Sri Lankan Aviation

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The Aviation Industry

Content Criteria Page

3.1 100 Years of Sri Lankan Aviation History T3 4

3.1a Difference and Effectiveness between Technological and M2 5

Interpersonal Expectations

3.1b Establishment of SOP with regard to customer requirements to M2 5, 6

meet customer expectations

3.1c Guest QuestionnaireD2 6, 7

4.1 The functions and the effectiveness of ICAO and other ICAO

conventionsT4 7, 8, 9

4.1a Exploring ICAO SARPS and the means by which they are introduced M3 9, 10

to the Aviation Industry

4.1b Annex 2 rules of the airD3 10, 11

3.1 100 Years of Sri Lankan Aviation History

1)12.09.1911 - entry of Bleriot airplane in Sri Lanka in a boat.

2)25.12.1912 - Bleriot first endeavor to fly at the Colombo Race course.

3)07.05.1931 - entry of the first worldwide flight to the Colombo Race course.

4)1934 - Establishment of Colombo flying club by Sir John Kothalawala.

5)1934 - Decision of the state chamber to make an aerodrome in Ratmalana.

6)28.02.1938 - Formal opening of the Ratmalana airplane terminal by Governor Sir Andrew Caldecott.

7)March 1946 - Establishment the branch of common flying.

8)February 1947 - initiation of air administration by Ceylon aviation routes with three DC-3 flying machines.

9)10.12.1947 - inaugural flight of Air Ceylon to Madras after name change to Ceylon Airways.

10) 01.06.1948 - Sri Lanka turned into a part of ICAO.

11) 1960 - Commencement Upali air first local air transport in Srilanka.

12) 15.11.1968 - opening of the Katunayake Airport for global flights.

13) 04.12.1974 - Martin Air DC-8 air ship mischance at Seven Virgin slopes at Maskeliya.

14) 15.11.1978 - Icelandic aerial shuttle DC-8 mischance at Kibulapitiya.

15) 01.09.1979 - conception of Air Lanka and its inaugural flight to Bangkok.

16) 01.04.1998 - Emirates assumed control of Air Lanka by Srilankan government.

17) 24.01.2001 - LTTE assaulted to the Katunayake air base pulverizing part of airplanes.

18) 27.10.2006 - conception of Mihin Lanka.

19) 27.11.2009 - Launch the Mattala global airplane terminal undertaking.

20) 16.10.2012 - First air ship arrived at Mattala universal air terminal.

3.1a Difference and Effectiveness between Technological and Interpersonal Expectations

Technological Expectations

According to my research and knowledge Technological Expectations in Aviation are the services that customers except from the machines and systems that are provided by the airline.

E.g. Online ticketing system, Boarding pass machines, Automated Security checking systems, Baggage Clearance Machines.

Interpersonal Expectations

Interpersonal Expectations in aviation are the services that customers expect from individuals or groups of people that work in the airline or airport.

E.g. An overbooked passenger may have been offloaded from a flight but He/she has to be in destination on time to sit for his/her interview or conference, therefore this passenger would prefer speaking to an individual working in the airline rather than filling a survey form given by an automated system. This shows the need of human labor in the aviation industry and also clearly presents the fact that a human is more capable of understanding the situation and providing quick assistance and arrangements than an automated machine

However customers have both Technological and Interpersonal expectation. And therefore a Standard Operation Procedure should be established in order to fulfill customer expectations, this may involve both technological n interpersonal assistance.

3.1b Establishment of SOP with regard to customer requirements to meet customer expectations

1. Onboard Safety (interpersonal customer expectation)

The passengers onboard expect the airline crew members to know all the safety tips. Therefore the crew members should share the information regarding onboard safety before taking off.

2. Online Ticket Booking (technological customer expectation)

An online booking system should be created so that customers have the choice of purchasing their tickets online and having the ability to choose their seats. This system will help customers to plan their journey more easily and it would be convenient since the customer can purchase the ticket from home.

3. Special Assistance (interpersonal customer expectation)

There can be passengers on board that are under age, disabled, deaf or blind. Therefore these passengers may require special assistance. There has to be a system that will help the crew members easily identify the special assistance passengers and their disabilities so that the crew members can give quick feedback.

4. Boarding Pass Machines (technological customer expectation)

There has to be a system than can identify passengers through a barcode or serial number so that these passengers can get their boarding pass quickly. This system will help minimize level of queues in the airport.

3.1c Guest Questionnaire

1. Name in Full

2. Gender

3. Age group 2-17 yearsabove 18

2. Contact details/Telephone number

3. Purpose of travel

4. Rate your food in flight on a scale

of 1 – 10

5. Did the flight depart on time?

6. Anything you would add to improve our


7. How was your experience Flying with us?

8. Did we fulfill your expectations?

9. Did you experience any queues?

10. What made you choose our Airline?

Thank you for your support and have a pleasant journey.

4.1 The functions and the effectiveness of ICAO and other ICAO conventions

ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) is a UN specialized agency that started operating in 1944 after the signing of the Chicago convention. ICAO’s main aim is to bring up planning and development in international air transport in order to make it safe and to spread international civil aviation all around the world.

