A Body Mass Index Case Study Biology Essay

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Caitlin's position as a chef in a very busy kitchen especially at lunch times can be very stressful.How her system responds could become a

contributing factor for heart disease.Caitlin could easily eat and smoke more. Clinical and statistical studies have identified several factors that increase the risk of coronary heart disease and heart attack.The more risk factors Caitlin has,the greater the chance she will develop heart disease. The supplied data contains high blood pressure and obesity as primary risk factors;there being no secondary risk factors applicable here.

Her blood pressure reading is 140/90mmHg; a borderline result (Appendix A) .If worsening it will enter a mild to moderate hypertension zone, the heart's workload will increase causing it to enlarge and weaken over time.It increases the risk of stroke,heart attack,kidney failure and heart failure.When high blood pressure exists, as it does, in this scenario; with obesity and smoking,the risk of heart attack or stroke increases several times.

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Her resting heart rate is 80bpm at the top end of an average reading of 70-80.(Appendix B) Some people simply have a higher/lower resting heart rate that cannot be attributed to any specific cause.Anything above 84 borders on the dangerous.This is a borderline figure that if worsening will indicate a strong possibility of pre-hypertension.

BMI 31.2(given) is distinctly overweight.She is clearly obese because the BMI should be 25 or less; the cut off point for women being 27.3 (Appendix D) As BMI increases throughout the range of moderate and severe overweight,so does the risk of cardiovascular complications including hypertension and stroke.

Waist-to-hip ratio 0.95(given) is significantly above a figure of 0.85 which is a cut-off figure for the risk of developing heart disease.(Appendix D) Caitlin because of her excess body fat,especially if a lot of it is in the waist area,which presumably it is from the waist-hip-ratio is more likely to develop heart disease even if she has no other risk factors.

Body fat 34%(given) should be within the range of 21-24%[American Council on Exercise] The result makes it quite clear that there is a probable `risk of Caitlin developing CVD.(Appendix C)The percentage of body weight considered "essential fat" is around 10% for women.The American Dietetic Association recommends that women should have 20-25% fat.

Cardiovascular disease is avoidable yet it has a mortality figure of more than 120,000 deaths per annum.Angina has 1.5 million sufferers with 275,000 experiencing heart attacks each year.Government is committed to reducing heart disease by 40%.

APPENDIX A:

By Disabled World - 2008-02-20

Normal Blood Pressure - Blood pressure reading below 120/80 is considered normal.

High Blood Pressure - Blood pressure of 140/90 or higher is considered high blood pressure. If one or both numbers are usually high, you have high blood pressure.

Low Blood Pressure - Blood pressure that is too low is known as hypotension. The similarity in pronunciation with hypertension can cause confusion.

 High Blood Pressure Range

Systolic pressure (mm Hg)

Diastolic pressure (mm Hg)

Stages of High Blood Pressure

 210

 120

 Stage 4

 180

 110

 Stage 3

 160

 100

 Stage 2

 140

 90

 Stage 1

Normal Blood Pressure Range

Systolic pressure (mm Hg)

Diastolic pressure (mm Hg)

Pressure Range

 130

 85

 High Normal Blood  Pressure

 120

 80

 Normal Blood Pressure

 110

 75

 Low Normal Blood  Pressure

Low Blood Pressure Range

Systolic pressure (mm Hg)

Diastolic pressure (mm Hg)

Pressure Range

 90

 60

 Borderline Low blood  Pressure

 60

 40

 Too Low Blood Pressure

 50

 33

 Dangerously Low Blood  Pressure

 

What should my blood pressure be according to my age?

This chart shows the average blood pressure range by age.

