sex hormones

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Gonadal sex hormones also known as steroids, hormones or androgen and estrogen receptor interaction vertebrate steroids. The consequences are mediated by nuclear receptor mechanisms and slow the genome associated membrane receptors and signaling cascades through rapid non-genomic mechanisms. The term sex hormone nearly always is synonymous with sex steroids.

Produce

Natural sex steroid hormones (testis or ovary, performance), liver or adrenal glands, fat, or other organizations in the conversion of other hormones.

Synthesis of sex steroid hormones

There are also many synthetic sex steroids. Androgen often referred to as anabolic steroids. Estrogen and progestin contraceptive use synthetic hormones. Ethinyl estradiol is a semi-synthetic estrogen. Specific compounds, partial agonist activity of steroid receptors, so act like a natural steroid hormone, cell type, medical conditions, need for steroid treatment are in use, but if the whole body systemic effects of specific steroids are the only a desirable within certain limits.Species

In many cases, two kinds of male steroid hormones and estrogen, testosterone, estradiol, this is the most important human derivatives, respectively. Other that sex hormones, androgen and estrogen, because in addition to the third category include progestagen. Natural progesterone is the most important is people progestagen. In general, the male hormones "male" hormone of consideration, because they have a masculine influence, while estrogen and progestagens "female" hormone, despite the different levels of different sex, but consider.

Sex hormones, including:

Male hormones:

  • anabolic steroid
  • androstenedione
  • dehydroepiandrosterone
  • dihydrotestosterone
  • testosterone

Estrogen:

  • estradiol
  • estriol
  • estrone

Progestagens:

  • progesterone
  • striker progesterone

Androgen

Also known as the male androgen hormones or testoids, any natural or synthetic compounds is a common term, usually steroid hormone, to stimulate the male hormone receptor or a combination of the development and maintenance of male characteristics in the control of the spine. Supporting male sex organs and male secondary sexual characteristics, including development activities. Androgen was first discovered in 1936. Reduction of male hormone precursors of anabolic steroids and all estrogens, the female sex hormone. First of all, the most famous is the male hormone testosterone. Androgen ablation as an effective treatment for prostate cancer may be used.

Species

A subset of the male hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, 19 - carbon adrenal cortex, adrenal cortex adrenal (gland closed mesh band - inner district) include a synthetic steroid, steroids, steroids or earlier, the weak feature, androstenedione dehydrogenation DHEA (DHEA), the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA's - S), and are also included.

In addition, testosterone, male hormones, including:

  • (DHEA) Dehydroepiandrosterone: a steroid hormone production of cholesterol in the adrenal cortex. The main precursor of natural estrogens. Also known as dehydroepiandrosterone or dehydroandrosterone.
  • (Andros) Androstenedione: A testicular androgens, adrenal steroids produced by the ovaries. The testosterone and other hormones androstenediones digestion conversion, which is the basic structure of estrone. As an athlete or fitness supplement androstenedione use has been banned in the International Olympic Committee and other sports organizations.
  • Androstenediol: gonadotropin secretion by steroid metabolites are considered as the main regulatory body.
  • DHEA: A chemical classification of androgen or progesterone during the creation of derivative products, but a minor seventh strength also affected masculinising testosterone. Plasma and urine of men and women, found that approximately the same number.
  • (DHT) in the DHT: testosterone metabolites, and a more powerful male hormone testosterone, because it more closely than the androgen receptor. It is the manufacture of the adrenal cortex.

Androgen

Male development

The formation of testis

In mammalian development, ovarian or testicular gonad to become either the first time. In humans, about 4 weeks when the embryo is beginning gonadal mesoderm in the middle of the current adjacent to the development of kidney. About 6 weeks, the testis epithelium, gender lines, including developing countries and germ cells as they migrate to the gonads. In males, certain Y chromosome genes, including early bipotential gonad to testis, especially in the SRY gene conversion, male phenotype development control. The full development of the gonadal sex of the man climbing wires.

Androgen production

The development of Sertoli cells, epithelial cells derived from the mesoderm cells to form sperm sex string, which will be support acts. Small population of non-epithelial cells occurs during embryonic development of human renal tubular 8 weeks. This is the Leydig cells. Soon after, they separated Leydig cells begin to produce male hormones.

