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Pablo Ruiz Picasso was born in Malaga, Spain in 1881 to Jose' Ruiz Basco and Maria Picasso y Lopez. His father was a painter and drawing professor. Pablo Ruiz Picasso became a painter, ceramist, graphic artist, printmaker and sculptor. Picasso was admitted to the advanced classes at the Royal Academy of Art in Barcelona, Spain at the age of 15. He spent most of his time in France from 1904 to 1947.
Picasso had many different periods of art. Those periods of art sometimes overlapped each other. His Blue Period was from 1901(some say 1900)-1904. During this period, he depicted the world of the poor. His paintings were in shades of blue. These included The Old Guitarist in 1903 and The Death of Casagemas in the summer of 1901. He stated, "It was with the death of Casagemas in mind that I began to paint in blue." Casaemas was a painter friend of Picasso who had committed suicide over an unhappy love affair. At that time, Picasso painted several portraits of the suicide. Picasso chose to sign his works at this time with his mother's name-Picasso. The blue color was selected for its expressivity and the color of sadness. He felt that life was based on suffering. He was a young man of twenty, but his sterile sadness made him seem older. In his self-portrait in the blue period, he looked much older. In 1904, he moved to Paris permanently. He became friends with other artists who influenced his works.
The Rose Period, beginning in 1905, is typically a lighter palette with the subject matters being often drawn from circus life. He abandoned the blue color schemes in favor of gray, ocher and rose tones. The Seated Nude was a transitional piece between the blue and rose periods. He began his work with sculpture during this period. In his self-portrait in 1906, the face has become a mask. The shape is an oval, the eyes are black dotes, the ears are greatly enlarged and the head rests on a cylindrical neck.
The era of cubism began in 1907. His objects were recognizable which shows that Cubism adhered to realism, even though certain Cubism works did verge on abstraction. However, Picasso avoided wanting to fall into purely ornamental art. The colors were gray and brown tones. This included modern abstractions and appeared to be modern art. Many of the figures are simplified but deformed. During this time, Picasso did not hesitate to distort the human body. This shocked many people, even his friends. Also during this time were the wood sculptures of 1907. It is believed when Picasso began carving his sculptures, he had already seen works of primitive African or Oceanian art.
Picasso was known for borrowing from the works of art around him. The first phase was his analytic cubism, which he developed. This included his Female Nude and Woman's head. The next phase was known as the synthetic phase of cubism, which was after 1912. His forms became larger and flat and bright decorative patterns replaced the harsh or rigid compositions. The paintings present all the main characteristics of the Cubist works of 1912. The pictorial space is flat, its two-dimension is accentuated by the flatness of the piece of oilcloth, and objects in space are represented and seen from different sides. The Three Musicians in 1921 was an example of this style. During both periods of cubism, new techniques were developed including collages and papier colle' (pasted paper). The papier colles were seen from 1912-1914.
Construction and relief paintings were seen from 1912-1914. In 1914, he began making objects that partook of both paintings and sculpture-painted sculpture or painting in relief. He used other objects to make his art.
In the 1920's, he produced magnificent monumental nudes and monsters. Out of this, came surrealism. In 1937, several events influenced his preoccupation with agony. In 1930, the bombing of the Spanish town of Guernica took place. His second landmark painting, Guernica, came out of this. The profits Picasso earned from a series of prints and etchings on the Gernmica theme made in the1930's went towards he Republican cause.
In his later years, Picasso turned to creation of fantasy. He worked in sculpture, ceramics, and graphic arts. He produced thousands of drawings. In 1953, his life was a mess. His mistress of ten years left him and took their two children. During the last two decades of his life, beginning in 1953, he returned to the drawing of the model. Not only did his friends influence his works, but also his relationship with women had very large impact on his art. The numerous women in his life influenced his moods and art. He had four children.
In 1965, Picasso had been ill and underwent surgery. After a period of rest, he created 347 etchings. He also created a number of paintings during this time. On his prints, he would use a variety of different techniques. He continued to explore new ideas and would experiment with different techniques. He had begun making his first prints in 1905, but he produced more graphics in the early 1930's and even more after World War II.
Picasso died on April 8, 1973 when he was 91 years of age. Picasso had expressed that he wanted his art pieces from other artist be donated to the French nation and made public, with a dedication by him to all "young painters." His heirs donated fifty works, painting and drawings. He was very attached to his collections. Picasso would say, "My work is like a diary. It's even dated like a diary. With Picasso, much was very obvious and straightforward, but much of it was in code. We are reminded that diaries are often fantasizing and a reordering of the truth. Picasso was a mass of contradictions. He would often say, "Truth is a lie, truth is a lieâ€¦" His works were a self- expression on the life he experienced. He created thousands of pieces of art that are enjoyed and studied by the world.