A Company Case Study On Cell Transplants Singapore Biology Essay

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Introduction to Cell Transplant Singapore. Cell Transplants Singapore Pte. Ltd. (CTS) was established on May 20, 2000 by Prof. Peter K Law. CTS holds international patentship in this cutting edge platform biotechnology of providing myoblast transfer treatment & producug myoblast in a certain way. CTS is able to produce myoblast that was researched & founded by Prof. Law/ CTS thus hold the trade secrets in cell proliferation, transport and implantation of myoblast. CTS hold the exclusive license of Prof. Law's Singapore's patents.

CTS has a team of dedicated scientists and personnel skilled in cell manufacturing, quality assurance or quality control and ISO certified facility thus able to produce myoblast in huge amount for both research & treatment alike

With a team of dedicated scientists and personnel skilled in cell manufacturing and quality assurance / quality control, the CTS facility is able to produce pure myoblasts by the billions for research and treatment.

What is myoblast?

A myoblast is a type of embryonic naive cell that gives rise to muscle cells .The term myoblast is used for representation skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle.

Skeletal muscle fibres are made when myoblasts combine together; muscle fibres therefore have multiple nuclei, each nucleus originating from a single myoblast. The fusion of myoblasts is specific to skeletal muscle onl and not cardiac muscle or smooth muscle.

Within the muscle fibre there are bundles of myofibrils which are composed of a series of sarcomeres. Sarcomeres are the basic contractile units which consist of thin and thick filaments. Thin filaments are actin filaments and thick filaments consist of an arrangement of myosin proteins. The sarcomere does not contain organelles or a nucleus.

Unlike stem cells, myoblasts can only become muscle cells and not any other form of functioning cells.

MTT (Myoblast Transfer Therapy)

How is myoblast produce in CTS?

Extraction of tissue of patient of choice

Place extraction into buffer solution( phosphate buffered saline)

Removal of other unnecessary tissue like fats & connective tissue, thus remaining muscles satellite tissue can be use for cultivation

Cultivation of muscles satellite tissue in two Petri dishes

Upon reaching80 -90% concentration, further cultivation of satellite tissue in two 75cm2 flask

Upon reaching80 -90% concentration, further cultivation of satellite tissue in two 850cm2 roller bottles

Upon reaching80 -90% concentration, further cultivation of satellite tissue in ten 850cm2 flask

Upon reaching80 -90% concentration, satellite can he harvest fore research or treatment

What is MMT?

Myoblast Transfer Therapy (MMT) which can also be known as muscle staining, is the therapy process whereby the normal human genome is transferred to a patient’s body through the injection of cultured myoblasts at a certain location for treatment. Satellite tissue ensures the production of muscle fibre. The evidence of genetic repair is the production of a protein called dystrophin which plays a key role in there constructing the structural integrity of the muscle cell membrane. Dystrophin is not produced at all in Duchenne patients.( a gentic disorder that cause the patient to be unable to produce dystrophin) In addition, the muscle cells which have already degenerated and died are replaced by the newly injected myoblasts. Muscle staining reveals that the injected myoblasts survived within the patients' muscles even after six years.(research conducted by SCT)

Myoblast Transfer Therapy serves two important functions:

1. Repair genetically abnormal muscle cells.

2. Replenish lost, deteriorated cells

The Various MMT Treatments

How does myoblast treat ensure regeneration of muscles cells?

The satellite cells leave the muscle fiber, divide repeatedly, and flatten into spindle-shaped forms - myoblasts. These myoblasts then repair the injured cell by fusing with it, adding their healthy nuclei to other nuclei previously present inside the muscle cell. The myoblasts also form entirely new muscle cells by fusing with each other. These healthy myoblasts is used to rescue damaged muscle by fusing with the defective cells. By doing so the healthy nuclei can provide the normal genes which are lacking in the genetically defective muscle cells.

Muscular dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease characterized by continuous degeneration of skeletal muscles. Severe muscle degeneration cripples both children and adults and in many forms, it could possibly take their lives as a result of the failure of the respiratory muscles.

