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It is very necessary to regulate the glucose levels in the body of the diabetic patients, regular check up is required for them to monitor their glucose levels in bodies. The glucose in the body can be measured by taking the sample of their blood, plasma or the serum. The diabetes is of two types they are type 1 and type 2, type 2 is most commonly occurred diabetes due to the obesity mainly. And only 10% of the diabetic patient will suffer with the type 1 which is caused due to the dysfunction of the beta cells in the pancreas. Neglecting the blood glucose level in the diabetes patient will result in Hypoglycaemia causes blindness, cardiovascular disease, even coma and last death. So the blood glucose levels must be regularly monitored for the diabetes patient, which helps them in the regulation of their diet in maintaining the glucose level in the body.
In olden day the glucose levels are measured using the sophisticated machines which can be operated only by the lab technician and it is costly. These processes are over taken by the Biosensor which helps in the analysing the glucose level very easily and also makes the apparatus portable and easy to use. The basic method used in the glucose estimation at the present is based on chromogenic or electrochemical reaction in the enzymes such as glucose oxidase, hexokinase and dehydrogenase. The portable apparatus will work with the help of the battery and can analyse the glucose levels with the small amount of the blood sample with greater accuracy. The devices which are currently available in the market are very handy for the patients they can operate it by their own, But it also got some limitations because the patient can have vision loss caused due to the diabetes so they can't notice the correct value in the display. And the patients with the Parkinson disease can also have a hearing problem.
The basic glucose oxidase reaction which is used in the biosensor for the glucose analysis is
They presence of the amount of the hydrogen peroxide will tell us the amount of glucose in the sample. This reaction is mediated by the biosensor and helps by making this reaction to produce the electrical impulse in the form of electrons which is calibrated by the device. And make this reaction into electrochemical reaction. One of the examples of the mediator is the Ferrocene.
This device consists of a very large LCD screen with very dark display it is ideal for the patients who cant hear properly due to hearing loss and also for the low sight patients. This device will give the detail voice instructions to the patients what to do and says the report. This device is based on the Finger Pricking technique. It has a well griped rubber finish which is helpful for the patients to handle. This device is powered by the battery and it can be connected to the computer with help of the USB port to upload the data.
It is a microprocessor based device in which the microprocessor will take the all information for the blood sample that is applied to the sample strip and gives out the result in the display screen. The microprocessor is in turn attached with the chip also called as speech chip which will collect the information for the microprocessor and converts in to the audio output through speaker.
The patient put the blood sample on the probe or the strip and placed inside the device socket, to measure the (M) button must pressed and the process will start. As the process start the photo detectors will filter the respective wavelengths of glucose absorption spectrum at 1 kHz and after few seconds the wavelengths like 2.14 µm, 2.26 µm and 2.30 µm will be recorded. And then they are calibrated by pressing the (C) button it is a bit typical process as it requires a known concentration of the glucose solution.
Jonathon T. Olesberg (2001) in his research he explained that Spectroscopy has different factor which involve in the glucose analysis and observed usually the glucose concentration are in the wavelength between 2 -2.5 µm in range (Infrared light). As the glucose has low absorbance in water infrared light absorbs glucose.
Blood Analytes Absorbance Spectra
Source: Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring in the 2.0-2.5 micron wavelength range, JT Olesberg, 14th
Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, La Jolla, CA, November 12-15, 2001
It is worn as watch, measures the level of sugar by skin method without sticking, automatically reads the level of sugar at 10 minutes within 13 hours, and helps you analyze curve glycaemia.
In the GlucoWatch Biographer two main parts:
G2 Biographer sugar level calculated on the basis of signals from Auto sensor Displays reads and stores to 8500 results Auto Sensor is put on to Biographer and comes into contact with skin poorly absorbed glucose and provide signals to Biographer allows reads for 13 hours replaced each time before using Biographer (after a maximum of 13 hours)
How GlucoWatch Biographer?
GlucoWatch Biographer using electricity for very low intensity glucose molecules retrieves by skin and collects them in two disks jelly in Auto Sensors, where they are subjected to chemical reactions. An electrical signal resulting from the reaction is proportional to the concentration of glucose. Using this signal Biographer calculates the blood sugar level.
Therefore glucose concentration measured Auto Sensor, and then on the basis of this result Auto Biographer calculates the level of sugar in the blood and displays and remembers the calculated value.
Biographer allows you to set personal alert levels in the blood sugar level. Before using Biographer determines the low and high level alarm them to Biographer. Biographer compares made every 20 minutes readings from these established levels and beyond these emergency levels start. Alarm starts in where the level of sugar in the blood is reduced dramatically.
Biographer trend indicators allow you to determine whether the level of glucose submits that is grounded. Biographer tracks the level of sugar in the blood. Each is stored and can be in any time displayed on the screen Biographer.
Biographer may be used:
In order to analyse the curve glycaemia, during normal activity during the day and night during sleep, at home and at work, in order to frequent the level of sugar in the blood, by the age of 7 years.
3) Microwave Blood Glucose analyser :
The routine finger pricking for checking the patient's glucose levels is a little painful process as the diabetes patients need a continuous verification of their blood glucose level to control hypoglycaemia. To rectify this problem electromagnetic sensor which an non-invasive procedure to observe the glucose levels in the body blood. The new research shows that the work of this sensor is very effective.
Dr. Randall Jean (2008), Electromagnetic waves are use by the sensor in measuring the glucose level in the blood present in the body, the waves travel through the skin and return back in to the device which causes the transference of energy. He said that microwaves frequency range is perfect glucose estimation in the body apart from the body fat and the bone present in the body. And the electromagnetic waves are safer then the ionized X ray molecules.
To measure the glucose levels in the blood the thumb must be pressed on the sensor. The study on the 20 people states that it is more accurate then the finger pricking biosensor devices which is available in the present market and it also passed the quantitative test.
4) Implantable miniaturized telemetry glucose Biosensor
1) Beach, Richard Douglas, Ph.D. (2000). Fully implantable miniaturized telemetry based glucose biosensor and real-time video camera implant for tissue biocompatibility studies. Fully implantable miniaturized telemetry based glucose biosensor and real-time video camera implant for tissue biocompatibility studies. 1 (1), 175.
2) Frank M Brunkhorst and Hans G Wahl. (2006). Critical Care. Blood glucose measurements in the critically ill: more than just a blood draw. 10 (6), 178.
3) Matthew Bularzik, et al.. (2006). Accessible Blood Glucose Monitor.
4) Matt Pene. (2008). Baylor Researcher Creates New Way to Test Blood-Sugar Level. Available: http://www.baylor.edu/pr/news.php?action=story&story=49271#. Last accessed 14/12/2009.