About cosmetology


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Cosmetology is the study and application of beauty treatment. Branches of specialty including hairstyling, skin care, cosmetics, manicures/pedicures, and electrology.



EGYPTIAN cosmetics box from the Bronze Age

The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Ancient Egypt around 4000 BC. The Ancient Greeks and Romans also used cosmetics The Romans and Ancient Egyptians, not realizing their dangerous properties, used cosmetics containing mercury and white lead Fragrances, particularly frankincense and myrrh are mentioned in the Christian Bible: Exodus 30: 34, Gospel of Matthew 2:11. Ancient Egyptians had a wide extent of make-up utensils. One of them is kohl, which was used to outline the eyes. It is made up of lead, copper, burned almonds, soot, and other ingredients. It was believed that eye make-up could ward off evil spirits and improve the sight. Even the poor wore eye make-up in ancient Egypt. The production of cosmetics during ancient Rome was usually done by female slaves called Cosmetae.


The cosmetic uses of kohl and henna have their roots in north Africa.]


Cosmetics were used in Persia and what is today the Middle East from ancient periods. After Arab tribes converted to Islam and conquered those areas, in some areas cosmetics were only restricted if they were to disguise the real look in order to mislead or cause uncontrolled desire.On the other hand, some fundamentalist branches of Islam forbid the use of cosmetics.

An early cosmetologist was the physician Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis (936-1013 AD), who wrote the 30-volume medical encyclopedia Al-Tasrif. A chapter of the 19th volume was dedicated to cosmetics. As the treatise was translated into Latin, the cosmetic chapter was used in the West.

Al-Zahrawi considered cosmetics a branch of medicine, which he called "Medicine of Beauty" (Adwiyat al-Zinah). He deals with perfumes, scented aromatics and incense. There were perfumed stocks rolled and pressed in special moulds, perhaps the earliest antecedents of present day lipsticks and solid deodorants. He also used oily substances called Adhan for medication and beautification.[2]


Henna has been used in India since around the 4th or 5th centuries.[] It is used either as a hair dye, or in the art of mehndi, in which complex designs are painted on to the hands and feet, especially before a Hindu wedding. Henna is also used in some north African cultures. African henna designs tend to be bolder, and Indian designs more complex.

The use of kohl or kajal has a long history in Hindu culture.] The use of traditional preparations of kohl on children and adults has been considered to have health benefits,]However in the United States it has been linked to lead poisoning and is prohibited.


Chinese people began to stain their fingernails with gum arabic, gelatin, beeswax and egg from around 3000 BCE. The colors used represented social class: Chou dynasty royals wore gold and silver; later royals wore black or red. The lower classes were forbidden to wear bright colors on their nails.


A maiko in the Gion district of Kyoto, Japan, in full make-up. The style of the lipstick indicates that she is still new.

In Japan, geishas wore lipstick made of crushed safflower petals to paint the eyebrows and edges of the eyes as well as the lips.] Sticks of bintsuke wax, a softer version of the sumo wrestlers' hair wax, were used by geisha as a makeup base.] Rice powder colors the face and back; rouge contours the eye socket and defines the nose. Ohaguro (black paint) colours the teeth for the ceremony when maiko (apprentice geisha) graduate and become independent.] The geisha would also sometimes use bird droppings to compile a lighter color.


1889 painting Woman at her Toilette by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

In the Middle Ages, Renaissance and up until the Industrial Revolution, the lower classes had to work outside, in agricultural jobs. The typically light-colored European skin was darkened by exposure to the sun. The higher class a person was, the more leisure time he or she had to spend indoors, which kept their skin pale. Thus, the highest class of European society were pale resulting in European men and women attempting to lighten their skin directly, or using white powder on their skin to look more aristocratic. A variety of products were used, including white lead paint which also may have contained arsenic.] Queen Elizabeth I of England was one well-known user of white lead, with which she created a look known as "the Mask of Youth"] Portraits of the queen by Nicholas Hilliard from later in her reign are illustrative of her influential style.


Some Native American tribes painted their faces for ceremonial events or battle.]


Audience applying makeup at lecture by beautician in Los Angeles, circa 1950

During the early years of the 20th century, make-up became fashionable in the United States of America and Europe owing to the influence of ballet and theatre stars such as Mathilde Kschessinska and Sarah Bernhardt. But the most influential new development of all was that of the movie industry in Hollywood. Among those who saw the opportunity for mass-market cosmetics were Max Factor, Sr., Elizabeth Arden, and Helena Rubinstein.[ Modern synthetic hair dye was invented in 1907 by Eugene Schueller, founder of L'Oréal. He also invented sunscreen in 1936.

