The Time Frame Analysis Aviation Essay

Published:

A descriptive analysis of factors causing delay of baggage at Terminal 1 C (Domestic Arrivals), IGIA has been done on the following basis.

To begin with the airside has 152 bays which are divided into 5 rows for domestic arrivals and departures.

Row 1: Bay number 1 14

Row 2: Bay number 15 18

Row 3: Bay number 19 30

Row 4: Bay number 31 40A

Row 5: Bay number 120 152

There are currently 9 domestic airlines operating from DIAL.

IC: Indian Airlines

IT: Kingfisher Airlines

9W: Jet Airways

S2: Jet Lite Airways

6E: Indigo Airlines

G8: Go Airways

SG: Spice Jet Airlines

9H: MDLR Airlines

I7: Paramount Airways

The analysis of time for the baggage from the “Hold of the Aircraft” to the arrival belt had to be analyzed and was done on a row basis.

Purpose of Study

Descriptive analysis of Factors causing delay of baggage at Terminal 1 C, Indira Gandhi International Airport.

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Suggestions to reduce the time taken for the baggage from the aircraft to the baggage break up area and also to increase the efficiency of the iPOS machines which are at every belt on at the break up area.

Scope of the study

Detailed study of ramp activities.

The precision time schedule for activities of baggage performed.

Ground Support Department.

Vehicles used at Apron for administrative purposes & transport of manpower.

Understanding the various activities at the airside.

LIMITATIONS:

The airside topography cannot be changed.

The vehicles have to follow the routes as per the authorized department and cannot change routes as it is predecided.

SYNOPSIS GMR Delhi International Airport Ltd.

DIAL is a joint venture consortium of GMR Group (50.1%), Airports Authority of India (26%), Fraport & Eraman Malaysia (10% each) and IDF (3.9%). GMR is the lead member of the consortium; Fraport AG is the airport operator, Eraman Malaysia the retail advisors and IDF the financial investors.

In January 2006, the consortium was awarded the concession to operate, manage and develop the IGI Airport following an international competitive bidding process. DIAL entered in to Operations, Management and Development Agreement (OMDA) on April 4, 2006 with the AAI. The initial term of the concession is 30 years extendable by a further 30 years.

Besides upgrading the existing terminals, DIAL has already commissioned a new runway 11 29 at IGI Airport on September 25, 2008. The commercial operations has also commenced at new Domestic Terminal from 19th April, 2009.

The modern domestic terminal (Terminal 1D) features several new facilities which will improve the travel experience of domestic departure passengers flying out of Delhi. It raises domestic departure capacity of IGIA to 10 million passengers per annum and has modern 4 level in line baggage handling system to eliminate baggage X ray prior to check in. The new terminal also has 72 check in counters & 14 security channels that will ensure quick processing. It is also provided by spacious security hold area with extensive seating, passenger amenities like Lounges, F&B and retail.

In addition, the construction work on an integrated passenger terminal (Terminal 3) is underway. The first phase of the airport is designed to handle 60 million passengers per annum (mppa). This phase will be completed and fully operational before the Commonwealth Games in 2010.

This development would form just the first phase of the airport expansion. In subsequent stages, the airport will be further developed with the increase in passenger demand and more terminals and runways would be added in a modular manner to form a U shaped complex with an ultimate design capacity of 100 million passengers per annum.

SALIENT FEATURES OF MASTER PLAN PHASE ONE

Third runway, amongst the longest in Asia, has started operations in 2008 and is capable of handling A380 sized aircraft.

Commercial operations commenced at new Domestic Terminal from 19th April, 2009.

State of the art integrated terminal to be ready in 2010.

Terminal 3 would be a state of the art complex featuring Common Use Terminal Equipment (CUTE) and an advanced 5 level in line baggage handling system with explosive detection technology for greater efficiency and security. The check in area would feature more than 160 check in counters. Passengers would greatly benefit as check in and security clearances would be faster and less obtrusive. For international passengers more than 90 desks would facilitate immigration procedures. In addition, the terminal would also feature 48 contact stands and 75 aerobridges with 9 remote stands for aircraft.

