A Study Of Installing Computer Networks Art Essay


This assignment will allow demonstrating an understanding of installing networks for computing and telephony on a single site plus catering for the needs of mobile staff. I will plan the implementation of networks to meet the needs of a new web design agency that is moving into an office in an existing office block.


Top Web, a web design agency is moving into new office accommodation in an existing building in the local area. This will be the sole location of the company. Top Web has a number of clients within the region and requires state-of-the art networks for its computer and telephone systems.

Top Web has a staff of fifteen people, comprising:

  • 2 Project Managers who also own the company as a partnership. Projects for each client are managed by a single Project Manager.
  • 2 Graphic Designers who are responsible for all artwork including prototyping website designs and producing images for websites and paper-based advertising material.
  • 3 Web Designers who are responsible for translating designs into standards-compliant XHTML and CSS. They are also responsible for SEO work.
  • 3 Web Programmers who are responsible for creating the dynamic content for websites via SQL, PHP, asp.net, etc.
  • 4 Sales Assistants who are responsible for generating new and repeat business.
  • 1 Clerical Assistant who is responsible for general administration duties.
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The company requires a suite of computers with software for general administration (office suite) and any software that is specific for the role of the staff members. Workstations will be connected to the company network that will allow communication throughout Top Web via a company intranet. The company will also be required to send their work electronically to their clients for review so the network should allow for the transmission of very large files both internally and externally.

The company telephone system requires a central switchboard operated by the Clerical Assistant plus direct dialing into each individual member of the company. Typical modern telephone functions such as call waiting, conference calls, etc will be required.

Project Managers, along with other members of staff, regularly visit clients to discuss their projects. They need to be able to collaborate electronically with the main office to discuss ideas in real-time including artwork, web designs, etc. The installed network need to be able to handle this collaboration and suitable hardware and software must be supplied to meet the needs of staff when they are out of the office.

Table of Content


1. Task 1 6---------12

2. Task 2 13-------16

3. Task 3 17-------21

4. Task 4 22-------25

5. Task 5 26--------28

6. Reference. 29------30

Task 1

Task 1 30 Marks

Investigate telephone systems available in your country for single-site organization such as Top Web. Pay particular attention to:

  1. The main equipment that would be installed. (5 marks)
  2. The features available with each system. (10 marks)
  3. The cost of equipment and installation. (5 marks)
  4. The cost of operating the system.(5 marks)

Provide a recommendation for which system to purchase and give reasons for this recommendation. (5 marks)

The telecommunications equipment, which is installed on premises belonging to the telecommunications user. Typically, but not exclusively, the equipment will be as follow,

  • Telephone instruments;
  • Private Branch Exchanges (PBXs);
  • Key Telephone Systems (KTSs);
  • Automatic Call Distribution (ACD) system;
  • Voice Processing Systems;
  • Telephone answering machines;

a) The main equipment that would be installed

Private Branch exchange is to connect any internal extension to any external line and to allow internal extensions to connect to each other. Key Telephone System is essentially to provide all of the functions of a PBX and to provide a more economic alternative to a PBX for smaller installation. PBXs are more economic for larger installations and PBX system selects external lines. KTS do not have a central processor and do not have a switchboard console.

A typical business or office telephone system with more than one telephone extension or handset is known as a PBX (Private Branch Exchange) or PABX (Private Automated Branch Exchange). The PBX makes the connection between one or more telephone lines to the local telephone exchange and the telephone handsets in the office. PBX extensions are not limited to handsets used by people but may include other extensions for use by auto attendants, hunt groups, voice mail, fax machines or other devices

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In KTS system, Single wiring systems can offer practical, flexible installation options for electrical installations with function maintenance. The systems are suited to vertical and horizontal installation and are approved for the fire protection classes E30 and E90. Standardised supporting constructions as defined in the testing standard, DIN 4102 Part 12, include: The routing of cables with clamps and the routing of cables with profile rails, U clamps and a long sleeve.