Androgen

As a paracrine Sertoli cells of androgen hormones are necessary to support sperm production. They also constitute the development of the penis and scrotum with men (to the male fetus). Under the influence of androgens, mesonephron remnants, Wolf tube, epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle development. The action of androgen is a hormone from Sertoli cells (Mullerian inhibiting hormone) MIH, the fallopian tubes and other women in the male reproductive tract in the fetal Müllerian tissue to prevent the developing fetus. MIH and testicular androgen scrotum, so that normal movement cooperation.

Spermatogenesis

In adolescence, androgen, LH and FSH increase in production and hollow out the wires, so that seminiferous tubules and germ cells start to differentiate into sperm. In adulthood, testosterone and FSH collaborative features to support cell to support the production of sperm. Exogenous testosterone as a male contraceptive. Use of elevated androgen can suppress androgen production by the Leydig cells LH blocks the production of endogenous androgen levels. Since the local production of high levels of male testosterone hormone no Leydig cells, seminiferous tubule degeneration can lead to infertility. For this reason, many transdermal androgen patches applied to the scrotum.

Inhibition of fat deposition

More men than women are usually less adipose tissue. Some recent results show that the androgen signaling pathway potential of fat cells, fat cells by blocking the normal function of a one-stop support for lipids. In addition, androgen, not estrogen, α, β adrenergic receptors, and low growth adrenergic receptors, leading to increased levels of adrenaline / 2 - α receptor negative feedback, the lack of norepinephrine and adrenaline fat / norepinephrine acting on lipolysis induced by the lack of accumulation of β-receptor.

Muscle

More women than men usually musculoskeletal. Androgens promote the growth of skeletal muscle cells, and even an integrated way to work in a variety of skeletal muscle cells work. To convey a type of muscle cell signaling leading to hormone is myoblasts. High levels of male hormones increase the expression of androgen receptor lead. Myoblast myotube fusion is a process, is the level of androgen receptor, is generated.

Brain

Circulating androgen levels affect human behavior because some neurons may be sensitive to steroids. Androgen levels of people involved and the regulation of aggression. In fact, in many species composition change in brain testosterone in rats and mice have the ability, and primates, including the construction of gender. However, those who determine the potential of androgen or estrogen into changes in neural anatomy dry a bit difficult, several reports have stressed that it can change the brain structure of male hormones, so that

(U.S. female hormone, estrogen or other estrogen) a group of steroid compounds, the estrus cycle in the importance of the name, and as the main female hormones, their names / (breeding period of female mammals oistros projects) + general / = gonos produce.

Estrogen oral contraceptives as part of a number of estrogen replacement therapy on postmenopausal women, women in the anti-hormone replacement therapy.

Like all steroid hormones, estrogen easily diffuse throughout the cell membrane. Once inside the cell, and give them a combination of regulation of estrogen receptor expression in the activation of many genes. In addition, estrogen has been shown an activation of G protein-coupled receptor GPR30.

Kind

Steroid

Three women in the natural estrogen estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), and (estriol E3),. Estradiol (E2) a large non-pregnant women produce estrogen in menopause, pregnancy, and estriol is the major estrogen. Institutions, through the action of these enzymes in the production of male hormones is.

  • From menarche to menopause, estrogen is mainly 17β-estradiol. Postmenopausal women estrogen estradiol exist.
  • estradiol testosterone and androstenedione to estrogen by aromatase.
  • estrogen is weaker than estradiol.
  • Premarin, an estrogen commonly prescribed drugs, steroidal estrogens equilin, also equilenin, including sulfate, but because of their health risks, more genetic progynova (estradiol valerate) Estrogen hormone requirements require more frequent.

Non-steroidal

A series of synthetic and natural materials have been identified with estrogenic activity.

  • synthetic substances, such as xenoestrogens are known.
  • known as the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogens of plant products.
  • mycoestrogens those of known fungi.

Estrogen produced by different mammals, these substances are not necessarily steroids.

Biosynthesis

Steroid hormones, showing the pink triangle in the lower right corner to estrogen.

Primary follicles in the ovaries of estrogen, luteal Fund and produced by placental growth. Luteinizing hormone (LH) to stimulate ovarian production of estrogen. Any estrogen liver, adrenal glands produce a small amount of other organizations, such as breast cancer. These secondary sources, in particular, is an important estrogen in postmenopausal women. Fat cells produce estrogen, are more likely to lead to weight loss or weight is a risk factor for infertility benefits.