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The two tier terminal building would feature the departure complex on the upper level and the arrivals on the lower level. The roof of the building will have stylized incisions to allow daylight, but will be angled to protect the interior from direct sunlight. The effect would create a calm environment and maximize the sense of volume, space and light inside. The use of natural light would reduce the dependency on artificial light during day time.

The arrival hall will feature both standard and wide body baggage reclaim belts, Passengers will emerge from bag reclaim into the Internal Landside Arrivals Concourse from where transit passengers would use elevators to proceed to the Departures level. 4 piers will provide access to the aircraft from the terminal.
Access to the new terminal would be via a 6 lane approach road. The Airport would also be connected via dedicated high speed Metro line connecting to the city centre.

AIRPORT FACT SHEET

INDIRA GANDHI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
FACT SHEET

AIRPORT LOCATION

16 km / 10 miles from city centre

IATA / ICAO CODE

VIDP / DEL

RUNWAYS

11 29 (4430m / 14619 ft)
10 28 (3810 m / 12573 ft)
09 27 (2813 m / 9282 ft)

TOTAL TERMINALS

Terminal 1 - Domestic ( T1A/T1D Departures, T1C Arrival)
Terminal 2 - International
Terminal3 - Under Construction
Haj Terminal ( for use during Haj season )
International Cargo Terminal

TOTAL PASSENGER TRAFFIC (2008 09)

22.84 Million

TOTAL AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS (2008 09)

0.23 million

TOTAL CARGO MOVEMENT (2008 09)

0.43 Million Tonnes (MT)

ILS Category

CAT IIIB on runways 11/29 and 28

PARTNERS

GMR Group

GMR Group is a Bangalore headquartered global infrastructure major with interests in Agri business Airports, Energy, Highways and Urban Infrastructure (including SEZ). Founded in 1978, by its Chairman G.M. Rao, the Group has grown into a well diversified and professionally managed organization. Employing the public private partnership model, the Group has successfully implemented several infrastructure projects and is in the process of developing several others, both in India and abroad.

The Group has three operational power plants and seven plants which are under various stages of development. In its highways business, of the six road projects, five are operational and one is fast nearing completion.

The Group is responsible for the development and management of the Rajiv Gandhi International Airport (RGIA), Hyderabad and the Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi. The Hyderabad International Airport built by the Group along with its consortium partners, is the country's first Greenfield airport, which commenced operations on March 23, 2008. The Group is also modernizing the IGI Airport in time for the Commonwealth games in 2010.

The Group has also ventured into the area of Sports by promoting the Indian Premier League team cricket team - ‘Delhi Daredevils.' Through this initiative, it is committed to promote the popular sport of cricket at the grass root level.

After having established its credentials as a leading infrastructure company within the country, the Group is now looking at expanding its business globally. Its first global venture involves building, and operating the Sabiha Gokcen International Airport in Istanbul, Turkey for a period of 20 years, along with its consortium partners. The Group has also acquired 50% stake in Intergen a leading global power generation utility. The International Business Division (IBD) headquartered in London and manages these projects.

The Group is also active in the area of Corporate Social Responsibility through its CSR arm, the GMR Varalakshmi Foundation. The Foundation's mandate is to develop social infrastructure and enhance the quality of life of communities around the business operations at all the locations. It focuses broadly on education; health; hygiene and sanitation; empowerment and livelihoods; and community development. Today, the GMR Varalakshmi Foundation has a presence at over 15 locations across the country.

Airport Authority of India

AAI is responsible for the provision of airport infrastructure, airport maintenance and air traffic control services in India. AAI is constituted under the Airports Authority of India Act, 1994 and is responsible for civil airports and civil passenger enclaves at defence airports.

Fraport

Frankfurt Airport Services Worldwide is a global airport operator that offers comprehensive airport management services including terminal and traffic management, baggage and cargo handling, aviation ground handling, aviation security and consulting. It operates airports in Germany, Turkey & Peru. Its flagship Frankfurt Main Airport is ranked amongst the top 10 airports in the world.

Eraman Malaysia

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Eraman Malaysia is the retail arm of Malaysian Airport Holdings Berhad (MAHB). It is largest airport retail and commercial property developer in Malaysia. Eraman has more than 40 outlets at various international and domestic airports across Malaysia, including world famous Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA).