There are special regulations valid for electrical installations in the area of emergency and escape routes, because there must be a guarantee that these routes can be used safely if there is a fire. Details are specified by the German guideline (MLAR systems). The requirements of this directive can be fulfilled either by flushmounted cables, by an installation in fire protection by flush-mounted cables, by an installation in fire protection duct systems or cable installations with specially tested laying systems above suspended fire protection ceilings. OBO Bettermann offers these installations in different practical variants.

b) The features available with each system

PBX is to connect any internal extension to any external line and t o allow internal extensions to connect to each other. KTS is essentially to provide all of the functions of a PBX and to provide a more economic alternative to a PBX for smaller installation. KTS do not have a central processor. PBXs are more economic for larger installations. KTS user selects external. PBX system selects external lines. KTS do not have a switchboard console.

The features of the PBXs were somewhat limited and basically consisted of the following capabilities:

  • to dial other extensions
  • to dial outside lines
  • to make an enquiry call to another extension whist connected to an external call
  • to transfer the external call to the extension where an enquiry call had just been made

Some popular features that PBX systems usually provide include an auto-attendant, conferencing, music on hold, dial by name or extension, and voicemail. More advanced features such as computer-telephony integration (CTI) can be purchased for an additional cost.

A key telephone systems (KTS or key systems) is a multi-line private telephone network that allows each key telephone station to select one of several telephone lines. Key systems contain a key service unit (KSU) that coordinates status lights and lines to key telephones (Key Sets). Key systems have some advanced call processing features such as call hold, busy status, and station-to-station intercom.
KTS are relatively simple non-switching telephone systems. The KSU only interfaces (connects) key sets to the public telephone lines allow calls to directly pass through. The KSU does sensing and provide display status lines to each key service unit. The first generation key systems allowed multi-button telephones to have an appearance (e.g., a button) for multiple end office lines. When the incoming telephone line received a ringing signal, the key system flashed the appropriate button. To answer the call, the user picked up the handset and pressed the flashing button. This off-hook indication is sensed by the KSU which results in the the key set's line status light to become solid. This indicated to other telephone users that the line was being used.

All modern PBXs and KTSs still have these four main features but over the years many others have been developed. Almost all of these have come about because business life has become increasingly demanding on staff time. As a result staffs are very often away from their desks and therefore not available to make or receive telephone calls.

c) The cost of equipment and installation

Typical standard phone system from a leading brand: $5478 installed in PBX
Capable of 16 phones and 6 lines maximum (6x16 system)
Configured with 8 phones and 4 lines
Standard "key system" features
Standard three-line basic phones
Requires expensive on-site visits for upgrades and changes

d) The cost of operation system

In PBX services, the cost effective are as follow

Table 1-1 demonstrates the cost reduction and operational savings generated by the streamlined process of managing and facilitating IP telephone adds, moves, and changes.

Table 1-1 P Telephony Impact on Adds, Moves, and Changes: San Jose Campus IT/Telecom Savings: Fiscal Year 2002 (August Through June)





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Project moves




Individual moves




Adds (new hires/configurations)








WPR** Savings

Reduction of contracted services to support MACs

Fiscal Year 2001

Fiscal Year 2002

Type of Service

Average $/Move

Average $/Move


Disconnect/reconnect systems support




(Approximately 91 percent of expense reduced)

Other Benefits

Move process time shortened

Zero downtime of phones

Higher client satisfaction

Integration of resources

  • Cost variance between IP and non-IP MACs
  • WPR = WorkPlace Resources

Factoring in the preceding assumptions, the IP Telephony Remote Network Management (RNM), the service that monitors the IP Telephony network remotely, was identified as further reducing ongoing total cost of ownership due to IP Telephony eliminating support overhead and combining LAN/WAN, PSTN, and PBX support, as shown in Table 1-2.

Table 1-2 Impact on Total Cost of Ownership

PBX Support Comparison

Traditional TDM PBX Support

IP Telephony-RNM Telephony

PBX maintenance

Upgrade support

PBX management


PSTN management

LAN management

Remote site management

Infrastructure changes

Maintenance fees

Sold separately

Dispatch or labor

Dispatch or labor

Not included

Not included

Not included

Not included

Cisco SMARTnet

Cisco SAS






Priced separately


we recommend the Private Branch Exchanges (PBXs). Because, most PBXs have two forms of abbreviated dialing, one where the dialing library is common to the entire system and the other where it is restricted to the particular extension line. The extension user is allowed to programmer the second type using their telephone instrument. Up until about 20 years ago the features of PBXs were very much the same as their public exchange counterparts. As business became more demanding, PBXs became much more feature rich.