ICAO also encourages:

  • The arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes
  • Development of airways, airports, and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation
  • To meetneeds of the peoples of the world for safe, regular, efficient, and economical air transport
  • Prevention of economic waste caused by unreasonable competition

Nations encyclopedia mentions that ICAO “ensure that therightsof contracting states are fully respected and that every contracting state has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines; avoiddiscriminationbetween contracting states; promote safety of flight in international air navigation; and promote generally the development of all aspects of international civil aeronautics”


This is one of ICAO’s main objectives. ICAO states that:

The organization is constantly striving, in close collaboration with the entire air transport community, to further improve aviation’s successful safety performance while maintaining a high level of capacity and efficiency. This is achieved through:

  1. The development of global strategies contained in the Global Aviation Safety Plan and the Global Air Navigation Plan;
  2. The development and maintenance of Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures applicable to international civil aviation activities which are contained in 16 Annexes and 4 PANS (Procedures for Air Navigation Services). These standards are complemented by more than 50 Manuals and Circulars which are providing guidance on their implementation.
  3. The monitoring of safety trends and indicators. ICAO audits the implementation of its Standard, Recommended Practices and Procedures through its Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme. It has also developed sophisticated tools to collects and analyse a vast array of safety data which allows to identify existing and emerging risks
  4. The implementation of targeted safety programmes to address safety and infrastructure deficiencies; and
  5. An effective response to disruption of the aviation system created by natural disasters, conflicts or other causes.

Environmental protection

As mentioned by ICAO “Environmental protection is a challenge that ICAO takes very seriously”. They have developed a range of standards, policies and guidance materials in order to reduce the level of environmental pollution caused by aviation.

ICAO’s main objectives in environment protection are to:

  • Reduce, minimize or limit the rate of people affected by the sound of the air craft.
  • Reduce , minimize or limit the impact of aviation emissions in local air.
  • Reduce , minimize or limit the impact of aviation greenhouse gas emissions on the global climate.


Security is also a major necessity in aviation industry and ICAO’s ultimate goal is to spread civil aviation security all around the world.

1963 Tokyo Convention

This convention is based on offence and other acts that can take place in an aircraft. This convention came into adoption on 14th September 1963 and it joined the force on 4th December 1963.

1970 Hague Convention

This Convention is based on suppression of unlawful seizure of aircraft. This convention came into adoption on 16th December 1970 and it joined the forces on 14th October 1971.

1971 Montreal Convention

This convention is similar to the Hague convention but this convention is based on Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation. This convention came into adoption on 23rd September 1971 and it joined the forces on 26th January 1973.

4.1a Exploring ICAO SARPS and the means by which they are introduced to the Aviation Industry

SARPs are standard and recommended practices that ICAO has adopted in order to achieve highest practice in all sectors to have a better civil activation all around the world.

Skybrary mentions that according to ICAO Definition :


Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, material, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognised as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with the Convention; in the event of impossibility of compliance, notification to the Council is compulsory under Article 38 of the Convention.

Recommended Practice

Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, material, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognised as desirable in the interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigation, and to which Contracting States should endeavour to conform in accordance with the Convention.

The safety management area in SARPs helps countered to manage their aviation safety risks. And the protection provision helps the proceeding and advancement of a proactive technique to support safety performance.

Thesee are different annexes that describe SARPs.

Annex 1 - Personal Licensing

Annex 2 – Rules of the Air

Annex 3 – Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation

Annex 4 – Aeronautical Charts

Annex 5 – Units of Measurement to be used in Air and Ground Operations

Annex 6 – Operation of Aircraft

Annex 7 - Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks

Annex 8 - Airworthiness of Aircraft

Annex 9 - Facilitation

Annex 10 – Aeronautical Telecommunications

Annex 11 – Air Traffic Services

Annex 12 – Search and Rescue

Annex 13 – Aircraft Accidents and Investigations 12

Annex 14 – Aerodromes

Annex 15 – Aeronautical Information Services

Annex 16 – Environmental Protection

Annex 17 – Security: Safeguarding International Civil Aviation against Acts of unlawful


Annex 18 – The Safe Transportation of Dangerous Goods by Air

Annex 19 – Safety of Management

Annex 2 Rules of the air

According to my knowledge and research annex 2 are rules set by ICAO in order to avoid risks and dangers that that can take place on air. Annex 2 helps minimize accidents and collisions on air.

Why rules of the air are necessary?

According to my knowledge rules regulations such as annex 2 and many other annexes should be put for aviation in order to reach certain expected standards. And nowadays there are a lot of air transport all around the world and therefore some hubs and counties have high air traffic and are busy. So they need guidance and this is why annexes are introduced and therefore helps minimize collisions and other danger factors on air.

The pilot are allowed to use two types of rules while on air. They are:

  • Visual flight rules
  • Instrumental flight rules

These are a few signals that are used on air:

  • Distress and urgency signals.
  • Signals for use in the event of interception.
  • visual signals used to warn an unauthorized aircraft flying in, or about to enter a restricted, prohibited or danger area.
  • Signals for aerodrome traffic.
  • Marshalling signals.

Reference List

Annex 2 2014. . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 November 2014].

Environmental Protection . 2014. Environmental Protection . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 22 November 2014]

1971 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation | Centre for International Law. 2014 [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 22 November 2014]

1970 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft | Centre for International Law. 2014 [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 22 November 2014]

Hundred Years of aviation in Sri Lanka – A centenary sky, Elmo Jayawardena [book]

Purposes - The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) - growth. 2014[ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 November 2014]

Safety . 2014. Safety . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 22 November 2014]

Security and Facilitation . 2014. Security and Facilitation . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 22 November 2014]

SKYbrary - Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS). 2014 [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 November 2014]

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