Flapper style influenced the cosmetics of the 1920s, which embraced dark eyes, red lipstick, red nail polish, and the suntan, invented as a fashion statement by Coco Chanel.[] Previously, suntans had only been sported by agricultural workers, while fashionable women kept their skins as pale as possible. In the wake of Channel's adoption of the suntan, dozens of new fake tan products were produced to help both men and women achieve the "sun-kissed" look] In Asia, skin whitening continued to

represent the ideal of beauty, as it does to this day.[ During the 1960s and 1970s, many women in the western world influenced by feminism decided to go without any cosmetics. The anti-cosmetics movement was an outgrowth of this; feminists in this movement object to cosmetics' role in the second-class status of women, making them mere sex-objects who must waste time with cosmetics. Cosmetics in the 1970s were divided into a "natural look" for day and a more sexualized image for evening.

Cosmetic deodorant was invented in 1888, by an unknown inventor from Philadelphia,] and was trademarked under the name Mumm. Roll-on deodorant was launched in 1952, and aerosol deodorant in 1965.]



Cosmetics are substances used to enhance or protect the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosme tics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user's appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.

The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States[1] defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the

body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes, as well, any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.[2]



An oil-based cosmetic preparation contains (a) an oily gelling agent, (b) an oil-based ingredient, and (c) at least one selected from the group consisting of ester compounds represented by formula (I) which are reaction products of ditrimethylolpropane with fatty acid, polycondensates of ditrimethylolpropane with polycarboxylic acid, polycondensates of the ester compound of formula (I) with polycarboxylic acid, polycondensates of fatty acid with the polycondensate of ditrimethylolpropane with polycarboxylic acid, and polycondensates of ditrimethylolpropane, fatty acid and polycarboxylic acid, with the component (c) having a hydroxyl value (OHV) in the range of 10 to 150. The oil-based cosmetic preparation has excellent feeling realized by the use, provides a make-up coverage with satisfactory luster and moisturizing feel, and exhibits excellent shape retention properties


All colouring agents, regardless of their concentration, may be listed in random order after the ingredients that are present at a concentration of more than 1% (as described in section 21.4(2) of the Cosmetic Regulations). It is also acceptable to list colouring agents in descending order of predominance.


In the case of fragrances, the word "parfum" may be used to indicate that ingredients have been added to the cosmetic to produce or mask a particular odour. The term "parfum" may either be inserted at the end of the list of ingredients or inserted at the appropriate point in descending order of predominance. If persons do not choose to use the term "parfum" to indicate the presence of fragrance ingredients, they must list each fragrance ingredient individually.


In the case of flavors, the word "aroma" may be used to indicate that ingredients have been added to the cosmetic to produce or mask a particular flavour. The term "aroma" may either be inserted at the end of the list of ingredients or inserted at the appropriate point in descending order of predominance. If persons do not choose to use the term "aroma" to indicate the presence of flavour ingredients, they must list each flavour ingredient individually.


According to the definitions of the terms "cosmetic" and "drug", the key consideration for the classification of a product is its proposed use. The claims made in package inserts, in advertisements, and especially in product labels, indicate the intended use of the product.

It is also important to consider the context in which the product is marketed.

Claims that indicate that a product is a drug cannot be made for a product marketed as a cosmetic. If the manufacturer or importer chooses to remove the drug-related claim, the product may be classified as a cosmetic. If a manufacturer or importer chooses not to remove a drug-related claim, the product may be regulated as a drug. (Information on regulatory requirements for cosmetics and drugs is available from the Cosmetics Program and from the Therapeutic Products Directorate, respectively.)





Nail polish or nail varnish is a lacquer that is applied to the nails of both the fingers and toes, usually cosmetically, but also as protection for the nails. The act of simply polishing the nails without applying a chemical layer afterwards is called nail buffing.


Long eyelashes are considered a sign of femininity in many cultures. Accordingly, some women seek to enhance their eyelash length artificially. See eyelash extensions. On the other hand, Hadza women pluck their eyelashes completely.


Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, c offe, oils, waxes, and emollients that applies color and texture to the lips. There are many varieties of lipstick



A cream is a topical preparation usually for application to the skin. Creams for application to mucus membranes such as those of the rectum or vagina are also used. Creams may be considered pharmaceutical products as even cosmetic creams are based on techniques developed by pharmacy and unmedicated creams are highly used in a variety of skin conditions (dermatoses).

