and high quality clinical trials14. Its usage is certainly controversial as it causes frequent side-effects and thus is generally regarded as a 2nd-line drug13. Most of the clinical trials showed AZA has no significant beneficial effect to MS patients even though one RCT did state that MRI scans of the brain showed smaller lesions after long term treatment12. However, the patients involved in that trial did not show any symptomatic improvements and this possibly might show us that that there is only a weak link between MS and brain lesions. There is one very good systematic review of a meta-analysis which did prove there was a significant beneficiary effect on MS symptoms15. A study done on 739 MS patients with AZA which was published in The Lancet showed there were slight but significantly more freedom from relapses over a three year span16. Side-effects are mostly dose related and can be possibly be avoided with proper adjuvant drug prescribing15. However, a review found that one in ten patients will suffer from intolerable vomiting and compliance can be a serious problem12.

Interferon Beta (IB) is licensed to use in relapsing, remitting MS however is not recommended by the NHS in England and Wales18. IB is available as its 1a and 1b variant form in the market18. It is also terribly expensive and costs around 200 pounds per week to treat a patient1. Interferon Alpha will not be discussed here as out of the seven RCTs ever done on IA, none reported beneficial effects on MS symptoms and only reported adverse side-effects12. IB is an endogenous natural cytokine that acts through high affinity cell-surface receptors to mobilise transcription factors that modify gene expression. The protein products of these IFN beta-regulated genes exhibit anti-viral, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory actions19. It is also possible that the efficacy of IFN beta products is mediated by multiple mechanisms that regulate various components of the inflammatory process in MS19. A paper published on The Lancet, found that out of the 350 MS patients given IB-1a in a Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study, statistically significantly more of them had reduced number of active lesions, delayed progression in disability and relapse-free periods compared to the 150 MS patient who were on placebo20. Since MS is a T cell-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease, it theoretically should makes perfect sense that an IB is administered as it significantly reduces T-cell levels in the body, which then inhibits activation of macrophages that inflame the CNS21.

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

This Essay is

a Student's Work

Lady Using Tablet

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Examples of our work

However, even though all the findings above does conclusively show that IB does prevent relapse to a significantly good extent, but if the cost factor has to be taken into account, for example, if the cost for the potential hospitalisation due to a relapse is to be compared to a patient's medication cost for a year, the exorbitant cost needed for a slight increase in the quality of life of a patient, which a cheap drug such as AZA can quite easily provide, does not make this form of treatment very feasible22. IB should not be used in patients with severe depressive illness and those have suicidal ideation18. Patients with liver diseases should especially refrain from using this drug18. Even if a patient has a healthy liver, liver function tests are to be conducted in order to monitor for possible hepatic injuries18.

Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a mixture of synthetic polypeptides composed of four amino acids resembling myelin basic protein which inhibits T-cell response to several natural myelin antigens23. Thus it is another immunomodulating drug like IB. The advantage with GA is that beyond its anti-inflammatory actions, it is also a neuroprotective agent. This is because GA-specific T-cells obtained from MS patients could express and secret the neurotrophic factor Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factors (BDNF) which promotes tissue repair in the CNS. It is licensed for usage in ambulatory patients with relapse-remitting MS but this is not recommended by the NHS in England and Wales18. There is a strict range of diagnostic guidelines which have to be followed by a specialist in order to initiate a patient on GA12. For example, the patient must be able to walk 100 metres or more without assistance and also should have had at least two clinically significant relapses in the past two years12.

When MRIs are conducted on MS patients, it was found that GA significantly reduces the number of T1 black holes which are areas of oedema or axonal loss caused by MS24. Also, GA-treated patients have been observed to exhibit lower brain atrophy than patients treated with placebo which could possibly mean a better prognosis of the debilitating disease24. A few Multicentre Clinical Trials of GA conducted on 405 patients revealed that in a 2 year long treatment period, relapse and progression rates were significantly reduced by almost 30%15. GA can cause side-effects such as palpitation, flushing, chest pain, tachycardia and dyspnoea which might occur immediately after administration18. A recent publication has questioned the cost-effectiveness of interferon beta and glatiramer acetate and the current risk-sharing scheme.461 The amount of money spent by the NHS on disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), including not only the drugs themselves but all the extra resources needed to run the scheme and to monitor the people on the scheme, is large. And this scheme only affects less than 15% of people with MS and many of those eligible withdraw due to side effects12.

Other 2nd-line drugs used to rehabilitate the patient and modify the disease are Alemtuzumab and Mitoxantrone but there are huge safety issues in its usage and there no high quality clinical trials to back its usage in MS other than perhaps a possible usage in secondary progressive MS1. Thus we will go further into drugs that can be prescribed to alleviate MS symptoms which can help patients to live well. Given the large number of impairments that may arise secondary to multiple sclerosis, the large variety of contexts that will apply to people with MS, and therefore the almost infinite number of particular situations, each being unique, it is currently very difficult to be sure that the correct drug to be given to a patient is administered, especially since there are no such guidelines available partly due to the complexity of MS symptoms. Baclofen, diazepam, dantrolene, gabapentin and tizanidine are licensed for use in the alleviation of chronic muscle spasm associated with MS. If spasticity or spasms are present, then simple causative or aggravating factors such as pain and infection should be sought and treated. Spasms may create pain, interfere with mobility and activities of daily living, alter posture, interfere with sleep, lead to joint contractures and increase the risk for skin breakdown. Out of the five, baclofen, gabapentin and dantrolene are especially recommended in MS treatment as they are the best researched upon drugs with significantly beneficial results.

Currently, if spasm is diagnosed in MS patients, then gabapentin or baclofen should ideally be started upon if the aggravating factors can't be immediately spotted. A trial showed that at a dose of 400mg orally three times a day, gabapentin may be of value of being a significantly effective anti-spasmodic.

Baclofen inhibits transmission at spinal level and also depresses the CNS making it a powerful skeletal muscle relaxant. Three trials showed statistically significant reduction in the number and intensity of muscle spasms after they were put on Baclofen.

Dantrolene specifically acts upon the skeletal muscle and thus produces lesser central adverse effects which make it the drug of choice.