Satellite cell is planted into affected area(e.g leg biceps muscles). Satellite tissue ensures the production of muscle fibre. The evidence of genetic repair is the production of a protein called dystrophin which plays a key role in there constructing the structural integrity of the muscle cell membrane. Dystrophin is not produced at all in Duchenne patients.( a gentic disorder that cause the patient to be unable to produce dystrophin) In addition, the muscle cells which have already degenerated and died are replaced by the newly injected myoblasts.

MTT involves taking a two-gram muscle biopsy from the quadriceps of a young normal male of age between 13 to 26, culturing some 10,000 satellite cells released to become 50 billion pure myoblasts in 45 days and injecting the myoblasts into 82 large muscle groups of the dystrophic patient under general anaesthesia.

The patient takes oral cyclosporine as an immunosuppressant for two months to suppress rejection of the allografts. Since myoblast fusion completes within three weeks after MTT, and since myotubes and mature myofibres do not express major histocompatibility complex class 1 (MHC-1) surface antigens, it is not necessary to administer lifelong immunosuppression unlike other forms of cell transplant

As a cell therapy, MTT provides normal myoblasts that fuse with each other, forming new myofibres to replenish myofibre loss. As a genome therapy, MTT provides normal myoblasts that spontaneously insert their nuclei into the dystrophic myofibre to effect genetic complementation repair.

Heart diseases (HCT, heart cell transplant)

Heart muscle degeneration is the leading cause of debilitation and death. It is the common underlying innate and infectious cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, angina, coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease, all of which constitute cardiovascular diseases. Basically, the heart muscle will start to deteriorate and lose it ability to pump its muscle consistently. The inconsistent pumping can cause various heart diseases to show.

Heart muscle degeneration results in loss of live cardiomyocytes, contractile filaments, thus worsening heart function and lesser healthy blood circulation. The damaged heart responds by cell division of cardiomyocytes. However, such regenerative capacity is hardly significant. Cardiomyocytes in research will undergo no more than three to five divisions, yielding an insufficient number of cells to repopulate sufficient heart muscle related cells to ensure the proper fully functioning heart

Cardiomyocytes do not multiply significantly because the human telomeric DNA repeats in these terminally differentiated cells are low. Telomerasing cardiomyocytes in researching processes is still a technical challenge for scientist and researcher. Without significant mitotic activity, surviving cardiomyocytes cannot provide enough new cells to maintain normal heart function.

The degenerative heart also transmits biochemical signals to recruit stem cells from the stroma and the bone marrow in an attempt to repair the muscle damage. Much of the recruited stem cells differentiate to become fibroblasts instead of cardiomyocytes, thus forming fibrous scars and not contractile filaments or fibre muscles not specifically for cardio heart purposes.

Despite the claimed success of transmyocardial revascularisation using laser, angiogenic factors and genes, the damaged myocardium needs additional live myogenic cells to deposit contractile filaments to regain heart function, preferably before fibroblast infiltration, which leads to scar formation. The scarring of heart will actually affect the performance of the heart muscle fiber performance.

- How Myoblast transplant treatment helps in dealing with heart diseases

Myoblasts are differentiated cells destined to become muscles. Unlike cardiomyocytes, myoblasts have a longer telomere DNA subunits and are capable of extensive mitosis. Myoblasts obtained from young adults can undergo 50 divisions without any loss of myogenicity or development of tumourigenicity. Myoblasts survive and proliferate in intercellular fluid. Their survival does not depend on vascularisation or nerve innervations.

After the transplant, human myoblasts migrate and fuse spontaneously, beginning at day 53 gestation, sharing their nuclei in a common gene pool and forming multinucleated myotubes within the somites. The ability to undergo mitosis, to migrate and to fuse are conserved in mononucleated satellite cells that are essentially myoblast reserves in adult muscles.

Satellite cells are found between the basement membrane and the plasma membrane of every skeletal muscle fibre. Approximately 11% of all skeletal myonuclei belong to satellite cells in young rats, declining to about 6% in the aged. In human beings past age 26, there are fewer satellite cells, each with shorter telomeres. Their muscle biopsies thus yield fewer satellite cells that also exhibit less proliferative vigour in cell culture.