In women, ovarian estrogen synthesis in the beginning in the international theca cells, the synthesis of cholesterol and androstenedione. Androstenedione is a mild male hormone substances. Granulosa cells surrounding the campus, such as estrogen or estrogen, testosterone, either directly or through a rotation through the basement membrane. Conversion of testosterone estradiol, estrone, and androstenedione that aromatase in the society.

Estrogen in menstrual cycles, through the highest, and level before ovulation.

Function

The estrogen found in men and women, they will usually significantly higher than women of childbearing age are present. Female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast growth-promoting, regulating the menstrual cycle, endometrial thickening, and other aspects of the work. In men, the effect of estrogen on reproductive sperm mature critical system control functions may need a healthy sex drive. In addition, there are many other functions, in addition to other structural changes caused by estrogen. Dental, gums, and hyperkeratinization reduce vascular permeability, increased exudation, and edema [edit].

Structure

  • the formation of female secondary sex characteristics, and promote
  • The slow growth of O-height
  • accelerate the metabolism (fat burning)
  • reduce muscle
  • stimulation of the endometrium
  • increase uterine growth
  • increase in vaginal lubrication
  • vaginal wall thickening
  • blood vessels and skin care
  • reduce bone resorption, increase bone formation
  • Morphic rings the changes (endomorphic -> liquid crystal phase -> ectomorphic)
  • protein synthesis
  • increased hepatic production of binding proteins
  • Settings
  • 2,7 growth factors, circulating levels of 9,10, plasminogen
  • antithrombin deficiency
  • increase in platelet adhesion
  • fat
  • to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides
  • low LDL, fat deposition
  • fluid balance
  • salt (sodium) and water retention [edit]
  • Hormones
  • increase in cortisol, sex hormone binding globulin
  • gastrointestinal tract
  • reduce bowel movement
  • increase the bile cholesterol
  • melanoma
  • increase in pheomelanin, eumelanin in
  • Cancer
  • O support the hormone-sensitive breast cancer
  • lung function
  • the promotion of alveolar support (mouse, but perhaps in humans). Estrogen levels, rather than the level of sexual desire is dependent on androgen.

Fetal development

In mice (male hormone estrogen in the brain from the smell of which is local) to play an important role in psychological differentiation, for example, by the masculine territory, the same is not true of humans. In humans, behavioral effects of prenatal androgen masculinity (and other organizations, with the possible exception of bone) through the androgen receptor function, in particular, appear. Therefore, the study of human psychological differentiation of murine challenge model.

Medical Applications

Oral contraceptives

FSH and LH levels of estrogen in the blood circulation to reduce the negative feedback loop, most oral contraceptives contain a synthetic estrogen and progesterone synthesis together, because a. LH response to male hormone estradiol in the main, not testosterone.

Hormone replacement therapy

As more and more detailed article in the hormone replacement therapy, estrogen and other hormones in postmenopausal women are discussed, in order to prevent osteoporosis and hot flushes, vaginal dryness, urinary stress incontinence, feeling of cold treatment menopausal symptoms such as dizziness, fatigue, irritability, and sweating. Cervical spine, wrist fractures, and 50-70% in 3 years, the incidence and menopause, estrogen therapy increased spinal bone mineral density of women ~ 5% of 5-10 years, then decrease.

Conjugated equine estrogen and further understanding of specific threats, such as the standard combination of Premarin treatment of 0.625 Ma (mg day estrogen / a) of the. There are, however, the risks associated with horses combined with estrogen therapy. Older postmenopausal women's health association (WHI) initiative, oral - conjugated equine estrogen supplement some of the risk of women in the study increased the risk of blood clots was found to be associated with. WHI study of estrogen supplement, conjugated equine estrogen (Premarin and medroxyprogesterone only as a high dose of Prempro type of use).

By the U.S. National Institutes of Health, a study proved that estrogen esterification health risks is not the same horse estrogen. The beneficial effects of hormone replacement therapy on serum cholesterol levels, and immediately started after menopause can reduce the incidence of heart disease, although this hypothesis has not yet been tested in randomized trials. Effects of estrogen on atherosclerosis seems to be a protective effect: it lowers LDL and triglycerides and increase high-density lipoprotein levels and endothelial vasodilation properties, coupled with anti-inflammatory ingredients.

