Various Architecture Problems

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Task 1 :

A)Identify Three (3) different types of building :


- A residential building is a constructed for residential occupancy and can accommodate a person’s to live in. There are a few types of residential building such as apartment set of room fitted especially with housekeeping . Then Condominium also included as a type of ownership in real property where all of the owners own the property, common areas and buildings together, with the exception of the interior of the unit to which they have title. Next townhouse is similar to condo in that each residence is attached to adjacent residences.

Figure 1(A)


-Non-residential buildings use some purpose other than residential. Non-Residential are buildings other than dwellings, including fixtures, facilities and equipment that are integral parts of the structures and costs of site clearance and preparation. Non-residential buildings comprise .Example include commercial such as is abuildingthat is used for commercial business purposes, Educational Buildinga building designed for various activities in a primary, secondary, or higher educational system such as school and college. Then Manufacturing building are include as a non-residentialis the building for production of goods for use or sale.

3.Industry Building

-Industrial buildings are often a warehouse or other large. Industrial building designed to house industrial operations and the provide necessary condition for work and the operation of industrial equipment. Industrial buildings has been grown up with fast long times ago in the world. There are a few industrial buildings such as factory, refinery, mill and others. Industrial building generally have skeletons in the shape of cross frames, with Colum embedded in the foundation and rafter beam or trusses hinged to the Colum.

Figure 3(A)

B)Select One type of building in task 1 (a), identify and describe Two component of substructure and superstructure of the selected building.

Residential Building

-Residential Buildings is an important thing of all. Residential building is a building that is occupied by all the people all the time. Residential building is also very fast growing but not in Malaysia but around the world. Custom residential buildings will be sold or rented to those in need through the construction companies or agents that have been registered. Residential building included such as bungalow, terrace house, apartment and condominium.

Substructure :

-Substructure is a lowest support portion of a structure. Basically a structure located that inside the ground level such as foundation. A foundation is therefore that part of the structure which is in direct contact with the ground to which the loads are transmitted.


-Ensure that the structural loads are transmitted to the subsoil safely, economically and without any unacceptable movement during the construction period and throughout the expected life of the building or structure.

Figure 1(B)


-Superstructure is an extended part of the substructure. A structure that stands above the ground level and the floor level is known as plinth. Plinth is therefore defined as the portion of the structure between the surface of surrounding ground and surface of the floor.


-floor is that part of a building on which furniture, household, commercial and others. Floor is used for walking around and also strength and stability to use. There are a few types floor such as solid timber floor, timber laminated floor and concrete floor (Solid Ground Floor)

Figure 2(B)


-Roof is made to cover room from upper face. Different types of roofs are used in building depending on the location and roof also give a protective covering to the building, so rain, wind or snow may not damage the building.

Figure 2(C)

C) Explain the characteristic and function(s) of each building component that has been state in Task 1(b)

-The characteristic and functions of floor is the floor surface of a building site which receives all the activities and other loads .The construction floor shall have safety features and comfort. Flooring usually consists of a number of base layer, layer of sand, concrete lining and coating finishes. Stability should be included on the floor. The stability of the floor making it a robust structure. The next is floor should also consist from floor strength also to accommodate live load. Comfort is also important to make sure the temperatures either hot or cold. Then the characteristic and functions of the roof is to give a protective covering to the building, such as rain, wind or snow may not damage the building. Next weather resistance is required to protect a building from the damaging. Structural stability also could be providing support for the roof. Provide good appearance might be a major visual element in the design of a building.

TASK 2 :

A) Define soil investigation

-Soil investigation is of primary importance in the construction sector. It is necessary before building a new structure to prevent the failure of the foundations at a later stage. Bearing capacity of soil and the soil must be established to determine whether the stability of the foundation can be obtained. Soil of investigation is of paramount importance for construction project.

B)Briefly explain Two (2) types of soil simple

-Disturbed soil Samples

Disturbed soil samples, as their name implies, are samples taken from the boring tools. Example are auger parings, the contents of the split-spoon sampler in the standard penetration test, sludge from the shell or wash-water return, or hand sample dug from trial pits. Disturbed samples are normally used for the determining index properties of the soil such as the unit weight and specific gravity. The sample also used for classification test such as sieve and hydrometer analysis to obtained the particle size distribution and Waterberg limit tests to find the consistency of cohesive soil.

-Undisturbed Soil Samples

Undisturbed soil samples, obtained by driving a thin-walled tube into the soil, represent as closely as is practicable the true in-situ structure and water structure and water content of the is important not to overdrive the sampler as this compresses the contents. It should be recognized that no sample taken by driving a tube into the soil can be truly undisturbed. Undisturbed samples are needed for more sophisticated laboratory test such as shear strength, include the unconfined compression test, direct shear or shear box test and Trixie test under unconsolidated untrained (UU), consolidated untrained (CU), and consolidated drained conditions (CD).