Upon single myofibre injury, the satellite cells are activated to divide and migrate from beneath the basement membrane. They divide extensively, forming hundreds of myoblasts that fuse spontaneously at the site of injury to repair the host myofibre. They also fuse among themselves to form new myofibres to substitute for lost function. The signals to stop myoblast division and to initiate myotube formation appear to be cell confluence and low serum level. Thus forming

Anti-aging Cosmetology

Myoblasts are spindle-shaped cells much smaller than the polygonal skin fibroblasts. When planted onto the skin, they develop into a strong, brighter and smoother skin covering that obvious showing wrinkles, blemishes and age-spots. When implanted into the muscle under the skin, they augment the shape & size, consistency and strength of the injected muscle, thus able to create the appearance that the skin is tighter and visible vein to be less visible.

The CEO of CTS (Prof. Law holds two world patents for cosmetic enhancement; one for subcutaneous injection and one for supracutaneous 'plating'. These patents govern the use of the myoblasts in controlling the size, shape, consistency, texture, tone, color and strength of the face, forehead, eyes, ears, nose, mouth lips, chin, jaw, neck, shoulders, arms, hands, chest, breasts, back, buttock or anywhere that skin loosening can occur

PEST Analysis the various treatments


Myoblast is a type of immature muscles, after implantation trigger regeneration of muscle cells so as to regain normal muscle mass & function in area of transplant. Stem cell treatment also using immature cells to regain normal functioning or replacement of a certain part of the body.

Stem cell treatment it’s more controversial comparing to myoblast treatment. Stem cells treatment uses the cells that are not differentiated to a certain functioning cell. The stem cells can be use to clone or create identical human being, thus such ability for stem cell to create an identical human from it tested sample is subjected to human right issue.

Myoblast treatment on the other hand uses immature muscles cell which at most can form on full function muscles tissue and not a possible exact copy of the patient (using the patient sample)

Myoblast therapy receives little or no feedback on human rights about its application in the medical field.


Since it is a Singaporean company, it is one of the many expanding companies that are here to expand the science related field market. Since Singapore is moving towards becoming place for higher forms of industries like life sciences, wafer fabrication and so on.Cell Transplant Singapore Pte Ltd a major player in myoblast culture & therapy and patentship for methods of culture & therapy thus having monopoly in the field.

Cell Transplant Singapore is a part of Singapore growth pool of biotechnology that provides employment for graduates’ graduating from the various polytechnic and university. The myoblast treatment also part of the medical field thus expanding the market for treatments available in Singapore.


Social wise, the development of myoblast treatment was targeted at treating MD (muscular dystrophy). Patients of MD will have the ability to regain normal functioning of their respiratory system and possible movement function thus enabling patient to survive thru adulthood and able to move like a normal human beings after several consecutive myoblast transfer therapy.


The patent development of Myoblast culture and therapy by CTS shows improvement in Singapore ever expanding biotechnoly field which in turn open more doors for research and development relating to myoblast studies or muscle related studies. Such studies will further enchance Singapore biotechnology development.

How does CTS edge up against other myoblast producing plant?

1. Having patent to produce myoblast for treatment directly from patient.

Autologous myoblasts(self) treatment is definitely better than allogenic myoblast(external ) treatment. Thus, an autologous myoblast transplant would be injecting one's own cultured myoblasts back into oneself, and an allogeneic myoblast transplant would involve injecting another person's cultured myoblasts into oneself.

2. Having a 95% myoblast, or higher purity of myoblast comparing to other organization & sole patentship

Cell Transplants International is able to produce myoblasts with greater than 95% purity and viability in the tens of billions. CTI owns the patents which protect all aspects of myoblast production and transplantation. No other organization has the knowledge or experience of myoblast production that CTI does since it is one of the pioneering companies dealing with myoblast culture & therapy. Whereas CTI regularly produces 50 billion myoblasts at 95% purity per MTT for a MD patient, other companies produces 500 million myoblasts at 35% to 65% purity.


Myoblast culture and treatment is one of the new things that are becoming more and more commercialize to cater to ever growing demand for better treatment and samples for in depth research relating to muscles studies.

Singapore Cell Transplant is also a good example of a successful biotechnology entrepreneurship in Singapore. Thus it also shows that there is a big room for any scientist with a viable idea and a capital is able to create their market in the biotechnology field not just for the Singapore market but also the international market for research and medical field.