Creams are semi-solid emulsions, that is mixtures of oil and water. They are divided into two types: oil-in-water (O/W) creams which are composed of small droplets of oil dispersed in a continuous aqueous phase, and water-in-oil (W/O) creams which are composed of small droplets of water dispersed in a continuous oily phase. Oil-in-water creams are more comfortable and cosmetically acceptable as they are less greasy and more easily washed off using water. Water-in-oil creams are more difficult to handle but many drugs which are incorporated into creams are hydrophobic and will be released more readily from a water-in-oil cream than an oil-in-water cream. Water-in-oil creams are also more moisturising as they provide an oily barrier which reduces water loss from the stratum corneum, the outmost layer of the skin


Face powder is a cosmetic powder applied to the face to set foundation after application. It can also be reapplied throughout the day to minimize shininess caused by oily skin. There is translucent sheer powder, and there is pigmented powder. Certain types of pigmented facial powders are meant be worn alone with no base foundation. Powder tones the face and gives an even appearance. Besides toning the face, some SPF based powders can also reduce skin damage from the sun and environmental stress. It comes packaged either as a compact or as loose powder. It can be applied with a sponge, brush, or powder puff. Uniform distribution over the face is achieved easier when a loose powder is applied.




Cold cream is an emulsion of water and certain fats, usually including beeswax and various scent agents, designed to smooth skin and remove makeup. The name derives from the cooling feeling that the cream leaves on the skin. Variations of the product have been used for nearly two-thousand years.


Face powder is a cosmetic powder applied to the face to set foundation after application. It can also be reapplied throughout the day to minimize shininess caused by oily skin. There is translucent sheer powder, and there is pigmented powder. Certain types of pigmented facial powders are meant be worn alone with no base foundation. Powder tones the face and gives an even appearance. Besides toning the face, some SPF based powders can also reduce skin damage from the sun and environmental stress. It comes packaged either as a compact or as loose powder. It can be applied with a sponge, brush, or powder puff. Uniform distribution over the face is achieved easier when a loose powder is applied.

Because of the wide variation among human skin tones, there is a corresponding variety of colors of face powder. There are also several types of powder. A common powder used in beauty products is talc.

Facial powder is very similar to body or baby powder, in that it is absorbent and provides toning to the skin.


A cleanser is a facial care product that is used to remove make-up, dead skin cells, oil, dirt and other types of pollutants from the skin of the face. This helps to unclog pores and prevent skin conditions such as acne.

Many people use a cleanser once or more times a day as part of their skin care regimen together with a toner and moisturizer.

Using a cleanser to remove dirt is considered t o be a better alternative to bar soap or another form of skin cleanser not specifically formulated for the face for the following reasons:

Bar soap has a high pH (in the area of 9 to 10), and skin's natural pH is 5.5. This means that soap can change the balance present in the skin to favor the overgrowth of some types of bacteria, exacerbating acne.

Bar cleansers in general, soap or not, have thickeners that allow them to assume a bar shape can clog pores, leading (once again) to acne[

Using bar soap on the face can remove natural oils from the skin that form a barrier against water loss. This causes the sebaceous glands to subsequently overproduce oil, a condition known as reactive seborrhoea, which will lead to clogged pores]. Conversely, in order to prevent drying out the skin, many cleansers incorporate moisturisers.


"Eyeliner" redirects here. For other uses, see Eyeliner (disambiguation).

Eye liner is a cosmetic used to define the eyes. It is applied around the contours of the eye to create a variety of aesthetic illusions. Although primarily aimed at females, it has broadened its appeal to the male market, known commonly as "guyliner" (see also manbag).


. Skin sunscreen lotions that have the term SPF, sunscreen or sunblock on the label fall under the drug category, but the same product used as a cosmetic moisturizing lotion that contains sunscreen ingredients yet does not have the above terms on the label is considered a cosmetic


Toothpastes (dentifrice) with fluoride are drugs since fluoride prevents caries, but toothpastes without fluoride are cosmetics since their main purpose is to freshen breath and whiten teeth.

Toothpaste is a paste or geldentifrice used with a toothbrush to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. Toothpas te is used to promote oral hygiene: it can aid in the removal of dental plaque and food from the teeth, aid in the elimination and/or masking of halitosis and deliver active ingredients such as fluoride or xylitol to prevent tooth and gum disease (gingivitis). Some dentist recommendations include brushing your teeth at least 2 times a day, if not more. In most or all developed countries, usage after each meal is encouraged by dentists. However when cleaning teeth with a toothbrush with toothpaste, the essential cleaning is done by the mechanical brushing, and not by the active toothpaste chemicals. Most toothpaste contains trace amounts of chemicals which are toxic when ingested, and is not intended to be swallowed.

