LIMITATION OF THE CURRENTLY DESIGN
The currently design has to achieve some principles to contribute with the environment; the main reason is to preserve the environment. The design and construction of buildings plays a major role in contributing to sustainable developments and communities.
The limitations in old buildings when, it is time to made same changes, with the new technologies it is one of the main constrains in terms of design. However, one of the solutions are new buildings, when they can considerably impact on natural resources such as the use of timber, building materials, land and water. Currently in the UK, the rate of water consumption is rising whilst supplies are falling. Water is a renewable resource, and sustainable development should ensure that we are 'keeping consumption within the limits of natural replenishment' (Howarth, Sustainable Housing Principles and Practice, 2000). More than half (56%) of the total water supplied is used by households (Source: Defra, 2003).
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Giving consideration to the provision of water saving, recycling and storage equipment at the design stage facilitates a reduction in water usage by the occupiers. According Households account for up to a quarter of energy consumption (source: Defra, 2003). The accurate interventions in the housing stock are an issue that is in development. However, there are a room for improvements.
The design of a new structure can diminish the energy requirements of the occupiers, the reducing the need for the use of finite energy resources, such a coal and oil, and minimising greenhouse gas emissions produced through the burning of fossil fuels, furthermore, the incorporation of renewable technology to harness renewable energy resources 6 of 17 within a development can provide energy without diminishing fossil fuel resources or contributing to greenhouse gas emissions.
DESIGN WITH RECYCLE MATERIALS.
There are materials such a timber, steel that can be recycle and have used in the industrial market for decades, to built with recycle materials will generate participate in the reduction of green gases in the future with re project the use of the timber and the steel in the construction to minimize the effect that it has against the environment.
The use of the materials in the construction industry produce a lot of pollution, the use of recycle materials will contribute with the environment when excavations can spoil landscape, timber can come from unsustainable resources, metals employ a lot of power in production, PVC manufacture produces atmospheric pollution.
Sustainability is one of the most important issues nowadays that need to be assessed in those gaps that constrain the developed when the construction industry is part of the problematic of the climate of change. One possible option is to create a new market that link the construction industry with recycle materials and facilitate the use of those materials in the construction industry. Currently there are some markets of the recycle timber and steel, however, to achieve the targets of zero to carbon is necessary to use all of the strategies possible.
Quality of the architecture and flexibility of the design for future changes, and with the use of the materials, Design solutions and recycle materials will minimize the excessive use of natural resources and will contribute with the energy consumption. One of the answers to the problematic is reflective in the development of included model, and their addition in the earliest phases of the design.
Selecting materials that are recyclable is also an effective method for material efficiency. Searching for ways to use materials that can be recycled preserves the natural resources and the energy embodied in their manufacture as well.
Reducing waste material by prefabrication and modular coordination techniques enables material conservation by preventing cutting and dimensioning activities on site.
TRAINING INTO THE SUSTAINABLE SKILLS.
Lack of knowledge in this area is one of the most evident barriers, construction companies, developers, architects, engineer and stakeholders. There is a lot of information nowadays when the climate of change is an imperative matter, With the implementations of new programs that all the people that are related into the construction industry can facilitated the execution of new technologies from the beginnings, all the new policies, regulations and codes have the same intention to achieve a target the mitigation of the green house gases emissions.
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"Information programs and technical assistance can help make up for incomplete information by reducing the consumer's cost of acquiring and using needed information" (Brown, 2001). These programs can help consumers to focus on energy issues and the benefits that the re-develop of energy efficiency will contribute with the environment and at the same time the housing stock will enhance with plans that involve all the areas in the construction industry that need to be assess and go into the deep analysis into the markets obstacles.
The flexibility of the design is one of the most significantly constrains that have not been take into the account deeply, designs has to be flexible to extend the life cycle of the building. The proper design, the use of recycle materials and the proper knowledge of the developers and designers will provide more efficient performance in the life cycle of building.
BARRIERS TO ACHIEVE THE TARGET.
