Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art

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The Internal Organisation, the External Environment

1. Terms of Reference

In the current economic climate, education in Ireland becomes more competitive. IADT's success, like any other institution in this sector, relies on its internal organisation, but it is also influenced by factors occurring in its internal and external environment.

On 21 October 2009 the Business Management teacher, Karen Abberton, requested a report on the organisation where the students are doing their work experience or any other company or organisation of their choice. This report was to be submitted by 16 December 2009 in partial completion of the FETAC Business Management Module (Level 6). I chose Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology where I am doing my work experience.

2. Method of Procedure

In order to obtain relevant information, the following procedures were adopted to acquire the information in the report:.

Existing marketing and business literature was used to find academic theories and definitions as well as examples and samples of internal and external analysis.

A previous IADT's report for internal stakeholders, stating the Institute's strategy for the period 2008 - 2012, was of good help to understand the key elements of the strategy process that has been undertaken in the last two years and the vision of the Institute for the future.

IADT's website provided information about the history and organisation of the Institute. Other websites were also used to find information about PEST and SWOT analysis.

My own observation and conversations with some staff during my work experience placement in IADT in order to get the best knowledge of the Institute's day to day work.

3. Findings


Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology is located in Kill Avenue, just two miles from Dun Laoghaire town. The campus comprises five main buildings, two sports grounds, four car parks and several gardens and green areas. A further building programme is already in progress (National Film School building, Teaching and Learning building, etc).

Over two thousand students attend the three schools in IADT, while over three hundred staff work in the Institute, across the School of Creative Arts, the School of Business and Humanities, the School of Creative Technologies and the different administration departments.

3.1. History

"Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design & Technology (IADT) was established as an autonomous higher education institution within the Institutes of Technology sector on April 1st 1997. On that day, Dun Laoghaire College of Art and Design, with its 450 students, was incorporated in the new institute and has developed since as our School of Creative Arts. Two Schools were established ab-initio. The School of Creative Technologies and the School of Business & Humanities enrolled their first students in October 1998." http://www.iadt.ie/en/InformationAbout/IADT/HistoryofIADT/ (08/12/09)

Chronological growth:

Ÿ Late 60's: Pre-Diploma course in Art and Design.

Ÿ 1970/71: Diploma course in Art and Design.

Ÿ 1980: DL College of Art and Design becomes an NCEA recognised institution.

Ÿ 1981: A Principal is appointed.

Ÿ 1982: The Department of Education buys the Christian Brothers seminary in Carriglea Park.

Ÿ 1983/84: Refurbishment of the buildings to prepare the move of the College.

Ÿ 1988: Staff is structured for third level education.

Ÿ 1997: IADT is established.

Since 1997, three more buildings have been added to the campus. The Atrium building in 1998, the Carriglea building in 2002 and the Media Cube in 2007. A further building programme is in progress.

3.2. Type of Organisation

IADT is a publicly funded Institute of Technology. The Institute gets is funds from the Department of Education. Some fundraising is also obtained from companies in the private sector for research and development of programmes, mainly in the Digital Media and Technology fields.

3.3. Services

IADT provides third level education awards. Its three schools offer level 7, level 8 and level 9 programmes in Business and Humanities, Creative Technologies and Creative Arts. The institute is also entitled to offer level 10 qualifications.

3.4. Customers

IADT's customers are students interested in obtaining a third level award in one of the programmes that the Institute offers. Not only students who have completed their second level school education but also adults who do not hold a second level award are prospective customers of IADT.

3.5. Organisational structure

3.5.1. Structural Configuration Span of control

IADT has both narrow and wide span of control depending on the departments. Managers tends to have wide span of control over their immediate subordinates, but this narrows down in the lower hierarchical levels. Teaching staff charts show more narrow span of control than the administrative staff ones. Hierarchical levels

IADT has many levels of hierarchy. On the top is the President, then the Heads of School of the three Schools, the Registrar, the Head of Development and the Secretary/Financial Controller. The number of levels from this point vary in each department. The Schools have fewer levels while administrative departments have many more hierarchy levels. We can conclude that the structure is tall.