C) Soil boring are the most common method of subsurface exploration in the field. Briefly explain THREE (3) types of borings.

(1)Percussion Drilling Boring:

-Percussion Drilling is the process of making boreholes by striking the soil then removing it. The tools are repeatedly dropped down the borehole while suspended by wire from the power winch. Meanwhile, water is circulated to bring the soil cuttings to the ground surface. A casing and a pump are required to circulate the water.

(2)Rotary Drilling Boring:

-Rotary Drilling uses rotation of the drill bit with the simultaneous application of pressure to advance the hole. In this process a hole is made by rotation a hollow steel tube having a cutting bit at its base. The cutting bit makes an annular cut in the strata and leaves a cylindrical core of the material in the hollow tube. This method is the most rapid method of advancing a hole in soil and rock. Drilling mud may be needed to prevent soil cave-in.

(3)Hand/Mechanical Auger Boring:

-Hand augers may be used for boring to a depth of about 6m. power augers may be used for boring to a depth of about 10 to 30 m. Next, as the hole is boring a short distance, the auger may be lifted to removed soil. The removed soil can be used for field classification and laboratory testing, but it must not be considered as an undisturbed soil sample. Power auger set with a drill rig can be used to obtain samples from deeper strata.


A) Describe with the aid of sketches the anatomy of the timber :

1) BARK :

-Hard outer covering.

-Protect tree from damage.

2) BAST :

-Layer surrounds the cambium.

-Carries food made from leaves to the other part of the plants.


-Annual rings.

-Each ring one year grown.

4) RAYS :

-Convey food from the blast into the cambium layer to sapwood to heartwood.


-Newly formed part of the tree.

-Cells carry water and minerals to branches and leaves.


-Provides usable timber for construction(hard, strong, and durable).

-Gives support to the tree.

7) PITH :

-Centre of the trunk.

-Consists of soft, dead cells from original sapling.

B)Discuss the THREE(3) factors that will affect strength and durability of timber.

Factors that will affect strength and durability of timber are due to natural factors. The temperature can also affect the strength and durability of wood. timber that has been cut cannot be left at high temperatures because it could affect the resistance of wood Example, the grains are direction of wood cell and the longitude axis of a timber that were swan and this can give an effect to the strength of a timber. Next, Factors influencing the humidity changes the wood and adhesive strength. Visibility between wood and adhesive are affected by moisture content. Next factors is will give affect is conversion defect it normally, cause by human such as poor drying and poor cutting. Next is deterioration defect Reproduction by spores and the favorable condition for it growth is where the place have a good temperature, oxygen and moisture. Higher moisture content will reduce strength and durability and cause timber to decay. Densities also give effect to strength and durability due to dense microstructure.

C) With the aid of sketches, briefly explain the THREE (3) types of timber defect

- A defect of timber is any irregularity appearing in or on the timber that may reduce its strength or durability if used for construction work. It may occur in the timber during fending or seasoning. Defect can classified three types such as natural defect, conversion defect and deterioration.

Natural defect: Nature defect it’s the grains are direction of wood cell and the longitude axis of a timber that were swan. This can give an affects to the strength of a timber.

Conversion defect: Normally, cause by human. Example poor drying and poor cutting.

Deterioration defect: Reproduction by spores and the favorable condition for it growth is where the place have a good temperature, oxygen and moisture included dry rot (most common and fungal attack) and wet rot (become brittle, lose strength and crumble).

TASK 4 :

  1. Describe and discuss about the selection of the roof system :

- The roof system for a bungalow is flat roof. This is because to cover a flat or low-pitched roof. This is usually known as a membrane and the primary purpose of these membranes is to waterproof the roof area. Besides, these roofs are found in traditional buildings in regions with a low precipitation. Modern materials which are highly impermeable to water make possible the very large low-pitch roofs found on large commercial buildings.

Materials that cover flat roofs typically allow the water to run off from a slight inclination or camber into a gutter system. Water from some flat roofs such as on garden sheds sometimes flows freely off the edge of a roof, though gutter systems are of advantage in keeping both walls and foundations dry.

  1. The Philosophy behind the selected roof system :

-I had purpose using flat roof because there are plenty of advantages. The advantages using flat roof. The most obvious advantage is that they are easier to climb and inspect. These roofs offer more stability than sloped roofs. Flat roofs are also cheaper to re-coat and install then their sloped counterparts. With proper care, flat roofs are long-lasting and easier maintain.

  1. Sketch the section of the foundation, ground beam and floor of the building, and also roof beam and roof system of the building :