India Development Fund

IDF is India's largest private equity fund focused on infrastructure development in India with a corpus of Rs. 8,437 million. The main investors are Infrastructure Development and Finance Corporation (IDFC PE), Life Insurance Corporation of India, State Bank of India, Bank of Baroda and Union Bank of India.

ABSTRACT

The project states that an analysis of the baggage time has to be done from the aircraft until it is cleared and also noting the use of the iPOS machines.

There is a format as to how the entire analysis is carried out.

As soon as the aircraft is ONBL (On Block “Chokes On”) the analysis of baggage starts from that time till it arrives on the conveyer belts at the BBA (Baggage Break up Area) and cleared.

The things to be taken into consideration are as follows:

Bay number

Flight number

Type of Aircraft

Number of trolleys

Number of tractors

Number of staff

Constraints

On Block Time

First bag from Aircraft

Last bag from Aircraft

First bag on belt

Last bag on belt

I POS usage

Total time taken

All these activities are carried out on the airside and this is done on a row basis.

At the same time the facilitation of the iPOS is also done.

Row 1:

Bays: 1 14

Row 3:

Bays: 19 30

New passenger terminal building 1 D.

General Aviation:

Bays 156 168

Row 5 has three lanes/stands:

Bays: 121 132

Bays: 134 142

Bays: 143 152

This is the BBA where the conveyer belts are present as well as the iPOS machines

Row 4:

Bays: 31 40 C

Row 2:

Bays: 15 18

*There are currently 3 runways and 5 taxiways at DIAL.

A typical view at any Ramp Operations would look as follows:

RAMP: Region of aircraft movement and parking.

The airport ramp or apron is part of an airport. It is usually the area where the aircrafts are parked, unloaded or loaded, refueled, boarded, etc. Although the use of the apron is covered by strict regulations to ensure safety at the operational side, such as lighting on vehicles, it is typically more accessible to users than the runway or taxiway. However, the apron is not usually open to the general public and a license may be required to gain access.

The use of the apron may be controlled by the apron management service (apron control or apron advisory). This would typically provide a coordination service between the users.

The words "apron" and "ramp" are used interchangeably in most circumstances. Generally, the pre flight activities are done in ramps; and areas for parking & maintenance are called aprons. Passenger gates are the main feature of a terminal ramp.

The report focuses on the essence of ‘BAGGAGE TIME FRAME FROM THE RAMP TO THE BREAK UP AREA' and to understand and apprise of the knowledge of operations and activities carried out at the ramp.

The apron is designated by the ICAO as not being part of the maneuvering area. All vehicles, aircraft and people using the apron are referred to as apron traffic. This apron traffic has to be kept in control and should be stipulated to a minimum number in order to ensure easy flow of apron traffic, ensure ramp safety.

APRON LAYOUT

The full form of APRON is Accident prone area.

This is the area where the aircraft parks and embarkation and disembarkation of passengers and cargo takes place.

The vehicular lane is not straight- Zig zag routes for vehicular movement's leads to more travel distance, thus more travelling time.

Vehicular lane is same for arrival and departure movements.

New tractor drivers take time to get familiar with the exact location of bays, especially at night.

Vehicular lane is narrow between bays 125 & 126. When aircrafts are parked between both these bays, traffic movement is obstructed.

Also a check on the usage of the iPOS machines installed at the BBA was to be done.

DIAL has introduced the iPOS machines at the BBA (Baggage Break up Area) in Terminal 1 C (Domestic Arrivals) with effect from 9th April, 2009.

These systems stand at every belt area in the BBA.

These are interactive touch screen systems designed in such a way that as soon as the baggage enters the BBA (via trolleys) and the 1st bag is loaded on the belt there is an interface on the system which shows the status of the flight and the first bag baggage status (which has to be clicked as soon as the baggage is loaded on the belt).

The same has to be done for the last bag as well.

The Domestic Arrival hall of DIAL has 8 conveyer belts for baggage.

The BBA also has 8 functioning iPOS machines attached at every belt.