3.5.1..3. Division of Labour

IADT staff has a narrow division of labour. The lecturing staff design and deliver the programmes, then every lecturer teaches a different module. Administrative staff only do tasks in the department they work. ( If a student wants to register in the Institute, he has to apply to the admissions department. When this student pays for the course fee, the payment goes to the Financial Department ,etc.) Departmentalisation

IADT can be broken down in various departments. Each of the three Schools are independent departments. The administration of the Institute is also divided in several departments. (Academic Affairs, Student Services, Finance, Development and research, Library, Marketing and communications, Estates Office, Human Resources, ICT)

3.5.2. Structural Operation

The authority in the Institute comes from the top to the bottom of the chain of command, starting at the President, the Heads of Department, Managers etc. However staff in lower levels is also entitled to make decisions that affect their departments whit the permission of their managers. The ultimate responsibility for any decisions lies on the managers and heads of department.

3.6. Organisation Chart

More than three hundred people form the actual IADT staff body. The charts below show the organisation of the Institute:







3.6.1. Explanation of the charts

The President of the Institute is at the top of the chain of command. The Head of School of the three schools that form IADT report to him, as well as the Registrar, the Head of Development and the Secretary/Financial Controller.

Each School has two Heads of Department, (i.e. Head of Business and Enterprise and Head of Humanities in the School of Business and Humanities) that report to the Head of School. The administration of the Schools also report to the Head of School. Lectures and Programme Coordinators report to their Heads of Department.

As an example of an administrative department,The Secretary/Financial Controller Department chart operates as follows:

At the top of the structure is the Secretary / Financial Control Manager. This Department is divided into other four departments (Finance Office, the Estates Office, Human Resources Office and ICT).

In the Finance Office, staff report to the Finance Manager. The Estates office Manager is supported by an assistant manager and also has a Personal Assistant. They coordinate the caretakers' work. Human Resources is formed by a Manager and several clerical staff while ICT is coordinated by a manager who has several technicians reporting to him.

3.6.2. The Library

"The centre of knowledge and learning

The Library aspires to provide a single source of knowledge that meets the information and learning needs of IADT students. It is a quality, user friendly service that provides access to thousands of books/e-books, journals/e-journals, as well as subject related e-databases and a range of multi-media resources - including DVDs video's and CD-ROMs - within a unique open-access computing environment on campus. It is also a place where you can study in quiet, access computers and print/photocopy important information. The library is located on Levels 1 and 2 of the Atrium Building.

All registered students with a current ID card are automatically members of the Library" ( http://www.iadt.ie/en/Students/Library/ - 10/12/09)

IADT Library has got the most modern and sophisticated equipment that such a department requires. Printers, computers, TV sets.etc, are of great support for the students who use them on a daily basis.

Staff are professional and meet the expected deadlines despite being a department with a critical lack of staff.

The chain of command is well structured and the communication with the Manager and Senior Librarian is easy and clear. Library Chart


The Library's chain of command starts at the Librarian. A Deputy Librarian deals with the staff on daily bases ( although she is currently in maternity leave). The ICT Librarian is in charge of the Library systems and IT while a Senior Assistant Librarian deals with the rosters, breaks and tasks of the rest of the staff. The Assistant Librarians (including myself) deal with different tasks. Shelving, serving students at the Issue Desk, entering data in the Millennium System (the Library operative system), receiving, tagging, alarming and entering in the system new received items, purchasing of new items, etc are some of the duties carried out every day.

3.7. Influences on IADT

Any company will function on a day-to-day basis with no need for a business strategy. In relation to IADT, students will still be attending their classes, the programmes will be delivered, purchase orders will be drafted and sent, etc.

IADT, like any other business or organisation, may continue to function for some period of time without reference to any strategy. However, a company under these circumstances does not know its destination and can not forecast opportunities or threats that could benefit or endanger its future.

To set a strategic plan is a must. It is important for the organisation to know and determine its business mission and objectives and the way they can be achieved.

It is vital for IADT's success to identify internal and external factors that have or will have a significant impact on the Institute's mission.

3.7.1. Internal Influences on IADT

A) Resource-based analysis

- Tangible assets:

The campus has excellent facilities, including two restaurants, library, health centre and state of the art studios. There are four car parks controlled and managed by a pay and display system, but free for students and staff. The gardens and green areas are remarkable. The campus also boasts a football - GAA sports ground and basketball and mini-soccer courts.

IADT has five remarkable buildings, specially the Incubation Centre, a cube-shaped blue building, that gives the campus a touch of modernity and technology.

IT equipment is of the highest quality and is constantly updated in order to meet the requirements of staff and students. Printers can be found al over the campus. The Library boasts 20 flat-screen LCD TV sets, a similar number of DVD players and Blue-Ray players and a wide collection of DVD,s, videos and over 30,000 books.

