A Study On The DASH Diet Biology Essay

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Low Sodium DASH Diet recommends only 1,500 mg of sodium a day (Nelson p. 1-2). It has been proven that this combination significantly decreases blood pressure more than using the DASH diet or low Sodium diets on their own. In fact, according to Sacks et. al the low sodium DASH diet led to a decrease in systolic blood pressure of about 11.5 mmHg in hypertensive patients. This is extraordinary considering that this occurred over a 4 week period. The long-term effects of this diet were not studied, but one can only imagine that blood pressure would continue to decrease over time. Another study conducted by Lopes et. al showed significant evidence supporting a relationship between blood pressure and antioxidant capacities. In hypertensive individuals the antioxidant capacities were shown to decrease blood pressure. Since this did not occur in lean normotensive individuals, the findings suggest that a balance between antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress influences blood pressure. The DASH diet has been shown to increase the antioxidant capacity due to the large stress of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Hence, it would only make sense that by decreasing sodium and increasing antioxidant capacity an individual's blood pressure would show significant improvements in a short amount of time. Along with decreasing blood pressure, the DASH diet has been shown to have many other health benefits. According to Mayoclinic, "the DASH diet may offer protection against osteoporosis, cancer, heart disease, stroke and diabetes." Even though weight loss is not a focus of the DASH diet, it seems to be a common occurrence due to the healthier eating style. 

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DASH is an acronym for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. The DASH eating plan involves a diet low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and total fat. This plan also strongly encourages the consumption of fruits, vegetables, fat-free or low-fat milk, milk products, whole grains, fish, poultry, and nuts. It is high in fiber, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The DASH plan is reduced in lean red meats, sweets, added sugars, and sugar-containing beverages (U.S. Depart. of HHS, 2006). The DASH diet is also known to lower LDL cholesterol to help eliminate heart disease and blood pressure. Because of the way the DASH diet is set up and the foods it entails, it tends to lower sodium intake as well.

This eating plan was formulated with the goal to decrease and improve blood pressure. The DASH diet does this by limiting saturated fat and cholesterol, but increasing fiber, protein, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Blood pressure reductions come fast, within two weeks of starting the diet (U.S. Depart. of HHS, 2006).

Following the DASH Eating Plan

Food Group

Daily Servings

Serving Sizes

Grains*

6-8

1 slice of bread

1 oz. dry cereal

½ cup cooked rice, pasta, or cereal

Vegetables

4-5

1 cup raw leafy vegetable

½ cup cut-up raw or cooked vegetable

½ cup vegetable juice

Fruits

4-5

1 medium fruit

¼ cup dried fruit

½ cup fresh, frozen, or canned fruit

½ cup fruit juice

Fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products

2-3

1 cup milk or yogurt

1 ½ oz. cheese

Lean meats, poultry, and fish

6 or less

1 oz. cooked meats, poultry, or fish

1 egg

Nuts, seeds, and legumes

4-5 per week

1/3 cup or 11/2 oz nuts

2 Tbsp peanut butter

2 Tbsp or 1/2 oz seeds

1/2 cup cooked legumes (dry beans

and peas)

Fats and oils+

2-3

1 tsp soft margarine

1 tsp vegetable oil

1 Tbsp mayonnaise

2 Tbsp salad dressing

Sweets and added sugars

5 or less per week

1 Tbsp sugar

1 Tbsp jelly or jam

1/2 cup sorbet, gelatin

1 cup lemonade

Whole grains are recommended for most grain servings as a good source of fiber

and nutrients.

+ Serving sizes vary between 1/2 cup and 11/4 cups, depending on cereal type.

Here is a list of foods that can be found in the Good, Acceptable, and Minimize sections of a diet. There are multiple ones listed per category so that each item can be taken into consideration for a budget. Some items on this list may be more expensive than others. So, it comes down to the consumer as to which items they wish to purchase. Also, if there are items on here that do not fit into one's budget they are still listed under their respected category so that one knows what category they would fall under if they ever came across these items.