Task 2

Task 2 -15 Marks


Investigate the possible network topologies (5 marks) and media (5 marks) that could be used to create the in-house network (LAN) for use by all teams. Explain how the topologies operate.

Provide a recommendation for which topology and medium to use and give reasons for this recommendation (5Marks).

Bus Topology

A bus network uses a multi-drop transmission and all the middle nodes share a common bus and communication on the network. All components of the bus topology with a spine, a single cable segment that connects all the computers in a straight line. A bus topology is not a practical choice because topology has moved past this outdated method of connecting computers. A terminator is required for the signal to be absorbed, so they are not back in the bus reflected.

Ring Topology

When each computer connects directly to the next computer in line, ending at the starting computer, a circle of cable forms to create a ring topology network. Signals travel in only one direction around the ring because the circle has no end, termination is not required. A signal is transferred sequentially via “token” from one station to the next. A typical single-ring network can fail if one computer in the ring fails, but a dual-ring network can operate around any such failure. Although a ring topology is used in network technologies such as Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI).

Star Topology

A star topology describes computers connected by cable segments to a central device. The star topology doesn't specify how signals should travel from computer to computer, only that cables connect computers to a central device. A star networks consists of one central switch, hub or computer, which acts as a conduit to transmit messages. The central hub received all transmissions from any peripheral node to all peripheral nodes on the network, sometimes including the originating node.

Mesh Topology

A mesh network topology is the most fault tolerant, but also the most expensive. Connect each device on a network to each device on the network creates a mesh network topology. Any device in a single cable or failure in a mesh topology affects network performance because of multiple connections to each device. Mesh networks are self-healing: the network can continue operating when a node breaks down or a connection is established is wrong. There are more than one path between a sender and a receiver on the network.


Coaxial Cable

A type of wire That Consists of a center wire insulation and Then Surrounded by a grounded shield of braided wire. Coaxial cabling is the primary type of cabling Used by the cable television industry and is widely Also Used for computer networks, Such as Ethernet. It is more expensive Than standard telephone wire, it is much less susceptible to Interference and dog carry much more data.

Twisted-pair cable

A type of cable that consists of two independently insulated wires twisted around one another. The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. Twisted-pair cable is used by older telephone networks and is the least expensive type of local-area network (LAN) cable, most networks contain some twisted-pair cabling at some point along the network.

Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of protective materials. It transmits light rather than electronic signals eliminating the problem of electrical interference. The center core of fiber cables is made from glass or plastic fibers. The outer insulating jacket made of Teflon or PVC. There are two common types of fiber cables -- single mode and multimode. Multimode cable has a larger diameter; however, both cables provide high bandwidth at high speeds. Single mode can provide more distance, but it is more expensive.


I explained four types of network topologies such as bus, star, mesh and ring topologies. Among them, could be used star topology twisted pair cable for the internal network (LAN). A star network uses a central server to route data between clients. A star topology is designed with each node connected directly to a central network hub, switch or connector. All user nodes are connected via a dedicated link to the central server node. If a node other than the server fails, all other avenues are still available and not the entire network. A star network is easy to install and wire, to detect faults, to remove the parts and no interruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices. However, a star network requires more cable length than a line topology. If the hub, switch or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled. A twisted pair cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twisted with a different number of turns per inch. While twisted-pair cable is used by older telephone networks and is the least expensive local network (LAN) cable, most networks contain some twisted-pair cabling at some point along the network.

Task 3

Investigate the requirements for creating the company intranet including the following information:

  • Options for hardware to host the intranet, including costs of purchase, running and maintaining the hardware.(8 marks)
  • Options for extending this to an extranet to allow for home working and access by staff whilst at clients' premises.(8 marks)
  • Options for storage of electronic files. The company will require a large number amount of storage for images and video that is used on client's websites. (8 marks)

Provide a recommendation for how the intranet/extranet and storage should be set up and run , and give reasons for this recommendation. (3*2 marks)

An intranet is a restricted access network that works in the same way and offers the same type of facilities as the Internet, but isn't actually part of it. On an intranet email, FTP, HTTP, web access and Newsgroups can be provided as part of a secure managed network. Usually owned and managed by a corporation, an intranet enables a company to share its resources with its users without confidential information being made available to anyone with Internet access.