Mouthwash or mouth rinse is a product used for oral hygiene. Antiseptic and anti-plaque mouth rinse claims to kill the bacterial plaque causing caries, gingivitis, and bad breath. Anti-cavity mouth rinse uses fluoride to protect against tooth decay. But, it is generally agreed that the use of mouthwash does not eliminate the need for both brushing and flossing.[1][2]

Mouth washes may also be used to help remove toe jam and foot fungus.[citation needed] Alcoholic and strong flavored mouth washes may cause coughing when used for this purpose.

Prescribed Cautions for Mouthwashes

Mouthwashes must be packaged in security packaging. The label must carry a statement or an illustration that draws attention to the security feature if the feature is not self-evident and not an integral part of the product's immediate container.



Bottles of shampoo and lotions manufactured in the early 20th century by the C.L. Hamilton Co. of Washington, D.C.

Shampoo is a hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. The goal is to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much as to make hair unmanageable.

Shampoo, when lathered with water, is a surfactant, which, while cleaning the hair and scalp, can remove the natural oils (sebum) which lubricate the hair shaft.

Shampooing is frequently followed by conditioners which increase the ease of combing and styling.

Hair conditioner is a hair care product that alters the texture and appearance of human hair.


Hair styled with hair gel

Hair gel is a hairstyling product that is used to stiffen hair into a particular hairstyle. The results it produces are usually similar to but stronger than those of hair spray and weaker than those of hair glue or hair wax. A version of gel, known as "Mousse", was patented in the mid-1980s by Kimberly Uslin.[citation needed]

Prescribed Cautions for Hair Dyes,

For certain products, such as hair dyes and products that contain mercury, the manner of eliminating hazards is prescribed by the Cosmetic Regulations.


Hair dyes that contain para-phenylenediamine or other coal tar dye bases or coal tar dye intermediates, must bear the following warning, as prescribed in section 22 of the Cosmetic Regulations, on its outer and inner labels:

"CAUTION: This product contains ingredients that may cause skin irritation on certain individuals and a preliminary test according to accompanying directions should first be made. This product must not be used for dyeing the eyelashes or eyebrows. To do so may cause blindness."


For make-up products (e.g. lipstick, blush, eyeshadow), nail polish and nail enamel, which are sold in a range of colour shades, all colouring agents used in the range may be listed if they are preced ed by the symbol "+/-" or "±" or the phrase "may contain/peut contenir" (as described in section 21.2(2) of the Cosmetic Regulations). It is unacceptable to use this notation for other cosmetic products, such as hair dyes



Deodorants are substances applied to the body mainly to reduce body odor which is caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration. A subgroup of deodorants are "antiperspirants", which prevent odor and reduce sweat produced by parts of the body. Antiperspirants are typically applied to the underarms, while deodorants can also be used on feet and other areas in the form of body sprays.



Face powder is a cosmetic powder applied to the face to set foundation after application. It can also be reapplied throughout the day to minimize shininess caused by oily skin. There is translucent sheer powder, and there is pigmented powder. Certain types of pigmented facial powders are meant be worn alone with no base foundation. Powder tones the face and gives an even appearance. Besides toning the face, some SPF based powders can also reduce skin damage from the sun and environmental stress. It comes packaged either as a compact or as loose powder. It can be applied with a sponge, brush, or powder puff. Uniform distribution over the face is achieved easier when a loose powder is applied.


SOAP, originally defined as Simple Object Access Protocol, is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of Web Services in computer networks. It relies on Extensible Markup Language (XML) as its message format, and usually relies on other Application Layer protocols (most notably Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and HTTP) for message negotiation and transmission. SOAP can form the foundation layer of a web services protocol stack, providing a basic messaging framework upon which web services can be built.


Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, coffe, oils, waxes, and emollients that applies color and texture to the lips. There are many varieties of lipstick.



A lotion is a low- to medium-viscosity, topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin; creams and gels have a higher viscosity. Most lotions are oil-in-water emulsions using a substance such as Cetearyl alcohol to keep the emulsion together, but water-in-oil lotions are also formulated. Lotions are usually applied to external skin with bare hands, a clean cloth, cotton wool or gauze; creams and gels usually only with one's fingers or palms. Many lotions, especially Hand Creams and Face cream are formulated not as a medicine delivery system, but simply to smooth and soften the skin— these are particularly popular with the aging and aged demographic groups, and in the case of face usage, can also be classified as a cosmetic in many cases.