Film and media facilities (film and media studios and computer labs, etc), interactive boards, arts studios, etc are among the many resources for teaching and learning.

- Intangible Assets

IADT boasts a very good reputation not only among students and prospective students but also among potential employers in the sectors that match the Institute's programmes. Graduates already working in different areas are also an important asset. Their success in many fields, good performance and preparation enhance IADT's reputation.

IADT, as a brand, is widely recognised as a provider of well prepared, creative, hard-working graduates. The Institute degrees, are the best reference for their future career.

One of the main assets of IADT is its staff. Both teaching and administrative staff meet the higher performance standards to comply with the excellence that the Institute aims to provide.

- Capabilities

IADT teaching staff design and deliver innovative and creative programmes that can not be found elsewhere. Together with the quality of the resources offered to the students and the engagement of the administrative staff, the Institute has the capability of delivering unique programmes that can not be matched by any other similar higher education institution in Ireland.

- Sustainable Competitive Advantages

This capability of offering unique programmes, could give IADT a sustainable competitive advantage over their possible rivals.

The value of the programmes is obvious. IADT graduates are recognised as well prepared professionals because of the programmes they were involved in. They are also inimitable, as they are designed and delivered by the teaching staff. It is not the work of a brilliant individual but the work of a team and that work remains as an IADT's asset even if any change arise in the team. Those programmes can not be transferred to any other Institute or University for the same reason. The uniqueness of the programmes make them rare among the education sector.The fact that the Institute is publicly funded, does not avoid competition from other public institutions but make competition from private universities difficult.

In the current economic climate, and following the Mc Carthy report, it can not be argued that even the best, the most unique higher education institution is non-substitutable.

B) Value Chain Analysis

"A company can be thought of as a chain of activities for transforming inputs into outputs that customers value." (Class hand-out)

The aim of IADT, its product or service, is to provide third level awards, and give graduates the capacity to develop a successful career in their respective sectors.

Primary activities:

- Inbound logistics:

Students are the "raw material" that the Institute receives. The process of recruitment is quick and simple once the students are offered a place in IADT. Then they are distributed among the three schools of the Institute and placed in their respective programmes and classes.

On the other hand, we could also consider the logistics in receiving materials, furniture and equipment necessary for students and staff. The reception and distribution of these items is well structured and performed by the caretakers.

- Operations and outbound Logistics

As the provision of a service is the final IADT's product, operations and outbound logistics are performed simultaneously. During their time in the Institute, the students are provided with innovative and creative programmes that prepare them not just to receive an award but to be capable of starting a successful career once they finish their studies. Students and staff have access to the most modern and up-to-date resources and equipment. The programmes involve hands-on work, not just theory or literature, which give students experience even before starting their careers.

Existing relations between IADT and private firms in different areas provide students with a suitable starting point after their graduation.

- Marketing and Sales

The uniqueness and reputation of IADT are the only explanation for the success of the Institute despite their little effort in marketing. Only one single staff member is in charge of the whole process of the preparation, planning and delivering of the Institute's marketing, reporting directly to the Head of Development. This staff member's performance seems to be outstanding, as she is also in charge of attending career fairs, visiting second level schools, organising promotional events, etc. However this situation is not the best.

The lack of a marketing plan is the cherry on the top of the little interest showed by the Institute management in this area.

- Service

IADT graduates have the full support of the Institute after they leave the Institute. Members of the teaching staff are happy to help former students in their careers, offering them advise and support. The Career Guidance is also a resource that they can access at any stage. The Institute keeps a record of graduate students in order to follow their careers, offer support when it is needed and contact them if any company asks IADT about suitable candidates to recruit.

These primary activities are supported by the following:

- Firm Infrastructure

IADT is a well structured institution. Its departments are well organised, the chain of command is clear and the facilities and resources are up to date, modern and plenty to comply with the tasks expected.

- Human Resource Management

IADT staff is trained during their careers in the Institute. The management is also involved in helping staff to reach and have access to the best personal and professional development. Procedures for hiring new staff used to comply the standards expected in the public sector. However, due to Government restrictions, no staff can be contracted at present.

- I.T. Development

IT equipment is of the highest quality and is constantly updated in order to meet the requirements of staff and students. As an Institute of Technology, keeping up to date of new advances in this field is a must for IADT. The Institute houses the most technological advanced resources for teaching and learning, while the equipment used by all staff is top class.