Most enterprise networks are actually intranets. An intranet is generally built on the TCP/IP protocol and it is in essence a private Internet. Like the Internet, intranets are designed to share information and services, but they are accessible only to the organisation's members, with suitable authorization. A typical intranet depicts an intranet structure in which a local web server provides Internet applications, such as email, FTP, and web browsing for the network without using the public telephone system.

One of the most widely used functions of WAN is the electronic mail (email) feature. This feature enables Internet users to send and receive electronic messages to and from each other over the internet. A special application, called the File Transfer protocol (FTP) is used to upload and download information to and from the WWW. FTP is a client/server type of software application. The server version runs on the host computer and the client version runs on the user's station. HTTP or Hyper Text Transfer Protocol is a client/server protocol used to send and receive files on the Internet. A client is any network workstation that sends a request to a Web server.

B) Options for extending this to an extranet

An extranet is effectively a virtual intranet that is hosted on a system run and managed by a third party without the expense of running our own servers. The extranet a partially, partially private network arrangement. Some type of firewall device or software typically blocks unauthorized, outside users from accessing the intranet site. The concept of an extranet is closely linked with Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).

The concept of virtual private network is designed to enable companies and organizations use the Internet backbone, a good channel for communication of private information without having to build and maintain our own global private network. VPNs allow remote offices, mobile users, and even business partners or customers to use the Internet rather than expensive lines, to connect to corporate networks. The creation of VPNs also allows us to reduce the responsibilities of home network management with much of the burden of communications delivered to a remote ISP.
VPNs can also be used to connect remote LANs together or to travel, work, home employees and business partners an easy way to reach past the company firewall and use the resources of the company. The main advantage of VPN is its flexibility. You can create, expand, reduce or close at will the network administrator, making them ideal for short-term projects.

C) Options for storage of electronic files

An important decision to make when choosing a document management system is where we want the software hosted. If we run it in-house, the solution is usually referred to as a client-server system; vendor-run applications are referred to as application service provider (ASP) solutions. Both options provide distinct advantages: consider which are more important to us.

A client server network depicts a typical client/server LAN configuration. In this type of LAN, control tends to be very centralized. The server typically holds the programs and data for its client computers. It also provides security and network policy enforcement.

In some cases, the client units do not even include a local hard-drive. The bootup process is performed through onboard BIOS, and no data is stored at the client machine. This type of client is referred to as a diskless workstation.

d) Electronic Files

The file server is a computer attached to a network and has the primary purpose of providing a location for shared disk access for example a shared storage of computer files which can be accessed by the workstations which are attached to the network. The term server means the role of the machine in the client-server scheme, where the clients are the workstations using the storage. A file server is not performing any calculations, and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. The file server is designed to able the rapid storage and retrieval of data that the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. The file server can run the personal website, backup files, share documents and access the data on the web. We have a certain aspects of our website only to certain people. When we travel to access our data from anywhere's groups on business project work is enhance by allowing many people access to the same files. Cremation is the best resource for working with locks, logging provisioning and people on the internet.


In above messages, we recommended the HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol). Because it is a client/server protocol used to send and receive files on the Internet. Most Internet applications on the World Wide Web use HTTP. HTTP is packaged with all Web browsers and is the default protocol with browsers.

And then, we recommended the VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). VPNS allow reducing in house network management responsibilities with much of the remote communications burden turned over to an ISP. The main advantage of VPNs is the flexibility. They are point- to-multipoint connections rather than point-to-point links. So, VPNs can also be used to link remote LANs together or give traveling staff, work at home employees and business partners a simple way to reach past company firewalls are tap into company resources. Next, we recommended the client/server network because the client units do not even include a local hard-drive or floppy drive unit.

Task 4


Investigate the Internet connection requirements for Top Web.

  • Describe the Internet services that may be required. (5 marks)
  • Explain the connection speeds that are suitable for these requirements. (3 marks)
  • Find examples of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) that can meet these requirements in your country. (4 marks)
  • Make a recommendation to use one particular ISP based upon the services offered and price charged. (3 marks)

A) Our Top Web (a web design agency) is used for email and Internet services. Email is the transmission of messages over communications networks. Some email systems are limited to a computer system or network, but others have gateways to other computer systems, allowing users to send mail anywhere in the world. Companies that are fully computerized make extensive use of email because it is fast, flexible and reliable. Usually, only takes a few seconds or minutes for mail to reach your destination. This is a particularly effective way to communicate with a group, because it can transmit a message or document to everyone in the group at a time.
Navigation is the electronic equivalent of wandering the library shelves in search of something interesting and relevant attention, and following the references of an item, like a book or magazine to another. Now it can be copied by electronic means, for example, while using the WWW is possible to navigate from one site to another by following links.

