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Rosa Bonheur was a world famous realist painter. She was born in Bordeaux, France in 1822. Her father taught her to paint at an early age

He was also a painter, but not a very successful one. Rosa had three other siblings, in which she is the oldest. Rosa most famous artwork was “The Horse Fair”, it gained attention from Queen Victoria. Rosa was a very controversial figure in her time. She wore men's clothing, smoked cigarettes and even cut her hair short; she also used to date women. “The Horse Fair” was about horses being shown off in an auction. The painting was done on canvas with oil paints. Oil paint has been around since ancient times. Canvas became more popular during the Renaissance.“Background&rdquo

Rosa Bonheur was born in Bordeaux, France on March 16 1822. Rosa'
s parents Raymond Bonheur and Sophie shaped her to have a strong outgoing personality. Her father was an unsuccessful paint, who helped develop Rosa's ability to paint. Sophie, her mother, used drawings of animals that Rosa drew to help her learn her alphabets; this sparked her interest in animals. After failing as a painter Raymond had to move his family to Paris, where he found a job teaching in 1828. In the 19th century, women were unable to go to art school, so Raymond taught his daughter to paint by taking her to a park in Paris to draw animals that were there, and he also let her keep pets in their home, so she could draw them too. When Rosa was young her mother passed away. At an early age Rosa was greatly passionate about animals. Rosa's first painting was of a farm and farm animals from a farm near her house. Rosa also studied anatomy by visiting slaughterhouses and performing dissections in order to study the animals' bone and muscle structure. She then used this information in her beginning sketches and studies before beginning to work on her paintings (Jen Longshaw). Rosa was the oldest of four children, painter. Rosa helped support her family by copying paintings in the Louvre. While doing this she become interested in the paintings of an English animal painter named Edward Landseer. Rosa displayed her animal sculptures and paint at the Paris Salon from 1841 to 1853, in which she won prize for her work. One of the main paintings was “Plowing in the Nivernais”; this painting established her reputation in 1849. Another painting that gave Rosa international fame was the “The Horse Fair” in 1853. One of Rosa's most famous admirers was Queen Victoria. The Queen admired “The Horse Fair” so much that she arranged a private viewing at the Windsor Castle. Rosa was the first woman to win a cross of the Legion d'Honneur . Other honors included awards from the Great Exhibit of London 1862, the Paris Exposition Universalle 1867, and the Chicago Words Colombian Exposition in 1893 (Jen Longshaw). “Controversial Figure”
Rosa was a very
controversial figure in the 19th century. Rosa was not your average beautiful lady. She was once arrested because a police officer thought she was a man in women's clothing. Rosa began to take on the persona of a man; she began smoking cigarettes, wearing men's clothes, and she even cut her hair short (Jen Longshaw). In order for Rosa to wear pants in public, she had to get permits from the local police every six months (Patrick Frank). When Rosa left home, she began having female partners live with her. Rosa had an intimate relationship with lady named Nathalie Micas; they spent fifty years together until she died. The death of Micas left Rosa heartbroken. After her death Rosa started having feels for an American artist named Anna E. Klumpke (unknown 1). “The Horse Fair”
Rosa
Bonheur painted her most famous painting called “The Horse Fair”, which is 8' ¼” x 16' 7 ½” in 1853. “The Horse Fair” has a subject matter about horses. The realism painting captured the surging energy of group of horses being offered for sale. Some of the horses in the painting are shown as being untamed and wildly (Patrick Frank). The painting depicts the horse in motion by showing dust around their hooves. Some scholars suggest that the person almost dead center of the painting looking outwards toward the viewers in male clothing is a self portrait of Rosa (Patrick Frank). During this time of the painting women were forbidden to wear men's clothing. Women were also unable to attend Art Academies unless they were models. Women could not do the same things that men could do in the 1800's. “The Horse Fair “was painted on a canvas using oil paint. “
History on oil

Students Paper:

on oil paint”The
oldest Mediterranean civilization, Greek, Roman or Egyptian have extensively used painting techniques based on mixtures of encaustic, mineral pigments

http://www.arcyart.com/history.htm tempera pictures.

The oldest Mediterranean civilization, Greek, Roman or Egyptian have extensively used painting techniques based on mixtures of encaustic (probably rich

, mineral pigments and tempera. Vegetal oils, such as flax, walnut or poppy seed

Students Paper:

poppy seed oil were known to ancient Egyptians, Greeks or Romans, but no precise indication of their use in painting may be found.Tempera is a fluid mixture of binder, water and

http://www.arcyart.com/history.htm or poppyseed oil were known to ancient Egyptians, Greeks or Romans, but no precise indication of their use in painting may be found.Tempera is a fluid mixture of binder (organic medium

, water and volatile additives. Organic binders used by Italian artists were materials available from animal sources (unknown 2).