A daily report is auto generated at 3 a.m via email.

iPOS are the machines that have been provided to GMR DIAL by “AGS InfoTech” who have their headquarters at Lower Parel, Mumbai.

AGS InfoTech was set up in 2003 as a principal distributor for Wincor Nixdorf International GmbH and Postec. The company offers technology based solutions for the Banking, Petroleum, Retail and Postal sectors.

AGS provides the following for the retail industry:

Offers retail POS, Store Automation Peripherals, Store Automation Solutions, Information Kiosks, Utility Payment Kiosks, Internet Kiosks, Photo Kiosks, Multimedia Music Kiosks, Check in and Check out Kiosks, Airline Kiosks and many other Customized Application Kiosks.

What is iPOS?

There is no such full form of iPOS. It is simply a model name by AGS InfoTech who is the principal distributor for Wincor Nixdorf International.

It is known as Beetle iPOS which is the latest compact retail workstation that meets the ever changing needs of both the hospitality and the retail market.

With its small footprint, the Beetle iPOS can adapt to any environment without costly renovations to the existing checkstands. It comes in both compact as well as modular model. With the compact design, one can optimize investments without limiting the peripheral choices or expansion slots.

The Beetle iPOS supports most Microsoft operating systems like DOS, WIN 95/98, WIN NT and WIN 2000.

The Beetle iPOS fits seamlessly into the open standard range of the Beetle POS Family. It can br configured with ease, thus making it of one of the most efficient POS in its class.

With its low cost price feature, the Beetle iPOS is packed with features ranging from RF LAN to Dual Screen capabilities. Processor offerings start from Intel Celeron up to Pentium III 1 Ghz. Base memory is offered at 64 MB up to 512 MB.

The Beetle iPOS is an ideal automation solution for retail operation needs, simply because it:

Maximizes merchandising opportunities at the point of sales.

Retail ruggedness and reliability reduce the cost of downtime and maintenance.

Can be optimized without limiting peripheral choices of expansion options.

Open architecture for vendor independence.

Less migration worries with introduction of new technology.

Familiar operating system environment for lower training and support cost.

How to use the iPOS?

Click the FIRST BAG button before off loading the baggage on the belt.

Enter the pass code 1234 on this screen, and then click OK.

Check that the status changes to FIRST BAG.

After the last bag is off loaded on the belt, click the LAST BAG button.

Enter the pass code 1234 on this screen, and then click OK.

OBJECTIVES

To study the factors causing delay of baggage at Terminal 1 C (Domestic arrivals) at IGIA and suggest improvements (if any).

To ensure correct usage of IPOS is done for all flights, viz a viz the following parameters:
All Flights are punched on IPOS machines.
Entries for Both first Bag & Last Bag are punched.
The entries are as per the actual baggage offloading timings.

To Increase the adaptability of airlines personnel in using IPOS at Terminal 1 C, IGIA.

*A correct usage will ensure generation of reliable reports which can be used for further decision making.

METHODOLOGY

Primary data was collected using samples.

All the 152 bays were divided into 5 rows based on their proximity to the terminal building. Random Samples are taken from each row of bays.

Data was collected on Following Parameters :

Bay Number

Staff available at Ramp

Time taken to offload First Bag (from Aircraft)

Time taken to offload Last Bag (from Aircraft)

Time taken for Tractor / Trolley movement

Staff at BBA

A sample of the way data was collected is shown:

LANE NO :

NO OF TROLLEYS

STAFF AT

Bay no.

Flight no.

Type of Aircraft

Available

Used

No. of Tractors

Ramp

Belt

Constraint(s)

iPOS usage

DATE

OFFLOADING

TRAVELLING

ON BELT

ONBL

First Bag

Last Bag

Trolley Left At

Constraints

Trolley Reached

First bag

Last Bag

Total time taken

This analysis is done from the Bay (ramp) to the BBA in the following manner:

The “May Fly” (Staff Pages) for the arrivals is taken from the AOCC (Airport Operations Control Centre) which lists the aircraft timings (ETA Estimated time of arrival) and bay allocation numbers.

By getting the above details one can take the following measures at the ramp to analyze the data after the ATA Actual time of arrival of the aircraft.