The majority of the case studies show barriers during the appliance of new technologies, it is possible to identify in the case studies of the code for sustainable houses the main limit is the design, have been applied, the integration between the design and the technologies has to be taking into the account from the beginning of the design phase. It is possible to achieve the targets. However, in future constructions this could be avoid from the beginning of the design, to achieve this targets, is necessary to educate architects, developers, and promote them to apply their knowledge from the beginning of the project and the government should motivate this sectors with programs and tax incentives.
The policy that incentive construction companies the used of recycle materials in the construction industry, with low prices. When there is a prove that the used of recycle materials can contribute with the environment, materials such a timber, steel etc. By the creating a competitive market in the area of this recycles materials in the construction, with the government help will minimize the price and motivate the people involved in the area. At the same time materials such a timber and steel that have been used in the construction industry to generate a long life cycle to the building can help significantly in the reduction.
The necessity of the appliances of sustainable materials and renewable is an issue that is been studied for many years, there are some successful case studies. However, to achieve the targets is necessary to cover all the areas that has a direct link with the development of the sustainable issue , the later barriers that can be identify, when that the new policies in terms of sustainable matters, in this area is the design in the early stage of the project.
An accurately sustainable construction project should incorporate economic, social and environmental issues in the planning, construction and demolition stages, with the aim of providing a building that is affordable, accessible and environmentally conscious (Kibert, 1994; Wyatt, 1994). While traditional design and construction activities focus on cost, performance and quality issues, sustainable design and construction adds the issues of minimization of resource consumption, environmental degradation and the creation of a healthy built environment as well as ensuring human health and comfort.
The inappropriate use of the link between the initial design phase of the building and the use of the new technologies can generate extra costs and useless of the renewable technology. When the construction industry has a huge room for improvements, due to the importance that this sector has in the benefits that it can bring to the sustainable development.
After the analysis of the case studies is possible to identify the features that have to be apply in the design of green houses to prevent futures constrains, each element of the house is dramatically important and essential and the intention of "Green buildings are examples of applied ecology, where designers understand the constitution, organization and structure of ecosystems, and the impacts of architecture are considered from an environmental perspective" (Herdt, 2004). In the currently sustainable design there are strategies to prevent the deficiencies of the sustainable features. However, it is not enough to achieve a higher standards in the future construction, one of the main constrains on the case studies was the deficiency in the design, the possible solutions has to be develop the sustainable principles in the currently stock and taking into the account.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE LYFE CYCLE OF THE BUILDING
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In order to improve sustainability of a building, it is necessary to realize, that it involves realistic and complete understanding of the all the aspects social, environmental and cultural impact that can go through a building during the life-cycle design (Tshudy, 1996). The deficiency in the first phase of the building how is the design and all the changes that have to be done during the life-cycle such a refurbishment will affect the environment, and the right development of the building, the case studies are an evidence of the huge problematic that the currently stock has these days, when it is time to upgrade this housing sector, it is possible to achieve good standards. However, there are constrains with the implementation of renewable technologies.
The usual model of a building life cycle consists of design, construction, operation and maintenance, and demolition (Kim and Rigdon, 1998). This representation does not address the sustainability issues related to procurement and manufacturing of materials, or reuse and recycling of architectural resources. Conversely, the cradle-to-grave design approach recognizes environmental consequences of the entire life cycle of the building from the acquisition of all materials, energies and natural resources that go into a building to the point in time when the building has completed its useful life and is demolished. The life-cycle approaches seek to balance environmental concerns with traditional issues that always affect the decisions and choices in the design phase.
The life cycle of a building can be divided in three phases: pre-building, building and post-building. The evaluation of the building processes in each of these stages affords a better understanding of how a building's design, construction, process and disposal affect the natural environment. Each stage involves a series of methods, which will improve the sustainability of the product.
The flexibility of the design is a fundamental characteristic of the building structure, which can be accomplish with modular design techniques and standardization, supports future changes cost-effectively and resource-efficiently. When it facilitates different use of the design for future use according with the necessities of the stakeholders, or the function, this design has to be linked appropriate for the successful development of the design. The design should also support technological change. (Sev, 2009). This element how is the flexibility, has to be taking into the account from the beginning of the design of building, and it will contribute with one of the main constrains that the environment is living, the use of the land, during the life-cycle of the building it is essential, how it was mentioned before the building will suffer some changes, however the appropriate design and use of material that are long lasting.