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unknown 2). At the end of the Roman Empire and up to the Renaissance period, this ancient

http://www.arcyart.com/history.htm essential oils).

At the end of the roman empire and up to the Renaissance period (15th century

Students Paper:

Renaissance period, this ancient technique was lost and replaced by oil paint and/or tempera. In Italy and Greece, olive oil was used to prepare pigment mixtures but the drying time was excessively long and tedious in the case of figures. This drawback led a German monk, Theophilus, in the 12th century to warn against paint recipes including olive oil. It was reported that Aetius Amidenus, a medical writer in the 5th century, mentioned the use of a drying oil as a varnish on paintings. Similarly, it seems that perilla oil was used in Japan in painting after addition of lead in the 8th century. In the 14th century

http://www.arcyart.com/history.htm period (15th century), this ancient technique was lost and replaced by oil paint and/or tempera. In Italy and Greece, olive oil was used to prepare pigment mixtures but the drying time was excessively long and tedious in the case of figures. This drawback led a German monk, Theophilus , in the 12th century to warn against paint recipes including olive oil. It was reported that Aetius Amidenus , a medical writer in the 5th century, mentioned the use of a drying oil as a varnish on paintings. Similarly, it seems that perilla oil was used in Japan in painting after addition of lead in the 8th century.

According to
14th century, Cennino Cennini presented a painting procedure integrating tempera painting covered by light oily layers. According to Giorgio Vasari

Students Paper:

Giorgio Vasari the technique of oil painting, as used till now with few technical modifications, was invented or re-invented in Europe around 1410 by Jan van Eyck. In fact, as

http://www.arcyart.com/history.htm 1511-1574) the technique of oil painting, as used till now with few technical modifications, was invented or re-invented in Europe around 1410 by Jan van Eyck (1390 -1441

Students Paper:

van Eyck. In fact, as said before, this Flemish painter was not the first to use oil paint; his real achievement was the development of a stable varnish based on siccative oil as the binder of

http://www.arcyart.com/history.htm 1390 -1441). In fact, as said before, this Flemish painter was not the first to use oil paint, his real achievement was the development of a stable varnish based on a siccative oil (mainly linseed

Students Paper:

on siccative oil as the binder of mineral pigments. It could be established that the Van Eyck secret was a mixture of piled glass, calcined bones and mineral pigments in linseed oil maintained a long time up to a viscous state at boiling temperature. Besides linseed oil, walnut oil and poppy-seed oil were also used while not so quick-drying. It is probable that painters have already observed that these oils led to accelerated drying time of canvas under the sun. It seems that

http://www.arcyart.com/history.htm

oil (mainly linseed oil) as the binder of mineral pigments. It could be established that the Van Eyck secret was a mixture of piled glass, calcined bones and mineral pigments in linseed oil maintained a long time up to a viscous state at boiling temperature. Besides linseed oil, walnut oil and poppy-seed oil were also used while not so quick-drying. It is probable that painters have already observed that these oils led to accelerated drying time of canvas under the sun.

After Van

seems that Van Eyck kept his secret up to about 1440, a few time before his death (unknown 2). Historians say that Van Eyck's, the wedding portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his wife painted in 1434, is one of the first and the best example of the new technique. If the pigments were the same as those used by Italian painters, the siccative oil has increased brilliance, translucence and intensity of color as the pigments were suspended in a layer of oil that also trapped light. The resulting optical effect obtained with pigment-oil mixtures and stacked layers explain the enameled aspect of Van Eyck works. These innovations in the oil medium produced an art that set the standard for a long time and which has never been surpassed. After Van Eyck, Antonello da Messina

Students Paper:

da Messina introduced a new technical improvement. He added a lead oxide in the

http://www.arcyart.com/history.htm 1430-1479) introduced a new technical improvement. He added a lead oxide (litharge) in

Students Paper:

lead oxide in the pigment-oil mixtures to increase their siccative property. Later, Leonardo da Vinci improved the

http://www.arcyart.com/history.htm oxide (litharge) in the pigment-oil mixtures to increase their siccative property. Later, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519

Students Paper:

da Vinci improved the preparation in cooking the oily mixtures at low temperature after the

http://www.arcyart.com/history.htm 1452-1519) improved the preparation in cooking the oily mixtures at low temperature (boiling water