The Bay Number is noted.

The number of trolleys, conveyer belts and staff are noted.

The ONBL (On Block “Chokes On”) time of the aircraft is noted.

The Type of Aircraft.

The Flight number of the respective airline.

First bag & Last bag time from the aircraft hold.

The time at which the tractor left with the trolleys.

Constraints if any.

*All these exercises are carried out only at the ramp area.

At the BBA baggage break up area the following has to be noted:

Number of staff present at the belt area.

Time at which the trolley reached.

Time at which the first bag was loaded onto the belt.

Time at which the last bag was loaded on belt.

Check whether or not the first bag has been punched on the iPOS by the baggage assistant at the time of loading it onto the belt.

Check whether or not the last bag has been punched on the iPOS by the baggage assistant at the time of loading it onto the belt.

Calculate the total time taken from the first bag and last bag on the iPOS as well as the time the first bag and last bag reaches from the aircraft.

Constraints if any.

*All these exercises are carried out at the break up area only.

Average First Bag Time from ONBL

Row Numbers:

Minutes

Row 1

11

Row 2

12

Row 3

14

Row 4

18

Row 5

21

Average Last Bag Time from ONBL

Row Numbers:

Minutes

Row 1

21

Row 2

16

Row 3

17

Row 4

19

Row 5

24

CONGESTION AT THE BBA

Congestion at Baggage break up area is another major cause for the delay of baggage.

Following factors contribute to congestion:

Unmanned empty trolleys restrict the space for movement of tractors.

When two flights are allocated on the same belt and the baggage arrives simultaneously.

Belt numbers 6 and 7 have a narrow fascia, so only one trolley can be offloaded at a time.

Overloading by off loaders:

Baggage trolleys are often overloaded, thus recurrence of falling of baggage increases, which is dangerous as well as time consuming and also contributes to further baggage delays.

Other reasons for the delay of baggage at the arrival belt area

If the tractor drivers carrying baggage disobey the apron driving rules, they are fined on the spot by Follow Me inspectors which lead to delays.

VIP Movements:

Vehicular movements are completely stopped during VIP movements.

Poorly maintained tractors tend to breakdown thus leading to delays.

Some airlines use a single off loader at the BBA to off load baggage from the trolleys, which lead to an increased offloading time and thus more belt occupancy times.

*For every single baggage trolley there can be a possibility of three loaders to off load an load the baggage on the belt at a time.

Rollers at Ramp corresponding to belt number 7 are not working properly, leading to requirement of more manpower and wastage of time.

Potholes at the BBA leads to falling of baggage.

Air India's vehicles parked in the BBA add to space constraint.

Airlines park their tractors and trolleys in the BBA add to space constraints.

Usage of truck by Jet Airways to offload Baggage at the BBA also adds to space constraints.

FACILITATION OF THE iPOS MACHINES

As all the above mentioned is being carried out the use of iPOS has also to be monitored in order to see the first bag and last bag time difference at the belt area.

As soon as the aircraft arrives and its belt is allocated at the arrivals the same is displayed on the iPOS machines and on the various FIDS (Flight Information Display System) at every belt inside the arrival hall.

So as soon as the 1st bag is punched on the iPOS machine the status on the FIDS network also changes to “Baggage Arrived.”

And as soon as the Last bag is punched on the iPOS machine the status on the FIDS network changes to “Baggage Cleared.”

ADVANTAGES:

Monitoring of the time utilized to go through the process of baggage distribution.

IPOS updated display screens helps in assisting passengers.

Data supported reports.

In case of any delay in baggage delivery prompt action could be taken.

Improvement in Airport service quality rating.

PROBLEMS:

Reluctance of Airlines personnel in using IPOS systems.

Some minor flaws in design which lead to human errors while usage.

False punching by airline staff which leads to generation of unreliable reports.

Unserviceability of IPOS machines.

