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Activity of Antioxidant in the Gmelina Arborea Seed

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CHAPTER I

PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

The problem and its background are focused on clarifying in this chapter. The problem is determined and explains how the problem comes to its existence. It talks about the significance of having the problem solved and limits the broad spectrum to specify only the most essential parts.

Introduction

Gmelina arborea is regularly known as white teak, gamhar and Kashmir tree developing all through India widely in sub-Himalayan tracts including Assam and close to the regions from west Bengal to Orissa. The roots, leaves, flowers, fruits and barks are utilized for regarding distinctive afflictions as a part of conventional solution in medicine. The literature recommends utilization of the plant in treatment of scorpion sting, snake-nibbles, and diabetes. The plant is anthelmintic and utilized for treating hallucinations, excess thirst, abdominal pains, burning sensations, and fever. The tree likewise creates an exceptionally esteemed timber, which is easy to work and solid for its weight. It is rich white in color, turning yellowish on exposure. It is utilized for great variety of purposes including furniture and planking. The flowers are thought to be sweet, bitter, astringent and valuable in ailments like disease and weakness such as leprosy and anemia.

Gmelina arborea is local to India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, southern China, Laos, Cambodia, and Sumatra in Indonesia. The species was brought into numerous tropical nations, including the Philippines, Malaysia, Brazil, Gambia, Costa Rica, Burgina Faso, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, and Malawi (National Academy of Sciences 1980, Soerianegara and Lammens 1994).

Gamhar is a tree that can develop to 30 m high, with smooth, whitish to grayish reddish-brown bark and a straight trunk. It is exceptionally sensitive to soil conditions. It is equipped for survival on poor dry sites, however its development under these conditions is poor and trees on such sites are exceptionally branchy and hindered, and have a tendency to stagnate following a couple of years. Its best development is on unreservedly depleted, rich soils, with no hardpan or other obstacle to root advancement, in damp tropical regions. Its leaves are 8 to 20 cm long, 4.5 to 15 cm wide, and with star-formed hairs. Two large glands are combined at the base of every leaf. The external surface of the calyx (sepals) is scattered with flat, round organs. The flowers are reddish-yellow, hairy and five-lobed. The fruits are 10 to 15 mm in measurement and polished yellow when developed. They are recorded as having a self-contradicting taste.

Flowering happens amid February to April when the tree is pretty much leafless though fruiting begins from May onwards up to June. The fruit is dependent upon 2.5 cm long, smooth, dim green, turning yellow when ripe and has a fruity scent. It is oval in shape and yellow in color. It tastes sweet and astringent containing 1 to 2 seeds. The seed and fruit contain butyric acid and tartaric acid. Tartaric acid is an anti-oxidant.

An anti-oxidant is an atom that represses the oxidation of different atoms. Oxidation is a chemical response that exchanges electrons or hydrogen from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reaction can produce radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions. At the point when the chain response happens in a cell, it can result in harm or death to the cell. Anti-oxidants end these chain responses by removing free radical intermediates, and repress other oxidation responses. It has been done by being oxidized themselves, so anti-oxidants are regularly lessening agents, for example, thiols, ascorbic acid, or polyphenols.

In spite of the fact that oxidation reactions are critical, they can likewise be harming; plants and animals maintain complex system of numerous sorts of cancer prevention agents such as anti-oxidants, for example, glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin A, and vitamin E and also enzymes, for example, catalase, superoxide dismutase and different peroxidases. Deficient levels of anti-oxidants, or restraint of the anti-oxidant agent enzyme, cause oxidative anxiety and may harm or kill cells.

Wound healing is the processes where the skin of an organism recovers from injury and has multiple factors, in ordinary skin; the epidermis (furthest layer) and dermis (internal or deeper layer) exist in a consistent state harmony, framing a defensive hindrance against the outside environment. Once the defensive boundary is broken, the typical (physiologic) methodology of wound recuperating is promptly situated in movement. The classic model of wound healing is partitioned into three or four successive, yet covering, stages: (1) hemostasis, (2) inflammation, (3) proliferation and (4) remodeling. Upon injury to the skin, an arrangement of complex biochemical events happens in a nearly arranged course to repair the damage.

Objectives

  1. To test the activity of antioxidant in the Gmelina arborea seed.
  2. To test the antioxidant activity of Gmelina arborea to Mus musculus (laboratory rat).