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low temperature after the addition of 5 to 10% of bee wax, thus preventing a too dark color. While Giorgione, Titian and

http://www.arcyart.com/history.htm boiling water) after the addition of 5 to 10% of bee wax, thus preventing a too dark color. While Giorgione (1477-1510

, Titian and Tintoreto

Students Paper:

and Tintoreto have slightly altered the original recipe, this technique was kept secretly in Italian ateliers nearly during three centuries, thus warranting their supremacy and radiance in whole Europe. From 1600 and during his 9 year stay in Italy, Rubens has studied the Italian medium and made his own improvements. It was reported by De

http://www.arcyart.com/history.htm 1518-1594) have slightly altered the original recipe, this technique was kept secretly in Italian ateliers nearly during three centuries, thus warranting their supremacy and radiance in whole Europe. From 1600 and during his 9 year stay in Italy, Rubens studied the Italian medium and made his own improvements. It is reported that Rubens

by De Mayerne

Students Paper:

De Mayerne Rubens used walnut oil warmed with lead oxide and some mastic dissolved in turpentine to grind mineral pigments (unknown 2

http://www.arcyart.com/history.htm reported that Rubens used walnut oil warmed with lead oxide and some mastic dissolved in turpentine to grind mineral pigments.

Original Oil

(unknown 2).“History of

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History of Canvas”
Today,
canvas is the most common medium for oil paintings. Before the

http://www.anythingpaintedoncanvas.com/article/canvas_painting and Preparation

Today, canvas is the most common medium for oil paintings. However, was

. Before the Renaissance period

Students Paper:

Renaissance period all paintings were done on more solid mediums, such as wood. During the

http://www.anythingpaintedoncanvas.com/article/canvas_painting 1400-1700) all paintings were done on more solid mediums, such as wood. However, during

Students Paper:

as wood. During the time of the Italian Renaissance, the merchant shipping industry was booming, and with that boom came many innovations and technologies borrowed from more eastern cultures. Among these technologies was the use of the canvas sail. Canvas was originally made out of hemp. This strong

http://www.anythingpaintedoncanvas.com/article/canvas_painting wood. However, during the time of the Italian Renaissance, the merchant shipping industry was booming, and with that boom came many innovations and technologies borrowed from more eastern cultures. Among these technologies was the use of the canvas sail. Canvas was originally made out of hemp. In fact

Students Paper:

out of hemp. This strong material was made by tightly weaving the cannabis fibers together. Canvas painting

http://www.anythingpaintedoncanvas.com/article/canvas_painting from which hemp is made). This strong material was made by tightly weaving the cannabis fibers together. The result was

Students Paper:

fibers together. Canvas painting quickly took popularity over the more traditional and cumbersome wood planks. Canvas was so

http://www.anythingpaintedoncanvas.com/article/canvas_painting 1500 AD. Canvas painting quickly took popularity over the more traditional and cumbersome wood planks. Because of

was so much more durable, that it

Students Paper:

that it was able to withstand both the paint itself and the test of time. Canvas was more portable

http://www.anythingpaintedoncanvas.com/article/canvas_painting its durability, canvas was able to withstand both the paint itself and the test of time. Not to

Students Paper:

of time. Canvas was more portable, less expensive, and easier to create the correct size. During the

http://www.anythingpaintedoncanvas.com/article/canvas_painting to mention canvas is more portable, less expensive, and easier to create the correct size. No longer

Students Paper:

correct size. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries American cotton had become more readily available and popular for the European artist. Artists preferred the

http://www.anythingpaintedoncanvas.com/article/canvas_painting this freedom. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries American cotton had become more readily available and popular for the European artist. Yet artists

Students Paper:

artist. Artists preferred the stronger linen or hemp for their oil paintings, despite the higher cost. At the time cotton fibers were weaker than either linen or hemp. Especially true when cotton was wet, itwas more prone

http://www.anythingpaintedoncanvas.com/article/canvas_painting artists still preferred the stronger linen or hemp for their oil paintings, despite the higher cost. At the time cotton fibers were weaker than either linen or hemp. Especially true when cotton was wet, it tended to

more prone to mildew (Everything painted on canvas).Reference
Patrick Frank.
(2009). Prebles' Art forms, Ninth EditionJen Longshaw. (2006).
Wild Spirit: The Work of Rosa Bonheur. Retrieved on 22 March 2010 from http://www.passionforpaint.com/RosaBonheur.htmlUnknown
1. (2008). Rosa Bonheur. Retrieved on 22 March 2010 from http://www.renoirinc.com/biography/artists/bonheur.htm Unknown2.
(no date). History of oil painting. Retrieved on 23 March 2010 from http://www.cyberlipid.org/perox/oxid0011.htm Everything
painted on canvas. (2009). Canvas Painting- History and Preparation. Retrieved on 23 March 2010 from http://www.anythingpaintedoncanvas.com/article/canvas_painting
“Rosa Bonheur”
2