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Food List

 Category

Meats

Veggies

Fruits

Fat Sources

Dairy

Grain

Good

Boneless, skinless chicken breasts

Salmon

Tuna

Walleye

Lake Trout

Mackerel

Ground Turkey

Bell Peppers

Cauliflower

Carrots

Spinach

Celery

Broccoli (not the florets)

Apples

Peaches

Kiwi

Oranges

Apricots

Mangos

Nectarines

Bananas

Pineapple

Grapes

Almonds

Walnuts

Pecans

Natural Peanut Butter

Natural Almond Butter

Olive Oil (Don't use for cooking; has a low smoke point)

Yogurt (Preferably plain, fat free)

Skim Milk

Whole Grain Rice

Wild Rice

Ezekiel Bread

Whole Grain Bread

Acceptable

Lean beef (Round, Chuck, Loin. Ground is OK as long as its 15% or less fat)

Lean Pork (Tenderloin, Chops)

Lean Veal

 

 

 

 

Low fat granola bars

Avoid

Bacon

Processed Meats (hot dogs, etc)

Anything fried

Jerky

Broccoli Florets

Strawberries

Pomegranates

Raspberries

Blackberries

Chips

 

Packaged cake products (doughnuts, Little Debbies, etc)

The next section deals with a weeklong meal plan with consideration to breakfast, lunch, snacks, and dinner. The recipes for all of the dinner entrées can be located after the meal plan. This meal plan takes into consideration both our Case Study's acid reflux and DASH diet recommendations. As far as alcohol considerations go, the DASH diet recommends that men limit their alcoholic intake to two or fewer drinks a night. Also, that takes into regard normal serving sizes so that someone does not just use a larger glass to get more out of their "two" drinks a night. So, depending on the type of alcohol one is supposed to take into consideration normal serving sizes. Furthermore, another thing to take into consideration for a client with high blood pressure is caffeine intake. Caffeine's direct influence on blood pressure still remains unclear but it is believed to temporarily raise blood pressure. It is recommended that if one believes that their caffeine intake is directly affecting their blood pressure levels to seek a doctor for further information on what their caffeine consumption should be (Nelson, p.1).

Day

Breakfast

Snack

Lunch

Snack

Dinner

Sunday

Egg White &Bell Pepper Omelet

8 oz skim or 1% milk

2 slices whole-wheat bread

1 tbsp margarine

1 medium apple

Soup and Sandwich:

• 1 1/2 cups cream of chicken soup

• 2 slices whole grain bread

• 4 oz deli-style sliced chicken

• 1 tbsp low-fat mayonnaise

• 1 lettuce leaf

1/2 cup raw carrot sticks

20 seedless grapes Winsor &Coke Zero (1 serving)

Chicken Pot Pie

1 small tossed salad

2 tbsp low-fat or fat-free dressing

1 cup steamed carrots

1 cup sliced pears

Monday

1 english muffin (2 halves)

1 tbsp margarine

8 oz skim or 1% milk

1/2 cup sliced peaches

1 small banana

Stuffed Tuna Pocket:

• 1 whole grain pita

• 4 oz water-packed tuna (rinsed)

• 2 tbsp low-fat mayonnaise

• 1/4 cup cucumber slices

• 1 cup lettuce

Celery sticks &Natural Peanut Butter

Beef and Vegetable Stir-Fry

1 small tossed salad

2 tbsp low-fat or fat-free dressing

1 cup fresh or frozen strawberries

1 dinner roll

1 tbsp margarine

Tuesday

1 1/2 cup puffed wheat cereal

8 oz skim or 1% milk

2 slices whole-wheat toast

1 tbsp margarine

1 small banana

1 rice cake with 1 tbsp peanut butter

Baked Salmon w/Southwest Marinade

• 1 cup whole grain rice

1 cup sliced peaches

1 cup apricots, canned in juice

Chicken and Mushroom Stroganoff

1 small tossed salad

2 tbsp low-fat or fat-free dressing

1 cup steamed green beans

1 dinner roll

1 tbsp margarine

Wednesday

1 cup bran flakes cereal

8 oz skim or 1% milk

1 english muffin (2 halves)

1 tbsp margarine

1 cup fresh or frozen blueberries

20 seedless grapes

Soup and Sandwich:

• 1 1/2 cups chicken noodle soup (homemade)