- Procurements

As a publicly funded institution, IADT purchases its supplies, materials and equipment through tenders. Any company that wants become a supplier needs to apply through this tender procedures. These procedures on one hand can to slow the purchasing of needed supplies, but on the other hand, it is a fair and secure way of purchasing.

IADT's aim is not to make a profit. Its mission is to provide the best education and preparation possible to its students for their future careers. However, this analysis could be of great value to reduce the Institute's expenditure, which would give IADT a competitive advantage.

3.7.2. External Influences on IADT PEST analysis Political Factors

Ÿ Public sector cuts

Ÿ Fees

Ÿ Changes in Government

Ÿ New Minister for Education

Ÿ EU membership Public sector cuts

These cuts aim to save public spending but they can also be a destabilising factor for the Institute. If the Government goes ahead with the cuts, staff will lose an important part of their wages and this will impact on the normal development of the services provided.

Industrial action against this, may slow down the normal development of the teaching programmes affecting directly the students, who may also be unsure if their scheduled programmes will be completed on time and properly.

We can already see the effects of these cuts in the lack of staff. Many staff who had been working on a contract basis saw their contracts terminated. Other staff in sick leave, maternity leave or career break had not been replaced and as a result, some departments are working without enough staff to comply with their tasks. The worst is still to come if more staff need to take any kind of leave. Fees

The implementation of fees for third level education has been postponed. This is good news for the sector, but leaves an open door to future implementations.

In the current economical situation this would have a strong impact in the number of students, as many families will not be able of affording such high expending. Even some students who are currently attending the Institute might be forced to not progressing into a new course year. Changes in Government

The actual Government is not enjoying its best. It seems possible, even probable, that a different party will be running the country in a near future. We can not say if this change is going to be either positive or negative for IADT, but usually a new Government means several changes in all sectors. New Minister for Education

The former Minister for Education Mary Hanafin had a very close relationship with IADT as TD for Dun Laoghaire. Many developments on the campus were approved when she still was in charge of Education. When Mary Hanafin was moved to Social Welfare and Family Affairs, Batt O'Keeffe was appointed for this position.

The plans approved by Hanafin are still being implemented, but the commitment of the new Minister for Education with IADT does not have the same intensity that it had with his predecessor. EU membership

For the purpose of recruiting new students from abroad, Ireland's EU membership is a huge advantage. To be able to access to programmes like Erasmus, Leonardo and others that nay be implemented by the European Department for Education, will be a key point for the future of IADT.

This membership will also facilitate agreements and partnerships with institutes and universities abroad, which would create advantages and opportunities for Irish and European students.

The opposition of several countries to the Bologna process could bring some difficulties to programme exchanges within Europe. Economical Factors Recession

Ireland, as an economy undergoing recession is facing high unemployment, low spending power and low confidence from investors. This economical climate affects all sectors of the country including, of course, education.

Apart from the cuts in the public sector, budget cuts can strongly impact the competitiveness of the Institute. The debt that IADT has, may be increased and the equipment and facilities on campus can become obsolete if the rate of investment drops.

It can be also difficult to find investor in the private sector. The climate of the economy will also dictate if the Institute is able to keep its actual investors. Growth rates are already slowing in Ireland by European standards. The knock-on effect in the economy has brought a more cautious atmosphere in the business community. This may have implications for IADT's other sources of funding.

The low spending power can force students from outside Dublin to search third level education in local institutions.

On the other hand, the high rate of unemployment may offer the opportunity to recruit a large number of mature students. Programmes like " Back to Education" can be a good help to maintaining a balance in the s.

Universities and Institutes of Technology in Northern Ireland may become unexpected competitors if fees are introduced in Ireland and the Euro/Sterling exchange rate keeps its actual level or makes the Euro stronger. Social Factors

Ÿ Population growth rate

Ÿ Migration

Ÿ Lifestyle

The social demography of Ireland has changed significantly in the last five - ten years. The birth rate had fallen to 1.7 or below replacement rate. It recovered slightly in the last Census but this is due mainly to immigrants, who might not remain in Ireland in the long term. The growth of the eastern seaboard in comparison to the rest of the country leaves IADT at the centre of the action. Its membership of various policy groups in this area will leave it well positioned for the opportunities and threats this poses. Fellow Institutes of Technology in more disadvantaged areas are not so well positioned.