Ongoing study to determine whether the risk of estrogen use are the same for all distributions. Specifically, the different spectrum of side effects than estrogen Hormone Local applications may be oral, transdermal estrogen and not affecting coagulation, because they are directly absorbed into the systemic circulation, first through the liver metabolism of therapy. Thus, route of administration of thromboembolic disease as women's history.

Estrogen for the treatment of vaginal atrophy was, hypoestrogenism hypogonadism, castration, or as a result of (primary ovarian failure), amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and oligomenorrhea. Breastfed babies can be used to suppress estrogen.
Breast Cancer

About 80% of breast cancer, once established, depending on the supply of growth hormones estrogen: hormone sensitive or hormone receptor-positive cancers are called. Inhibition of estrogen production, which is a cancer in the body.

Researchers recently found that the common table mushrooms may be the anti-estrogen anti-aromatase properties, and so the. Clinical trials have begun in the United States mushrooms can look at the table to prevent breast cancer in people. A recent study pointed out the importance of the study. 2009, 2018 women's eating habits, case-control study showed that women who eat mushrooms are about 50% lower incidence of breast cancer. Women who consumed the mushrooms and green tea, 90% lower incidence of breast cancer.

Hormone receptor-positive breast cancer by inhibiting the production of estrogen in the body is processing. In breast cancer treatment technology, to varying degrees known as hormone therapy, hormone therapy or anti-estrogen (hormone replacement therapy to treat not to be confused). Even some foods such as soy proliferation of estrogen hormone therapy to suppress can be used as substitutes.

Prostate cancer

In some cases, estrogen treatment of men with prostate cancer may also be used.

Miscellaneous

In humans and mice, estrogen promote wound healing.

For some time, due to attenuation of estrogen tall girls has been increasing. Recently, estrogen controversy Ashley growth attenuation was used as part of their treatment up to adult size of the girls living with developmental disabilities.
Recently, estrogen treatment of patients suffering from bulimia as an experimental research approach is cognitive behavioral therapy, which provides standards for the treatment of bulimia cases, unless. The study suggested that estrogen may be related to hormonal imbalance in disease of the brain.

Estrogen is also research showing that it is an effective drug use in the treatment of traumatic liver injury may be used.

Health risks and warning labels

Hyperestrogenemia (high levels of estrogen), estrogen or estrogen-like substances, the result of exogenous administration, may be or may lead to pregnancy, such as physical condition. All of these factors with increased risk of thrombosis.

U.S. warning label boxed product, if not only progestagen unopposed estrogen (estrogen) therapy may increase the risk of endometrial cancer were included.

Review of the data based on the WHI, January 8, 2003 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for postmenopausal women using estrogen and estrogen with all of the progesterone-related product labeling, including the heart and other risks of a new boxed warning has changed. The WHI estrogen alone would likely more than 50 years of age over 65 years old and postmenopausal women at increased risk of dementia in postmenopausal women, stroke and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) risk of 0.625 mg of Premarin report uses the combination of horse estrogen (CEE). WHI estrogen plus progestin, the probability will be 50 years of age or older and postmenopausal women 65 years of age increased risk of dementia in postmenopausal women with myocardial infarction, stroke, invasive breast cancer, pulmonary emboli, deep vein thrombosis form and report the threat or Prempro progestin medroxyprogesterone (MPA) of 0.625 mg and 2.5 mg of the old Eastern Europe.

Cosmetic

Some hair shampoo market, including estrogen and placental extract, some containing phytoestrogens. Case reports of young children, exposure to these shampoo is to develop breasts. September 9, 1993, FDA's decision, all the local application of hormone containing non-prescription drug products for human use, safe, effective and are misbranded generally recognized. With the proposed rule related to cosmetics, and concluded that natural estrogen in a new product without the approval of cosmetics made of any drug use, any cosmetic ingredients identified in their text or in his statement, "a term used requirements implied hormone drugs, subject to regulatory action of this product.