• 2 slices whole grain bread with 2 tbsp peanut butter

1 cup unsweetened applesauce

1/2 cup celery sticks

4 whole-grain wheat crackers

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Grilled Chicken Breast

1 small tossed salad

2 tbsp low-fat or fat-free dressing

1 cup steamed carrots

1 cup sliced pears

Thursday

1/2 cup Scrambled Egg Whites

8 oz skim or 1% milk

2 slices whole-wheat toast

1 tbsp margarine

1 cup unsweetened applesauce

1 cup sliced pears

Chicken Wrap:

• 1 fat-free flour tortilla, 7"to 8"diameter

• 4 oz diced chicken breast

• 2 tbsp low-fat mayonnaise

• 1/2 cup shredded lettuce

• 1 oz low-fat shredded mozzarella cheese

1 cup sliced peaches

1 small banana

Vegetable Beef Stew

1 small tossed salad

2 tbsp low-fat or fat-free dressing

1 cup sliced pears

1 dinner roll

1 tbsp margarine

Friday

8 oz skim or 1% milk

1 bagel

1 tbsp peanut butter or low-fat cream cheese

1 small banana

1 small pear

Soup and Sandwich:

• 2 cups cream of potato soup

• 2 slices whole-wheat bread

• 4 oz white turkey luncheon meat

• 1 tbsp low-fat mayonnaise

• 2 lettuce leaves

1/2 cup raw carrot sticks

2 oz pretzels

Pork Chops with Applesauce

1 small tossed salad

2 tbsp low-fat or fat-free dressing

1 medium baked potato

1 tbsp margarine

1 cup sliced peaches

Saturday

1 cup corn flakes

8 oz skim or 1% milk

1 small banana

1 english muffin (2 halves)

1 tbsp margarine

3/4 cup apricots

Stuffed Chicken Pocket:

• 1 whole grain pita

• 4 oz diced chicken breast

• 2 tbsp low-fat mayonnaise

• 1 cup shredded lettuce

• 1 oz low-fat shredded mozzarella cheese

1 cup fresh or frozen blueberries

1 rice cake with 1 tbsp low-fat cream cheese

Oven-Fried Chicken

1 small tossed salad

2 tbsp low-fat or fat-free dressing

1 cup steamed carrots

1 cup apricots

Finally, the last section displays various recipes that are easy to make meals that can be found in the above meal plan. Also, there are a few other recipes included if one wants to substitute them in to the meal plan. [1]These recipes can be found online provided by, "The New York Times Company."

Chicken Pot Pie

Prep Time: 15 minutes

Cook Time: 40 minutes

Total Time: 55 minutes

Ingredients:

• 1 lb boneless, skinless chicken breasts

• 1 tbsp olive or vegetable oil

• 1 cup frozen carrots, thawed and drained

• 1 cup frozen peas, thawed and drained

• 1 can (14 oz) cream-style corn

• ¾ cup skim milk, divided into 1/4 cup and 1/2 cup portions

• 1 cup biscuit mix

Preparation:

• Preheat oven to 400 degrees F

• Cut chicken breasts into 1" cubes and season with salt

• Heat vegetable oil in a skillet over medium-high heat

• Add chicken and cook for 8 minutes, stirring occasionally, or until browned

• Place chicken into a 3-quart baking dish, and add carrots, peas, corn and 1/4 cup milk

• Cover and bake for 25 minutes

• In a mixing bowl combine the biscuit mix and 1/2 cup milk. Stir until a soft dough forms

• Remove baking dish from oven and uncover

• Spoon dough onto chicken and vegetables with a tablespoon

• Bake for 10 minutes, or until the biscuits are golden brown

Beef and Vegetable Stir-fry

This recipe uses a minimal amount of vegetable oil, so you won't have to worry about heartburn that's triggered by regular frying. The recipe is also adaptable, allowing you to add more vegetables, or substitute those listed here for a few of your own favorites.

Prep Time: 20 minutes

Cook Time: 20 minutes

Total Time: 40 minutes

Ingredients:

• Nonstick cooking spray

• 2 teaspoons vegetable oil, divided

• 3 tablespoons reduced-sodium soy sauce

• 1/4 cup water

• 1 tablespoon brown sugar

• 1 tablespoon cornstarch

• 1 lb boneless, beef sirloin steak, cut across grain into 1/8" strips

• 1/2 cup diagonally sliced celery

• 1 cup diagonally sliced carrots

• 3 cups small broccoli (not florets)

• 1 1/2 cups whole grain rice, cooked according to directions

Preparation:

• In a mixing bowl combine soy sauce, water, brown sugar, and cornstarch. Set aside.