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1% http://www.jamespicard.com/aotm/aotmbonheur.html


Master document text

“Rosa Bonheur and History of Oil paint & Canvas”
Jamaal Hi
ckman

Abstract

Rosa Bonheur was a world famous realist painter. She was born in Bordeaux, France in 1822. Her father taught her to paint at an early age
. He was also a painter, but not a very successful one. Rosa had three other siblings, in which she is the oldest. Rosa most famous artwork was “The Horse Fair”, it gained attention from Queen Victoria. Rosa was a very controversial figure in her time. She wore men's clothing, smoked cigarettes and even cut her hair short; she also used to date women. “The Horse Fair” was about horses being shown off in an auction. The painting was done on canvas with oil paints. Oil paint has been around since ancient times. Canvas became more popular during the Renaissance.“Background”
Rosa Bonheur was born in Bordeaux, France on March 16 1822. Rosa'
s parents Raymond Bonheur and Sophie shaped her to have a strong outgoing personality. Her father was an unsuccessful paint, who helped develop Rosa's ability to paint. Sophie, her mother, used drawings of animals that Rosa drew to help her learn her alphabets; this sparked her interest in animals. After failing as a painter Raymond had to move his family to Paris, where he found a job teaching in 1828. In the 19th century, women were unable to go to art school, so Raymond taught his daughter to paint by taking her to a park in Paris to draw animals that were there, and he also let her keep pets in their home, so she could draw them too. When Rosa was young her mother passed away. At an early age Rosa was greatly passionate about animals. Rosa's first painting was of a farm and farm animals from a farm near her house. Rosa also studied anatomy by visiting slaughterhouses and performing dissections in order to study the animals' bone and muscle structure. She then used this information in her beginning sketches and studies before beginning to work on her paintings (Jen Longshaw). Rosa was the oldest of four children, painter. Rosa helped support her family by copying paintings in the Louvre. While doing this she become interested in the paintings of an English animal painter named Edward Landseer. Rosa displayed her animal sculptures and paint at the Paris Salon from 1841 to 1853, in which she won prize for her work. One of the main paintings was “Plowing in the Nivernais”; this painting established her reputation in 1849. Another painting that gave Rosa international fame was the “The Horse Fair” in 1853. One of Rosa's most famous admirers was Queen Victoria. The Queen admired “The Horse Fair” so much that she arranged a private viewing at the Windsor Castle. Rosa was the first woman to win a cross of the Legion d'Honneur . Other honors included awards from the Great Exhibit of London 1862, the Paris Exposition Universalle 1867, and the Chicago Words Colombian Exposition in 1893 (Jen Longshaw). “Controversial Figure”
Rosa was a very
controversial figure in the 19th century. Rosa was not your average beautiful lady. She was once arrested because a police officer thought she was a man in women's clothing. Rosa began to take on the persona of a man; she began smoking cigarettes, wearing men's clothes, and she even cut her hair short (Jen Longshaw). In order for Rosa to wear pants in public, she had to get permits from the local police every six months (Patrick Frank). When Rosa left home, she began having female partners live with her. Rosa had an intimate relationship with lady named Nathalie Micas; they spent fifty years together until she died. The death of Micas left Rosa heartbroken. After her death Rosa started having feels for an American artist named Anna E. Klumpke (unknown 1). “The Horse Fair”
Rosa
Bonheur painted her most famous painting called “The Horse Fair”, which is 8' ¼” x 16' 7 ½” in 1853. “The Horse Fair” has a subject matter about horses. The realism painting captured the surging energy of group of horses being offered for sale. Some of the horses in the painting are shown as being untamed and wildly (Patrick Frank). The painting depicts the horse in motion by showing dust around their hooves. Some scholars suggest that the person almost dead center of the painting looking outwards toward the viewers in male clothing is a self portrait of Rosa (Patrick Frank). During this time of the painting women were forbidden to wear men's clothing. Women were also unable to attend Art Academies unless they were models. Women could not do the same things that men could do in the 1800's. “The Horse Fair “was painted on a canvas using oil paint. “
History on oil paint”The