FLEXIBILITY IN THE DESIGN
Designers, engineers and developers need to allow flexibility in their area of responsibility to accommodate new low carbon options from the initial phase of the design. The constrain in old buildings is that due to the late analysis about this implications when the initial design, and new energy efficiency measures and innovative energy generating equipment may require the adaptation of other aspects of the building design. Additionally, designers ought to believe how the building might be custom-made for future climate change, and could also consider make sure the building has adequate room and appropriate connections for future system of renewable technologies. Some clients have benchmark lists of equipment to be used in all their building stock for reasons of known reliability and ease of maintenance. While this is a reasonable approach, standard equipment lists need to be continuously reviewed and restructured to incorporate the latest confirmed energy efficient innovations. The revised list can then be used on subsequent developments and will bring long term benefits.
For some designers the climate crisis determine the use of different design, to take the advantages of climate that have been suffered a dramatic strategic design, flexibility is linked with the use of materials and spaces that can be modelling during the different phases of the building, this is great contributor to the sustainable environment.
An innovation system is defined here as "the elements and relationships which interact in the production, diffusion and use of new, and economically useful knowledge" (Lundvall, 1992). According with Lundvall one of the most important points in the construction industry has to be concerned are the strategies of innovation, how to promote and offer this new technologies, by low prices and easily installations. In addition, promotion of the products with all the companies that are in the construction area, to create a competitive environment will facilitate the community to understand the objectives with these renewable technologies.
The development of new ideas, behaviour, products and processes that make a payment to a diminution in ecological burden or to ecologically defined sustainability aim as stated by Rennings, 2000. According to the statement all plans, structures, strategies and renewable technologies that the government and institutions have been working on the way to achieved the targets to low emissions, is attempting to minimize one of the biggest issues that the world is tackle against the climate change, it is the main role of innovation to contribute with new products and create systems that can facilitate the performance of the new product. This a difficult target for the government and institutions due to the huge amount of areas that has to cover and formulate changes towards donation for a sustainable expectations, through correctly decisions, all the stakeholders such a researchers, developers, planners and designers have to make changes in the performance from the beginning in new design, and in existing buildings, this is one of the most significantly issues to beat. However this is not the only issue to battle, the improvements of these new technologies need to be adapted by structures that the government are supplying, and the link between areas technological, social and institutional is radical in the determination. There are key elements that can influence or change the performance of an economy's innovation system such a supply of ideas, the demand, or market pull, for useful products and the incentives to innovate as stated by Foxon. This is one of the limitation in the role of innovation for renewable technologies, the strategies in the promotions of this products has a big room for improvements, competition of this new technologies will generate better prices.
"In the field of design, attempts have been made to create tools that will prompt designers to creatively explore and then build environmental criteria into their design concepts" (Hellstrom, 2005). Designers are one of the most important elements that can contribute effectively in the progress of new technologies. However, it is link with different factors how are the communities and they understood on applications of the innovations such a renewable technologies.
"Public support for innovation in new and renewable energy has gradually been gaining a higher profile in the UK since the mid-1990s, and is central to UK government's Energy White Paper" (DTI, 2003). All the regulations and polices that the government is doing to promote and give access to the people who they can improve houses.
"In UK renewable energy is just one of a number of approaches required to achieve the Government's 2050 carbon reduction aspiration" (www.carbontrust.co.uk). The government is conscious that the better way to reduce carbon emissions is by the extension and improvements in renewable technologies such a wind, and acquire improvement in the development of the rest of the renewable technologies such the biomass where is more room for progress, that is one of the most important issues , the government has to be immediate in the expansion of the market, and the facilities that it provides to the community easily access and understand the benefits that this technologies will provide for a better sustainable future.
To achieve the targets by 2016, the UK government have done improvements in the building regulations for new and existing buildings, this is an approach of all the areas that the government is looking to provide better standards on of the policies for new buildings is the code for sustainable home, with this strategy the government is trying to introduce different stage of design according to better standard. This huge step by the government is one of the major targets in the construction industry to create benefits for environment.