• Spray a large skillet with nonstick vegetable spray and then add 2 teaspoons vegetable oil, heating over a medium heat.

• When skillet is hot, add the beef strips, and stir-fry for 3 to 4 minutes, or until the beef is thoroughly cooked.

• Remove beef strips from skillet and set aside.

• Add celery, carrots, and broccoli florets to skillet and stir-fry for 4 to 5 minutes.

• Add approximately 1 tablespoon of water, cover skillet, and cook vegetables until they are tender.

• Add soy sauce and water mixture to skillet

• Stir constantly until sauce thickens.

• Add beef strips back to the skillet.

• Simmer until heated through.

• Serve over rice.

Serves 4

Chicken and Mushroom Stroganoff

An old favorite dish with chicken instead of beef. Try this hearty heartburn friendly dish.

Prep Time: 10 minutes

Cook Time: 20 minutes

Total Time: 30 minutes

Ingredients:

• Nonstick vegetable cooking spray

• 1 tablespoon vegetable oil, divided into 1/2 tablespoon servings

• 1 1/2 lb boneless, skinned chicken breasts

• 3 cups sliced mushrooms

• 1 cup low-fat sour cream

• 8 oz linguine noodles, cooked without salt or fat

Preparation:

• Cut chicken breasts into 1/2" strips

• Spray a large skillet with the nonstick cooking spray, then add 1/2 tablespoon vegetable oil

• Heat oil until hot over a medium-high heat.

• Add chicken breast strips and cook, stirring occasionally, for 4-5 minutes, or until it is no longer pink

• Remove chicken and set aside

• Adding the remaining 1/2 vegetable oil and mushrooms to the same skillet.

• Sauté mushrooms for 3-4 minutes.

• Add low-fat sour cream and salt to the skillet.

• Stir and heat thoroughly.

• Add chicken to the mushroom mixture

• Serve over linguine noodles

Serves 4

Pasta and Ham

Pasta prepared with low sodium chicken broth and low sodium, lean ham helps make this hearty main dish heartburn-friendly.

Cook Time: 20 minutes

Total Time: 20 minutes

Ingredients:

• 12 ounces pasta (any type), uncooked

• 2 tablespoons olive oil

• 1 14.5 ounce can reduced-sodium chicken broth

• 3/4 teaspoon dried basil, crumbled (or 1 tablespoon fresh)

• 4 ounces lean, low-sodium boiled ham, thinly sliced and cut into 1/2 inch strips

• Grated Parmesan cheese

Preparation:

• Cook the pasta according to package directions.

• Heat oil in a medium saucepan heat over medium heat.

• Pour in the broth, then stir in the basil, and cook for 3 minutes, or until it just starts to boil.

• Pour pasta into a large colander to drain. Return the pasta to the pan and pour in the broth.

• Add ham to pasta and toss well to combine. Cook for about 2 minutes over medium-high heat, or until piping hot.

• Grated Parmesan cheese can be added when pasta is served, if desired.

Serves 4

Vegetable Beef Stew

Pasta prepared with low sodium chicken broth and low sodium, lean ham helps make this hearty main dish heartburn-friendly.

Cook Time: 20 minutes

Total Time: 20 minutes

Ingredients:

• 12 ounces pasta (any type), uncooked

• 2 tablespoons olive oil

• 1 14.5 ounce can reduced-sodium chicken broth

• 3/4 teaspoon dried basil, crumbled (or 1 tablespoon fresh)

• 4 ounces lean, low-sodium boiled ham, thinly sliced and cut into 1/2 inch strips

• Grated Parmesan cheese

Preparation:

• Cook the pasta according to package directions.

• Heat oil in a medium saucepan heat over medium heat.

• Pour in the broth, then stir in the basil, and cook for 3 minutes, or until it just starts to boil.

• Pour pasta into a large colander to drain. Return the pasta to the pan and pour in the broth.

• Add ham to pasta and toss well to combine. Cook for about 2 minutes over medium-high heat, or until piping hot.

• Grated Parmesan cheese can be added when pasta is served, if desired.