Comparison of I Pos Usage for the Past three months:

MAY

Code of Airline

Total Flights

I pos Used(SP)

I pos Used(DP)

Percentage(SP)

Percentage(DP)

IT

366

69

40

18.85

10.93

9H

31

1

1

3.23

3.23

SG

184

57

36

30.98

19.57

6E

172

57

36

33.14

20.93

G8

85

6

3

7.06

3.53

9W

268

44

32

16.42

11.94

IC

377

50

37

13.26

9.81

S2

158

26

16

16.46

10.13

Average=

17.42

11.26

KEY: **SP=Single Punch (First Bag) DP=Double Punch(First Bag &Last Bag)

Percentage Colour Depiction

Below 60%

60% 80%

Above 80%

JUNE

Code of Airline

Total Flights

I pos Used(SP)

I pos Used(DP)

Percentage(SP)

Percentage(DP)

IT

383

0

0

0.00

0.00

9H

20

0

0

0.00

0.00

SG

187

5

1

2.67

0.53

6E

175

39

34

22.29

19.43

G8

89

2

2

2.25

2.25

9W

273

47

37

17.22

13.55

IC

342

46

29

13.45

8.48

S2

150

22

18

14.67

12.00

Average=

9.07

7.03

KEY: **SP=Single Punch (First Bag) DP=Double Punch (First Bag &Last Bag)

Percentage Colour Depiction

Below 60%

60% 80%

Above 80%

JULY

Code of Airline

Total Flights

I pos Used(SP)

I pos Used(DP)

Percentage(SP)

Percentage(DP)

IT

760

663

526

87.24

69.21

9H

38

26

23

68.42

60.53

SG

351

300

220

85.47

62.68

6E

342

322

300

94.15

87.72

G8

220

169

138

76.82

62.73

9W

559

507

464

90.70

83.01

IC

638

476

336

74.61

52.66

S2

280

248

220

88.57

78.57

Average*=

83.25

69.64

KEY: **SP=Single Punch (First Bag) DP=Double Punch (First Bag &Last Bag)

Percentage Colour Depiction

Below 60%

60% 80%

Above 80%

Graphical Representation of Usage of I Pos (SP):

SINGLE PUNCHES (SP):

These include the punches only of the first bag on the iPOS machines.

Graphical Representation of Usage of I Pos (DP):

DOUBLE PUNCHES (DP)

These include the punches of the first and last bag on the iPOS machines.

SUGGESTIONS AND RECCOMENDATIONS

A pictorial representation of operating instructions should be pasted besides each iPOS machine.

A ‘Demo' mode option could be proposed for each iPOS machine.

iPOS machines should have bigger keys in order to make it easy for users to punch it the pass codes.

Alternatively, the Pass code option can be eliminated from the software. (Since the pass code is same for all airlines and there are no security / confidentiality issues.)

iPOS screen visibility drops significantly due to reflection of sunlight, therefore, a shed should be installed (re installed) over each machine.

The first and the last baggage entry on the iPOS should be reflected/connected directly to the computer system at the helpdesk at Terminal 1 C in a specified format which would be monitored by the CSC's i.e. whenever any entry is been made on the iPOS it depicts on the computer screen wherein the CSC's allocated there can monitor the anomalies and advice the concerned airlines there and then for corrective action enhancing the usage of iPOS system.

In order to increase efficiency of the iPOS machines the following could be done:

As soon as the first bag is punched only then will the conveyer belt start.

And as soon as the last bag is punched then only will the conveyer belt stop.

In case there are two arrivals taking place on the same belt and machine then as soon as the last bag of the second arriving flight is punched then only will the belt stop.

In case the last bag has been left unpunched then there could be an automated system which will shut down the belt in some given time.

CONCLUSION

The project was for a period of 1 and a half month.

The analysis done was only this time.

A presentation for the same was given at GMR DIAL.

The analysis of baggage and of iPOS were submitted and there was action taken

Namely: For iPOS:

The keys were font size was changed when a suggestion was made the same.

The data sheet that is generated daily for iPOS at 3 a.m was also changed as per the suggestions given. The 1st bag time & last bag time from ONLB (ON Block) and the time difference for both have been included.

After suggesting that there should be a instructions displaying how to use the iPOS the same was done.

The entire observations at the airside was taken down with the help of the “Follow Me” inspectors who made it a point to take me to the various bays and bring me back.