The key components of a skin care lotion, cream or gel emulsion (that is mixtures of oil and water) are the aqueous and oily phases, an emulgent to prevent separation of these two phases, and, if used, the drug substance or substances. A wide variety of other ingredients such as fragrances, glycerol, petroleum jelly, dyes, preservatives, proteins and stabilizing agents are commonly added to lotions.



Plastic surgery is a medical specialty concerned with the correction or restoration of form and function. While famous for aesthetic surgery, plastic surgery also includes a variety of fields such as craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, burn surgery, microsurgery, and reconstructive surgery. The word "plastic" derives from the Greek plastikos meaning to mold or to shape; its use here is not connected with the synthetic polymer material known as plastic.

A facial is a procedure involving a variety of skin treatments, including: steam, exfoliation, extraction, creams, lotions, masks, peels, and massage. Normally performed in a beauty salon but it is also a common spa treatment. .


A manicure is a cosmetic beauty treatment for the fingernails and hands performed either at home or in a nail salon by a nail technician. A manicure treatment can be just for the hands or nails, or can be for both. A common manicure found is the filing, shaping of the nails and the application of polish. There are also manicure services that are specialties for the hands and feet. For the hands, the soaking of a softening substance and the application of a lotion is a common specialty. Another common specialty is applying a similar treatment to the feet and toenails. This is called a pedicure. The word "manicure" derives from Latin: manus for "hand," cura for "care."

In addition to the filing, polishing, and painting of fingernails, a manicure may also include the application of artificial nail tips, acrylics or artificial nail gels. Some manicures can include the painting of pictures or designs on the nails or applying small decals or imitation jewels.

In many areas, manicurists are licensed and follow regulation. Since skin is manipulated and is sometimes trimmed, there is a certain risk of spreading infection when tools are used across many people and, therefore, sanitation is a serious issue.


A pedicure is a way to improve the appearance of the feet and their nails. It provides a similar service as a manicure. The word pedicure comes from the Latin words pedis, which means of the foot, and cura, which means care. It also means the care of the feet and toenails. A pedicure can help prevent nail diseases and nail disorders. Pedicures are not just limited to nails; usually dead skin cells on the bottom of feet are rubbed off using a rough stone called a pumice stone.


Hair removal describes any method of removing hair, especially from the human body.

Depilation affects the part of the hair above the surface of the skin. The most common form of depilation is shaving. Another popular option is the use of chemical depilatories, which work by breaking the disulfide bonds that link the protein chains that give hair its strength, making the hair disintegrate.

Epilation is removal of the entire hair, including the part below the skin, and is therefore longer-lasting. Methods include waxing, sugaring, epilation devices, lasers, threading, intense pulsed light or electrology. Hair is also sometimes removed by plucking with tweezers.



It is of paramount importance that the information required to be shown on the label of a cosmetic be clearly legible. However, some cosmetics are so small that requiring the ingredient list to appear on the label would make it difficult to see the information. Therefore, for cosmetics whose immediate container or outside package is so small that the information would not be clearly legible, the list of ingredients may appear on a tag, tape or card affixed to the container.


In the case of a cosmetic in an ornamental container that has no outside package (i.e. a perfume bottle without a box), the list of ingredients may appear on a tag, tape or card affixed to the container.


In the case of a cosmetic that has no outside package and whose size, shape or texture, or that of its immediate container, makes it impractical for a tag, tape or card to be affixed to the container (e.g. bath beads), the list of ingredients may instead appear in a leaflet that must accompany the cosmetic at the point of sale


The Food and Drugs Act (section 16) and the Cosmetic Regulations (section 24) comprehensively prohibit the sale of products that present a hazard to the health of the user. When an avoidable hazard is associated with the use of a product, the product may be sold on condition that a warning describes how to use, or when not to use, the product in order to eliminate the risk. This requirement can be satisfied through a combination of instructions for use, cautions, and symbols, in both English and French.

In some cases, the manner in which the requirements are applied depends on the two situations described below:

products that have both outer and inner labels (e.g., an aerosol can packaged in a box has two labels; the box bears the outer label, and the can bears the inner label), and

products that have only an inner label (e.g., an aerosol can that is not packaged in a box has only an inner label on the bottle).

A sample or facsimile of the labels and inserts used with a product of this type must be submitted with the Cosmetic Notification (as described in Subsection 30(1) (b) of the Cosmetic Regulations).

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