B) Bandwidth is used as a data transfer rate that the amount of data that are portable from one point to another over a period of time. Whenever the connection speed of a signal is measured in Hertz, the difference of a given bandwidth is shown in hertz between the highest frequency of the signal and uses the lowest frequency it uses. The bandwidth required MKB 256 MB or 512. A typical voice signal has a bandwidth of approximately 3 kHz and an analog television (TV) broadcast video signal has a bandwidth of 6 MHz

C) Myanmar Teleport

Myanmar Teleport objectives are to generate awareness of advances in information and communication technology to promote technology transfer and open the door to business opportunities in local and regional and global markets. The technology is remarkable and in fact has changed the way we do business. The dynamism of ICT has established a new paradigm for competitiveness, economic growth and social development.

Yatanarpon Teleport

Teleport Yatanarpon an opportunity to leave behind the country's social economic development. Our goal is to establish Myanmar as a software developer and exporter. Technology for country-wide networking, along with the capabilities to provide telecommunications services such as fiber optic and wireless local loops, Gateway, the data center services, Internet and intranet services door link.


I would recommend the election Myanmar Teleport for the following services to Myanmar Teleport. If you are using the Internet to check emails, read the TI website, you are not a heavy internet user and do not need one of the highest bids offered large download limits. You directly aspect of education, communication and transport due to 256kbps to 512 kbps teleport feel fast enough for you. Therefore, it appears that the influence of information and communication

Task 5

A) A PBX is connected to the internal and external line to extend the internal connection between them. A PBX device is the management of the telephone line and extensions. A PBX is not only expensive but also limited to a certain number of lines and phones. The components of the PBX are DS1 card that supports T1/E1 PRI ISDN, CAT 5 and tandem switching cables or lines connecting the trunk, and B-channels.
A KTS is to provide all the PBX features and a cheaper alternative to PBX for small installation. KTS is user installable and allow multiple lines without having to pay charge to the telephone company. The components of the KTA are powerful module (KTS 570), internal adapter DAB exchange, networking and multimedia support.

B) Features of Private Branch Exchange

  • The important feature of PBX is our personal customer service and support.
  • PBX supports that organization's gateway
  • DSP supports call processing and voice traffic on PBX network
  • QSIG T1/E1 ISDN-PRI lines between Private Branch Exchange and organization's gateway
  • Use of Coordinated Dial Plan, Universal Dial Plan or similar routing

Features of Key Telephone System

  • KTS do not have a central processor
  • KTS user selects external line
  • KTS do not have a switchboard console
  • KTS meets the highest demands for depth of testing and ease of operation.
  • KTS provides the operator with practical functions for every diagnostics case.

C) Cost of Private Branch Exchange

Item: A1831-1214-00-75

  • Price: $0 704.28
  • UTP cable Category 1 ( $ .30 per meter)
  • RJ-11 connectors
  • UTP cable Category 5 1 ( $ 0.30 per meter)
  • RJ-45 connectors ($ 0.15 per meter)

D) Cost operating of PBX

For VoIP fans, the good news is that IP telephony in the enterprise, as evidenced by global sales of IP PBXs, is on track to almost totally replace its TDM counterpart. The bad news is that it's only replacing, not displacing. And the disruptive types who would like to speed their companies' take-up of VoIP have an extreme problem: The things that make IP PBXs so attractive to users carry little weight with those deciding whether to deploy them.

Cost operating of KTS

Key Telephone Systems are found in small companies where fewer features are required. There is an average pricing for the different types of office phone systems, additional features and the number of employees in the near future can cause the overall costs to fluctuate a bit.


I would recommend to choose Private Branch Exchange, as system is much less expensive than connecting an external telephone line to each phone organization. Private Branch Exchange to share the telephone line of the system, reducing the overall costs of telecommunications. The PBX system is programmable and supported the integration requirements and telecommunication. There a variety of series with the system private branch exchange. The system PBX is easily expandable as the company grows.


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