Serves 4

Pork Chops with Applesauce

Prep Time: 10 minutes

Cook Time: 30 minutes

Total Time: 40 minutes

Ingredients:

• 3/4 cup unsweetened applesauce

• 1/4 teaspoon ground ginger

• 1 tablespoon reduced-sodium soy sauce

• Nonstick vegetable cooking spray

• 1 tablespoon vegetable oil

• 4 6 oz lean boneless pork chops

• 1 cup long-grain white rice, cooked

Preparation:

• In mixing bowl mix together the applesauce, ginger, and soy sauce. Set aside.

• Spray nonstick cooking spray onto a large skillet.

• Over medium heat, add vegetable oil.

• When the oil is hot add the pork chops and brown on both sides for about 7-8 minutes.

• Ladle applesauce mixture over the pork chops.

• Cover, reduce heat, and simmer over a low heat for about 20 minutes, or until the pork chops are thoroughly cooked through, and are tender.

• Serve with rice.

Serves 4

Oven-Fried Chicken

Cook Time: 25 minutes

Total Time: 25 minutes

Ingredients:

• 4 skinless chicken breasts

• 1 cup low-fat milk

• 1 teaspoon vegetable oil

• 1 cup flour

• 2 teaspoons pepper

• 2 teaspoons salt

• Vegetable spray

Preparation:

• Wash and dry chicken.

• Place the chicken in a gallon-size storage bag, pour in milk, seal the bag and refrigerate for 30 minutes.

• Preheat oven to 400 degrees.

• Add vegetable oil to bottom of a 9x9 baking dish, spreading it until entire bottom has been coated.

• Place the flour, pepper and salt in another gallon-size storage bag, seal, and shake until all ingredients are blended.

• Remove chicken from first storage bag, drain, then place it one piece at a time into the bag filled with the seasoned flour. Shake to coat the chicken well.

• Place the chicken in the prepared baking dish.

• Coat the top of the chicken pieces with a generous coat of vegetable spray.

• Bake in center of oven for 20 to 25 minutes, or until the chicken is browned on the outside and cooked throughout on the inside.

Serves 4

Low-Sodium, Whole Wheat Chicken Noodle Soup

Prep Time: 10 minutes

Cook Time: 25 minutes

Serves 7-8

Ingredients:

1.5 tbsp olive oil

2 cups cubed potatoes (with the skin on)

1 cup chopped white onion

1 cup diced celery

(option 1/2 cup coined carrots)

2 - 900 mL of ready to serve lower sodium chicken broth

1/4 tsp thyme

1/2 tsp ground black pepper

2 cups green peas (frozen)

2 cups thin, whole grain noodles (broken spaghetti works too, or quinoa)

2 cups chopped, cooked, white chicken meat (a rotisserie bird is perfect)

Preparation:

In a large pot, on medium heat, place oil, potato and onion. Cook until the potatoes are slightly tender, or about 10 minutes.

Add the broth, thyme, pepper and peas. Cook another 5 minutes.

Add the chicken and noodles and simmer the soup on low-medium heat for another 10 minutes, or until the noodles are tender. The smaller the noodles the faster this will be.

Baked salmon with Southeast Asian Marinade:

Ingredients:

1/2 cup pineapple juice

2 garlic cloves, minced

1 teaspoon low-sodium soy sauce

1/4 teaspoon ground ginger

2 salmon fillets, each 4 ounces

1/4 teaspoon sesame oil

Freshly ground black pepper, to taste

1 cup diced fresh fruit, such as pineapple, mango and papaya

Directions:

In a small bowl, add the pineapple juice, garlic, soy sauce and ginger.

Stir to mix evenly.

Arrange the salmon fillets in a small baking dish.

Pour the pineapple juice mixture over the top.

Put in the refrigerator and marinate for 1 hour.

Turn the salmon periodically as needed.

Preheat the oven to 375 F.

Lightly coat 2 squares of aluminum foil with cooking spray.

Place the marinated salmon fillets on the aluminum foil.

Drizzle each with 1/8 teaspoon sesame oil.

Sprinkle with pepper and top each with 1/2 cup diced fruit.

Wrap the foil around the salmon, folding the edges down to seal.

Bake until the fish is opaque throughout when tested with the tip of a knife, about 10 minutes on each side.

Transfer the salmon to warmed individual plates and serve immediately.