Some concerns exist about the sustainability of all the Institutes of Technology as student numbers are expect to fall over the next ten years.

Over the past ten years, Ireland saw thousands of immigrants arrive in the country attracted by the economic boom of the Celtic Tiger. Many of these immigrants are now returning to their countries or moving overseas due to the recession and the lack of opportunities in the Irish work market. Irish nationals are also moving abroad. This can have a strong impact in the number of prospective students in the medium and long term.

Lifestyle is today ruled by technology. Social networks and the internet are replacing traditional means for relationships and friendship. People are constantly seeking information and entertainment. IADT as an institution focused on creativity and technology can take advantage of this lifestyle that provides job opportunities for professionals in media and technology. Technological Factors

Technology is in constant evolution. Equipment becomes obsolete in such a short term that may make complicated an appropriate replacement. For an Institute of Technology this is a serious matter. Keeping abreast of technological advances is a must for IADT. This may turn into a threat if the Institute is not able of managing keep up to date. However, the ability to react quickly also creates extra pressure as IADT is expected to deliver an excellent technical support both to students and staff within even decreasing timescales.

The acquisition and replacement of technology infrastructure, systems, software and hardware at the rate which is expected, may also have a huge economical impact on IADT. Porter's Five Forces Analysis Competitive Rivalry

Several IADT programmes are unique. This makes the Institute quite different from other similar competitors. Courses in Business that may be seen as similar to those offered by other Institutes of Technology are not unique but quite different. (IADT'S Business degrees focus on Entrepreneurship). IADT programmes are designed by the teaching staff which gives to them a differentiation from any other programmes that another institution might offer.

Some Institutes of Technology are similar in size to IADT but this is not a dangerous matter. IADT is small in comparison with Universities. This is more an advantage than a disadvantage as small class sizes are a key point in IADT's strategy

While most universities and Institutes of Technology are overcrowded, IADT's strategy is focused on delivering personalised teaching to a reduced number of students. Continuous assessments are done during the course, while exams are not a key factor to succeed.

We can conclude that the competitive rivalry is low. Power of Suppliers

Suppliers of technical equipment for the Institute are quite varied. Microsoft and Apple are the only software suppliers in this field. This gives them a big power over the Institute. It is a different mattrer on the hardware front. Dell, Samsung, Sanyo, Sony or JVC are the main suppliers of media and entertainment equipment, but the market is wide enough to switch into other brands if necessary. Stationery, furniture, cleaning, graphic design and printing services are provided by companies which have been successful in tender processes. It would very easy for IADT to find new suppliers for all these services and the switching cost would not be high as many companies offer similar services.

The conclusion is that only software companies have a relatively high power over IADT, while the power of the other suppliers is very low. Power of Buyers

Students are IADT's customers. As pointed out in the competitive rivalry section, most of the programmes offered in IADT are unique or with little similarities to those offered by other Institutes of Technology or Universities. A substitute service can not be easily found, and once the students have begun their programmes, the cost of switching can be high, as they need to start again their third level studies from the first year.

However, students have a high power over the Institute. They are the only reason for IADT's existence. An institution dedicated to education has no meaning without students. Threat of Substitutes

Substitutes for IADT services are the other twelve Institutes of Technology, universities and private institutions that offer third level education. The alternative of private education is very costly in comparison to public institutions. Fees and charges are stated by the Government so all the IOTI's and universities have similar costs. Universities and Institutes in other counties will increase the expenditures of students in accommodation and transport.

Again the uniqueness of IADT programmes makes customers not willing to substitute IADT for other institution. Threat of New Entrant

The entry barriers are high in the education sector. Numbers of students are expected to fall in a near future. Existing institutions will be fighting to attract them and it will leave little room for new entrants. In the actual economic climate, private universities or colleges may not be able to compete with public institutions.

The Government plans to increase third level fees in several thousand euro. This will also prevent many candidates from gaining access to third level education.

Seven Sources of Barriers to Entry

- Economies of Scale

The infrastructures needed to launch an Institute of Technology represent a high level of risk for any company that may be thinking about entering the third level education sector.

- Access to Distribution Channels

The Department of Education is the only provider of recognised awards of third level education in Ireland. Publicly funded institutions do not have exclusive access to these qualifications, but private institutions are in clear disadvantage in relation to public higher education institutions.

- Cost Disadvantage Independent of Scale

It could be very difficult for any new entrant to match the level of experience and knowledge actually possessed by IADT. The excellent quality of the teaching staff well supported by the commitment of the administrative staff are one of the main strengths of the Institute.