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine the existence of antioxidant property of Gmelina arborea, and as a good source of antioxidant. And to test the antioxidant activity of Gmelina arborea in the laboratory rat (Mus musculus). This research study will sought to answer and enlighten the following questions:

  1. Is there an antioxidant activity in Gmelina arborea seed?
  2. Is there a significant difference on the Mus musculus’ wound appearance treated with the seed extract of Gmelina arborea during the healing period as compared to the controlled specimen with wound but given with a betadine treatment?

Hypothesis of the Study

Questions wander what will be the possible outcome of this research. The researchers’ assumption about the study is formed such that certain guesses are created to assure the results of the study. The null and hypotheses were made:

Null hypotheses

Ho1: There is no antioxidant activity in Gmelina arborea seed.

Ho2: There is no significant difference on the test organisms wound appearance treated with the seed extract of Gmelina arborea during the healing period as compared to the controlled specimen with wound but given with a betadine treatment.

Alternative hypotheses

Ha1: There is an antioxidant activity in Gmelina arborea seed.

Ha2: There is a significant difference on the Mus musculus’ wound appearance treated with the seed extract of Gmelina arborea during the healing period as compared to the controlled specimen with wound but given with a betadine treatment.

Significance of the Study

There are certain people who will benefit from this research study. They are listed according to the people that are most benefited and they are as follows:

To Public consumers – That this study will help them for fighting off premature aging, inflammatory conditions like arthritis and brain-related disorders.

To the medical and nutritional experts – That this study will help them to widen their knowledge about other fruits and seeds that contain anti-oxidant property to be able to produce another new product.

To the researchers - That the results of this study will help them to come up with another study or in the development of other related studies.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

Eighteen white mice of either male or female, aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 7.5-25.2g was purchased at Visayas Avenue, Quezon City. Twelve mice were used for the weight effects of Gmelina arborea treatment and divided into three groups that served as three trials. Each group contains four mice, two for the controlled group (no seed extract given) and two for the experimental group (mice given with 1ml seed extract per day). Six mice were used for the wound healing treatment and were divided into three groups that served as three trials. Each group contains two mice, the treatment group (wound treated with seed extract) and the controlled group (wound treated with betadine solution).

The study was delimited to the antioxidant property and wound healing property of Gmelina arborea seed. Sample of dried Gmelina arborea seed was brought to Department of Science and Technology - Industrial Technology Development Institute in Taguig City for crude extraction and then to DOST - Standard and Testing Division for the test of Antioxidant activity.

The experiment was conducted in the Parasitology and Microbiology Laboratory (room 217), 2nd floor, Main Building of New Era University, Central Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City.

Definition of Terms

Gmelina arborea. A deciduous tree native to Southeast Asia, having large opposite leaves, brownish-yellow flowers grouped in cymose panicles, and yellow drupes. (The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition)

Deciduous Tree. A tree that sheds all leaves annually at the end of the growing season and then having dormant period without leaves. (Collins Dictionary)

Mus musculus. A small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail. The house mouse has been domesticated as the pet or fancy mouse, and as the laboratory mouse, which is one of the most important model organisms in biology and medicine. (Wikipedia)

Anti-oxidant. A substance that reduces damage due to oxygen, such as that caused by free radicals. Well-known antioxidants include enzymes and other substances, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene, which are capable of counteracting the damaging effects of oxidation. Antioxidants are also commonly added to food products such as vegetable oils and prepared foods to prevent or delay their deterioration from the action of air. Antioxidants may possibly reduce the risks of cancer. Antioxidants clearly slow the progression of age-related macular degeneration. (Medterms Medical Dictionary)

Butyric acid. Either of two colorless isomeric acids, C3H7COOH, occurring in animal milk fats and used in disinfectants, emulsifying agents, and pharmaceuticals. (Webster's II New College Dictionary)

Tartaric acid. A colourless or white odourless crystalline water-soluble dicarboxylic acid existing in four stereoisomeric forms, the commonest being the dextrorotatory (d-) compound which is found in many fruits: used as a food additive (E334) in soft drinks, confectionery, and baking powders and in tanning and photography. (Collins Dictionary)

Astringent. A substance or preparation, such as alum, that draws together or constricts body tissues and is effective in stopping the flow of blood or other secretions. (The American Heritage Dictionary)


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