Also posted false labeling of drugs, including placenta extract can also be regarded as misbranded cosmetics claims that it is considered biologically active substances and other placental hormones have been removed, the material extracted if the extraction of proteins prepared. FDA proposed to identify the substance by another name than "placental" extract and describe its structure, more accurate, because consumers will be known as "the use of certain biological activity of a treatment with placental extract"

Progestagen

Progestagens (also shows progesterone or gestagens) are a group of hormones, including progesterone. Steroids Progestagens five main parts, estrogen, androgen, mineralocorticoids, the glucocorticoids. All the basic features of progestagens carbon skeleton is 21 pregnant skeleton (C21 in) is called. Similarly, estrogen a estrane (skeleton have C18's) and androgen, a andrane (Block C19 skeleton).

Progestagens for their work (Pro has been designated as the maintenance of pregnancy, pregnancy), although the other stages of estrus and the menstrual cycle exists. A hormone progestagen and pregnant all the steroid skeleton, that is, both natural and synthetic, exogenous or synthetic hormone commonly referred to as progesterone are included.

Action

Other steroids, as traders Progestagens

Steroid biosynthesis, the first phase of cholesterol into pregnenolone molecule (fifth). Progestagen class P5 and other members of steroid precursors, as all the other steroids, estrogen, androgen, mineralocorticoids, including glucocorticoids. Xiao Wu, a small four-, 17α-hydroxy, 17α-hydroxy and both endogenous middle. Therefore, all steroid production organization, adrenal gland, ovary and testis should be able to produce progestagens.

In some organizations, all of the enzymes required for the final product is not located in a cell, for example, in the follicle, cholesterol, androstenedione, testosterone conversion theca cells, further into estrogen effects in granulosa cells. Some species, fetal adrenal gland, which is a small four-fifth of estrogen into the production of the placenta (see below). In humans, fetal adrenal fifth dihydroepiandrosterone production line.

Progestagen production of ovarian

Progesterone (P4) led all mammalian species progestagen produced by the Fund corpus luteum. Luteal cells have the necessary enzymatic conversion of cholesterol Pregnenolone (fifth), and later became a Small 4. P4 of the estrous cycle is the highest proestrus phase of the project.

Progestagen produced by the placenta

progestagen production in the role of the placenta in different species. Sheep, horses and took over most of the human placental progestagen production, while other varieties remains the main source of funding luteal progestagen. In the sheep and human, small four major placental progestagen.

A variety of shoes progestagens, the main 5αDHP and 20α5P, 60 day reasons. Luteo placental transfer of 120-150 days throughout the year.

Use Family planning

Main article: Hormonal contraceptives

  • progesterone progestin pills alone or combined with oral contraceptives, contraceptive patch is the use of estrogen, birth control pills and vaginal rings.
  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate (German-Polish - Provera's) Norethisterone Enanthate and acetic acid (Noristerat) is a long-acting injection.
  • Etonogestrol subcutaneous implants (Implanon) releases. Norplant implants and Jadelle release of levonorgestrel.
  • levonorgestrel intrauterine system IUS ® (Mirena) release.

Antiandrogen

Main article:

Anti-androgen Luteinizing hormone deficiency Progestinic compounds (LH) levels, etc., in the women's and men cisgender, will reduce the testicular LH stimulation is due to the nature of anti-androgen. A common example of a progestinic cyclopropane drug is an effective anti-androgen, androgen receptor antagonist progestinic think it is more advantageous to reduce the level of LH.

Progesterone withdrawal bleeding

In a normal menstrual cycle, progesterone levels fall, menstruation triggers. Norethindrone (brand name Aygestin) medroxyprogesterone acetate (brand name progesterone) induced the synthesis of progesterone withdrawal bleeding, can use the [edit].

Cachexia syndrome

More information: cachexia

Many people who suffer from a solid malignant tumors, especially in the stomach and pancreatic cancer, progestagens to improve appetite, reduce waste can be used. Usually, they prefer to use dexamethasone in combination with other steroids. The result is a clear need for a few weeks, but still relatively extended compared to those of corticosteroids. Further, they just increase lean body mass has been recognized as a drug. Cachexia Megestrol responsible for managing the Group's lead drug.

Adverse effects

Adverse effects of progestagens, breast discomfort, premenstrual syndrome, menstrual cycles and weak male action breakthrough bleeding, acne, edema, weight changes, depression include changes in sexual desire. In addition, a pair of an increased risk of thrombosis.

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