It would also be very difficult to compete with its technological level.

IADT receives its funds mainly from the State. This is another key point of disadvantage for any prospective entrant.

- Deregulation

No regulation exists about new entrants to Third Level Education sector. This would not be a problem for any new entrant.

- Capital Requirements

Entering this sector would require a very large investment of capital. Hiring teaching and administrative staff, the acquisition of appropriate premises, IT equipment and a huge expenditure in publicity are just some of the many expenses that the new entrant would be obliged to afford.

- Switching Cost

It would be very difficult to switch from IADT to a new entrant. The Institute's programmes are unique. This means that any student who wants to switch or transfer to a different institution would need to start a new programme, which would mean the loss of the years already spend in IADT. Prospective students would not find the same programmes in other institutions

- Differentiation

IADT has a very good reputation among prospective students and future employers. The uniqueness of its programmes, the success of former graduates and the recognition of the awards offered by the Institute are high barriers for new entrants.

Internal and External Analysis - SWOT IADT's SWOT Analysis Strengths

Ÿ Location

Ÿ Number of students and class sizes

Ÿ Student support services

Ÿ Programmes

Ÿ Friendly atmosphere

Ÿ Campus

Ÿ Good reputation

Ÿ Relationships with school's guidance counsellors

Ÿ Teaching staff

Ÿ Media Cube

Ÿ Former students

Ÿ Adult learners

Ÿ Tag line

Ÿ Industrial relations Location

The location of the Institute is very good for students from Dublin and also for those from other counties. Dun Laoghaire has every facility that students may need avoiding at the same time the stress of a large city.

Communications between Dun Laoghaire and Dublin city centre are quite good both by train, bus or road. Students can access resources that the capital of the country provides, while enjoying the relaxed life of Dun Laoghaire. Number of students and class sizes

Around two thousand students are currently attending IADT. This allows classes between forty and fifty students and prevents overcrowded classes. Lectures can devote more attention to students delivering a more personal quality teaching. Student support services

IADT provides support services in line with best practice as outlined under the Higher Education Authority (HEA) guidelines. The services include:

Ÿ Health Centre

Ÿ Student Counselling Service

Ÿ Access Service

Ÿ Sports & Recreation

Ÿ Writing & Research Skills Service

Ÿ Maths Tutorials/Study Skills/Group Dynamics

Ÿ Accommodation Information

Ÿ Assistive Technology Programmes

IADT is recognised by the quality and uniqueness of its programmes. They have been designed by the teaching staff and focus on the knowledge, media, entertainment, technology, visual arts, enterprise and creativity sectors.

The School of Creative Arts incorporates the National Film School while the the School of Creative Technologies hosts the Centre for Creative Technologies and Applications (CCTA) and the School of Business and Humanities the Centre for Public Culture Studies. Friendly atmosphere

The relatively small number of students and the differences between students attending the three schools make the living on campus a friendly and enjoyable experience, hard to find in other places. Campus

The campus has excellent facilities, including a restaurant, library and state of the art studios. There are four car parks controlled and managed by a pay and display system, but free for students and staff. The gardens and green areas are remarkable. The campus also boasts a football - GAA sports ground and basketball and mini-soccer courts. Good reputation

Despite being a young institution, formally established in 1997, IADT has a great reputation among students, parents and companies due to its unique programmes and the success of many of its graduates. Relationships with school's guidance counsellors

The well structured and fluent communication between IADT's marketing department and career guidance counsellors of second level schools nationwide, is a key point for students to choose the Institute as their first option for third level education. Teaching staff

IADT's teaching staff is one of its main strengths. It is formed by professionals who have studied and worked in the areas that they teach. All the programmes are designed by the teaching staff. They are focused on the acquisition of practical skills and competencies that prepare graduates for a fast-moving professional environment. Media Cube

Also known as the Incubation Centre, it is specifically focussed on the Digital Media sector. Funded by Enterprise Ireland and formed by IADT graduates and Digital Media companies, it provides an environment for the growth and development of new ideas.

The premises, a cube-shaped blue building, gives itself a good impression of modernity and technology.

Its success is proved by the second Incubation Centre that is to be built in the near future. Former students

The success in their careers of many IADT graduates in the sectors of business, media and arts is an attractive selling point for prospective students. Adult learners

IADT is the third level institution with the higher percentage of adult learners. In these times of high unemployment rates, it is important to provide people who have lost their jobs with suitable programmes that prepare them for their return to the work market.