oldest Mediterranean civilization, Greek, Roman or Egyptian have extensively used painting techniques based on mixtures of encaustic, mineral pigments and tempera. Vegetal oils, such as flax, walnut or poppy seed oil were known to ancient Egyptians, Greeks or Romans, but no precise indication of their use in painting may be found.Tempera is a fluid mixture of binder, water and volatile additives. Organic binders used by Italian artists were materials available from animal sources (unknown 2). At the end of the Roman Empire and up to the Renaissance period, this ancient technique was lost and replaced by oil paint and/or tempera. In Italy and Greece, olive oil was used to prepare pigment mixtures but the drying time was excessively long and tedious in the case of figures. This drawback led a German monk, Theophilus, in the 12th century to warn against paint recipes including olive oil. It was reported that Aetius Amidenus, a medical writer in the 5th century, mentioned the use of a drying oil as a varnish on paintings. Similarly, it seems that perilla oil was used in Japan in painting after addition of lead in the 8th century. In the 14th century, Cennino Cennini presented a painting procedure integrating tempera painting covered by light oily layers. According to Giorgio Vasari the technique of oil painting, as used till now with few technical modifications, was invented or re-invented in Europe around 1410 by Jan van Eyck. In fact, as said before, this Flemish painter was not the first to use oil paint; his real achievement was the development of a stable varnish based on siccative oil as the binder of mineral pigments. It could be established that the Van Eyck secret was a mixture of piled glass, calcined bones and mineral pigments in linseed oil maintained a long time up to a viscous state at boiling temperature. Besides linseed oil, walnut oil and poppy-seed oil were also used while not so quick-drying. It is probable that painters have already observed that these oils led to accelerated drying time of canvas under the sun. It seems that Van Eyck kept his secret up to about 1440, a few time before his death (unknown 2). Historians say that Van Eyck's, the wedding portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his wife painted in 1434, is one of the first and the best example of the new technique. If the pigments were the same as those used by Italian painters, the siccative oil has increased brilliance, translucence and intensity of color as the pigments were suspended in a layer of oil that also trapped light. The resulting optical effect obtained with pigment-oil mixtures and stacked layers explain the enameled aspect of Van Eyck works. These innovations in the oil medium produced an art that set the standard for a long time and which has never been surpassed. After Van Eyck, Antonello da Messina introduced a new technical improvement. He added a lead oxide in the pigment-oil mixtures to increase their siccative property. Later, Leonardo da Vinci improved the preparation in cooking the oily mixtures at low temperature after the addition of 5 to 10% of bee wax, thus preventing a too dark color. While Giorgione, Titian and Tintoreto have slightly altered the original recipe, this technique was kept secretly in Italian ateliers nearly during three centuries, thus warranting their supremacy and radiance in whole Europe. From 1600 and during his 9 year stay in Italy, Rubens has studied the Italian medium and made his own improvements. It was reported by De Mayerne Rubens used walnut oil warmed with lead oxide and some mastic dissolved in turpentine to grind mineral pigments (unknown 2).“History of Canvas”
Today,
canvas is the most common medium for oil paintings. Before the Renaissance period all paintings were done on more solid mediums, such as wood. During the time of the Italian Renaissance, the merchant shipping industry was booming, and with that boom came many innovations and technologies borrowed from more eastern cultures. Among these technologies was the use of the canvas sail. Canvas was originally made out of hemp. This strong material was made by tightly weaving the cannabis fibers together. Canvas painting quickly took popularity over the more traditional and cumbersome wood planks. Canvas was so much more durable, that it was able to withstand both the paint itself and the test of time. Canvas was more portable, less expensive, and easier to create the correct size. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries American cotton had become more readily available and popular for the European artist. Artists preferred the stronger linen or hemp for their oil paintings, despite the higher cost. At the time cotton fibers were weaker than either linen or hemp. Especially true when cotton was wet, itwas more prone to mildew (Everything painted on canvas).Reference
Patrick Frank.
(2009). Prebles' Art forms, Ninth EditionJen Longshaw. (2006).
Wild Spirit: The Work of Rosa Bonheur. Retrieved on 22 March 2010 from http://www.passionforpaint.com/RosaBonheur.htmlUnknown
1. (2008). Rosa Bonheur. Retrieved on 22 March 2010 from http://www.renoirinc.com/biography/artists/bonheur.htm Unknown2.
(no date). History of oil painting. Retrieved on 23 March 2010 from http://www.cyberlipid.org/perox/oxid0011.htm Everything
painted on canvas. (2009). Canvas Painting- History and Preparation. Retrieved on 23 March 2010 from http://www.anythingpaintedoncanvas.com/article/canvas_painting
“Rosa Bonheur”

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