Age 15 to 19

Systolic Range

Diastolic Range

Age 20 to 24

Systolic Range

Diastolic Range

Age 25 to 29

Systolic Range

Diastolic Range

Age 30 to 34

Systolic Range

Diastolic Range

Age 35 to 39

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Systolic Range

Diastolic Range

Min

105

73

Min

108

75

Min

109

76

Min

110

77

Min

111

78

Average

117

77

Average

120

79

Average

121

80

Average

122

81

Average

123

82

Max

120

81

Max

132

83

Max

133

84

Max

134

85

Max

135

86

Age 40 to 44

Systolic Range

Diastolic Range

Age 45 to 49

Systolic Range

Diastolic Range

Age 50 to 54

Systolic Range

Diastolic Range

Age 55 to 59

Systolic Range

Diastolic Range

Age 60 to 64

Systolic Range

Diastolic Range

Min

112

79

Min

115

80

Min

116

81

Min

118

82

Min

121

83

Average

125

83

Average

127

84

Average

129

85

Average

131

86

Average

134

87

Max

137

87

Max

139

88

Max

142

89

Max

144

90

Max

147

91

Calculate your predicted maximum heart rate by using the calculation: 220 - (age) = Age Predicted Maximum Heart Rate.

APPENDIX B:

RESTING HEART RATE CHART:

MEN

ATHLETE

49-55

49-54

50-56

50-57

51-56

EXCEL'T

56-61

55-61

57-62

58-63

57-61

GOOD

62-65

62-65

63-66

64-67

62-67

ABOVE AV

66-69

66-70

67-70

68-71

68-71

AVERAGE

70-73

71-74

71-75

72-76

72-75

BELOW AVG

74-81

75-81

76-82

77-83

76-81

POOR

82+

82+

83+

84+

82+

WOMEN

AGE

18 -25

26 -35

36 -45

46 -55

56 -65

ATHLETE

54-60

54-59

54-59

54-60

54-59

EXCEL'T

61-65

60-64

60-64

61-65

60-64

GOOD

66-69

65-68

65-69

66-69

65-68

ABOVE AVG

70-73

69-72

70-73

70-73

69-73

AVERAGE

74-78

73-76

74-78

74-77

74-77

BELOW AVG

79-84

77-82

79-84

78-83

78-83

POOR

85+

83+

85+

84+

84+

Note: Don't be alarmed (or overly excited) if these tables suggest you are more or less fit than you think you really are.  It's really only a rough guide

ranges and their associated categories:

APPENDIX C:

*General Body Fat Percentage Categories

*American Council on Exercise

Classification

Women (% fat)

Essential Fat

10-12%

Athletes

14-20%

Fitness

21-24%

Acceptable

25-31%

Obese

32% plus

Knowing your body fat percentage can also help you determine if your weight loss goals are realistic.  Remember, weight loss doesn't always mean fat loss. For example:

Let's say you're a 130# woman with 23% body fat, and you goal is to "lose 20 pounds":

Initial body fat: 130# x 0.23 fat = 30 # body fat

Lean body mass: 130# total - 30# fat = 100# lean body mass (bones, organs and all else)

Goal: 130# - 20# = 110 pounds

As you can see, the goal of losing 20 pounds is not realistic or healthy.   At 110 pounds, this woman still requires 100# of lean body mass (bones, organs, etc.), but would only be carrying 10#, or only 9%  body fat.   From the chart above, you can see that this is a dangerously low percentage.

A better goal might be for the woman to reduce her body fat from 23% to 18%.  In this case:

130# x 0.18 = 23 # body fat

100# lean body mass + 23 # = 123# goal weight

So, for this individual to achieve a lean, but healthy 18% fat, she would need to lose only 7 pounds of fat, reducing her weight from her current 130 pounds  to 123 pounds.  Losing more than 7 pounds means losing lean body mass (usually  metabolically-active muscle tissue), which is clearly not desirable.

So before you decide that you need to "lose weight", remember to consider that "weight"consists of both lean body mass and body fat.   Try to keep your weight loss goals realistic, and remember, keep the calorie-burning muscle, and lose only the fat.

APPENDIX D:

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