The institute also provides programmes for adults in full-time employment whowant to continue their education. Tag line

"Creating Futures" is the IADT's tag line. The combination of the ideas of creativity and future sells out the main porpoise of the Institute, that is preparing students for their careers. It also presumes that IADT "makes" those futures. Industrial relations

The Institute has established relationships with digital media organisations including the Digital Hub, the Digital Media Forum, Screen Training Ireland, the National Broadcasting Sector (RTE, TG4, and TV3), the Arts Council, the Irish Internet Association and the Irish Software Association. Weakness

Ÿ Lack of staff

Ÿ Little interaction between departments

Ÿ Debts

Ÿ Lack of marketing plan

Ÿ Little commitment between the three schools

Ÿ Website

Ÿ Identity

Ÿ Communications

Ÿ Student accommodation

Ÿ Sports facilities Lack of staff

Due to Government's spending cuts in the Public Sector, several staff working on a contract basis have not been renewed. Permanent staff in sick leave, maternity leave or career break can not be replaced either. This leaves some Institute's departments without enough staff to deliver appropriate services to the students. Little interaction between departments

There is little communication between departments. This slows down the normal running of the Institute and is a problem for students and staff. Debts

IADT has actually a considerable debt. Further development of the campus and quality standards can be seriously affected. Lack of marketing plan

Only a Liaison Officer is currently working in the marketing department. IADT has neither a marketing manager nor a marketing plan. This is not the best situation to attract prospective students and to enhance the perceptions and reputation of the Institute. Little Commitment between the three schools

Every school that forms IADT seems to work as an independent entity. It makes difficult the perception of the Institute as a single unit and slows down the work of the administrative staff. Website

IADT's website needs improvements. It is not the kind of site a visitor would expect from an Institute of Technology that boasts of being the leader in Digital Media in the country, Identity

IADT is still known outside Dublin as a "college of Art". Prospective students in the schools of Business and Humanities and Creative Technologies may choose other IOTI's or universities just because they do not know about actual programmes in IADT. Communications

Despite Dun Laoghaire's good communication with Dublin city centre, only four bus routes stop near IADT. It makes difficult for some areas in north and south Dublin to get to the Institute using public transportation. Student accommodation

IADT lacks a plan to provide accommodation to students from outside Dublin. Sports facilities

A soccer - GAA sports ground and a basketball court are the only sport facilities on Campus. This is not enough for over two thousand students and two hundred staff. Opportunities

Ÿ International students

Ÿ Merger ( NCAD)

Ÿ Links with CFE

Ÿ Funding from external sources

Ÿ Online Marketing

Ÿ Foundation Certificate International students

Attracting students from other countries can help IADT to growth. Erasmus and other European programmes are good opportunities for the Institute. Merger (NCAD)

The merger with the National College of Art and Design can consolidate IADT as a reference in Ireland for art and design studies. This may also improve the state's funding and the possibility of new sources of private funding. The number of students will increase. Links with CFE

Actual links with Ballsbridge College of Further Education, Rathmines College and Senior College Dun Laoghaire, can be extended to other CFE's, specially to Colleges located in Co. Dublin and Co. Wicklow. Funding from external sources

To generate research funding from companies in the media and technology sectors, due to the tax exemptions policy of the Government and the reputation of the Incubation Centre. Online marketing

Nowadays, the internet allows prospective students to access information about IADT from their own homes or schools. Online marketing is therefore an indispensable tool. Foundation Certificate

As unemployment rates grow in the country, the implementation of foundation certificate programmes for adult learners who want to attend third level education, but are not in possession of second level awards, are highly demanded. IADT used to offer a Foundation Certificate course two years ago that, surprisingly, is not being offered at present. Threats

Ÿ Recession

Ÿ Public Sector Cuts

Ÿ New Government Budgets

Ÿ Fees

Ÿ Migration

Ÿ Continuous development of technology

Ÿ Merger with NCAD

Ÿ Funding from external sources Recession

Undoubtedly the greatest threat looming over all sectors of the country. The actual economic situation can affect IADT in several ways. As people are losing their jobs, families may be unable to afford the expenditure that third level education requires. Public sector cuts

Government plans of further spending cuts in the public sector can seriously affect IADT. Insufficient number of staff due to the impossibility of new contracts, replacement of staff in sick leave, maternity leave or career break, will make a challenge a properly delivery of services to the students. New Government budgets

As a public institute, IADT will be affected by new budgets. The Institute's debt can be easily increased if new budgets reduce state's investments in education. It also will affect the development of the campus and new equipment acquisition. Fees

Plans to introduce fees in third level education have been postponed. However, they could be brought back in a near future. This could make third level education a luxury for many families in Ireland. Migration

Numbers of non nationals living and studying in Ireland are now decreasing. Many immigrants are leaving the country due to the economic climate. Irish families are also moving to other countries for the same reason. The number of prospective students can drop in a near future. Development of technology

As an Institute of Technology, IADT needs to keep up with technological advances. This is a so fast-moving environment that it is not an easy goal. Merger

Plans of merging IADT and NCAD are already underway. Duplication of staff, dispersion and loss of identity are some of the threats that the Institute may be facing. Funding from external sources

The current climate of crisis and economic instability may have an impact in actual investments from private companies and can also make it difficult for new investments.

4. Conclusions

Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology is well positioned in the education sector. Its success is mainly based on the unique programmes offered in film, media and creative arts and the different and innovative approach in the courses in business, psychology, technology and humanities.

A key factor for the good positioning and reputation boasted by the Institute is its staff. Teaching and administrative workers performance can be considered at the highest level. However, restrictions and budget cuts already implemented by the Government, non renewal of non-permanent staff and the possibility of an increment in the pension levies and wage cuts in a near future are serious threats to maintaining the confidence and motivation of staff.

The actual economic climate may have a huge impact on IADT. The actual debt may be increased by the difficulty in finding new sources of external funding or in keeping existing agreements. Migration movements and the low spending power of families are also serious threats.

The Institute does not have a structured marketing department. It also lacks a marketing plan.

Little interaction exists between its departments. This is an obstacle for a common strategy in the future development of the Institute.

The campus hardly meets current student needs. The development already in progress will improve this issue. There are some remarkable buildings, specially the Media Cube, but the full development of the campus to facilitate learning, social engagement and research requires further work in order to meet the challenges the future may bring.

5. Recommendations

IADT's positioning is viable and desirable. However, there are some aspects that the Institute should improve or implement to meet the needs of staff and students.

a) It is vital the elaboration and implementation of a marketing plan. The Institute needs to know where it is positioned and how to improve its success and to enhance its perceptions and reputation. Online marketing is another field that IADT needs to get involve in.

b) Improve interaction between departments and communication between all staff in IADT.

c) Despite Government policies, the Institute should provide appropriate number of staff to operate a Campus of 2,500 students.

d) Being Dun Laoghaire and Co Dublin one of the most expensive areas in the country, the provision of accommodation on or near the Campus is a must. Agreement with landlords in the area could be a good first step.

e) The Institute should demand from Dublin Bus the implementation of more bus routes.

f) IADT should offer a pre third level course (i.e. Foundation Certificate, etc).

g) European programmes as Erasmus or Leonardo has been implemented in the Institute this year for the first time. Maintaining and improving these programmes will contribute to enhance the international reputation of IADT and will also increase the number of prospective students.

h) If IADT wants to stay at the forefront of digital media and technology, its website has to convey that message to its audience. The expectations of the website visitors can be very high beforehand.

6. Bibliography

JAY, R (1998). The Essential Marketing Sourcebook, 2nd Edition, Glasgow, Financial Times - Pitman Publishing.

MUDIE, P (1997). Marketing, an Analytical Perspective, London, Biddles Ltd, Guildford and King's Lynn.

CURTIS, G. (1998). Business Information Systems. Analysis, Design and Practice, 3 th Edition, Harlow, Addison Wesley Logman.

ROGAN, D. (2000). Marketing, an Introduction for Irish Students, Dublin, Gill and Mcmillan

ROTLER, P., AMSTRONG, G., SAUNDERS, J. and WONG, V. (1999). Principles of Marketing - Second European Edition, Milan, Prentice Hall Europe.

THE SIA GROUP ( 2008) IADT Strategy 2008-2012 - (Confidential document)

http://www.learnmarketing.net/pestanalysis.htm (20/11/2009)

http://www.marketingteacher.com/lessons/lesson_marketing_environment.htm (20/11/2009)

http://www.netmba.com/strategy/value-chain/ (12/12/09)

www.iadt.ie (20/11/09, 07/12/09, 09/12/09, 11/12/09, 12/12/09