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This chapter aims to review the existing writings around Smart Cities, focusing on create a theoretical foundation for the resulting studies. Especially will introduce what numbers of distinctive studies are written in this field.
The idea of the 'Smart City' is rather fashionable in the policy context and most recent studies related in the cities and urbanism. It seems the primary focus in most studies and researches is on the role of ICT infrastructure in the city although a lot of studies have been done by researchers and specialists on the human, education, social and environment as substantial factors on the city growth.
2.1 Smart city’s synonymous
Here are some “ brands” of city like Digital City, Intelligent City, Ubiquitous City, Creative City, Knowledge city and Learning City, which would be similar to smart city in context and involved in term of city's structure , people, economy, transport, energy, water, communications, city services and information technology.
2.1.1 Digital City
Digital City refers to the connected community that combines broadband communications infrastructure, flexible computing infrastructure, services based on open industry standards and innovative services to meet the needs of government with its employees and people (Yovanof et al, 2009). The main target of digital city is to create environment for the exchange of information, cooperation and experience for the whole population anywhere in the city.
2.1.2 Intelligent City
Intelligent City is the city that has all infrastructures of information technology and modern technology in telecommunications, electronics and mechanical technology (Malek, 2009).
The high-performance in the scope of â€‹â€‹innovation is a distinctive trait of intelligent because by innovation all new problems are being solved which considers the main feature of the intelligence (Komninos, N. 2002).
2.1.3 Ubiquitous City
Ubiquitous City is an extension of Digital City has the same concept in term of access to every place and infrastructure (Anthopoulos et al, 2010). It makes ubiquitous computing available to urban elements such as people and infrastructure construction and open space. It aims to create a built environment where any citizen can get any services in any place and at any time through any of the devices (Lee, 2008).
2.1.4 Creative City
In the city not only creative artists represents creativity nor those who are engaged in the service of innovation and Economy based on ICT, even though they play an important role. Creativity comes from any source, including any person who deals with issues in an innovative way (and can be a social worker, a businessman, a scientist or a public official). Encouraging the certification of the use of imagination within the public, private and community areas Bank of ideas and possibilities will expand the scope of possible solutions to any urban problem. City to be creative and soft infrastructure includes: highly skilled and workforce flexible and dynamic thinkers, creators and beneficiaries. Creativity is not just about the existence of ideas, but is also reflected in the ability to implement them. The indicators of creative city are, sustains and attracts talent until they are able to mobilize ideas and talent and creative administrations (Landry, 2000).
2.1.5 Knowledge City
Knowledge City can be defined as the city which based on the knowledge and has strong economic situation which provides, create, enhance and disseminate the knowledge among people and society (Edvinsson, 2006).
The establishment of a knowledge economy begins with the rebuilding of cities and urban settlements, which can serve as cores of knowledge. This requires a major restoration and strengthens the keys that make the city of knowledge. City enhances a sense of possession and attachments in the minds of people as it involves them in the development of activity and allows the public to express ideas and criticisms. In other words, citizens in Knowledge City become active stakeholders in its growth (Edvinsson, 2006).
2.1.6 Learning City
The "learning community" here as the city, town or region that is moving all of its resources in each sector development and enrichment of all human potential to enhance personal growth, maintaining social solidity, and the creation of prosperity. This concept is similar in the end to the Knowledge City (Longworth, 1999).
2.2 Smart City Notion
Smart city as notion appeared in different meaning in over the world cities when some of them (e.g. Singapore, Amsterdam, Stockholm, etc.) adopted ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in their utilities and applied it in all city parts e.g. the transportation, water and electricity management , car parks, etc. to integrate each part with the others . (Del Bo and Florio 2008).
Smart city notion derived from different definitions including those have intelligence and hi-tech in their content (e.g. City of Knowledge, Digital City and Information City). These different ‘‘brands’’ are similar to the concept of the smart city and have some distinctive characteristics and individual components, but the different definitions are varied in the scope and concentration (Hollands 2008).
The notion of smart city is itself ambiguous and often changeable and launched from the perspective of technology that ICT represents the driving force in the transferring of innovative internet services (Chourabi, Nam, Walker, Gil-García, Mellouli, Nahon, Pardo and Scholl 2012). ‘‘Information City’’ is to collect data from providers and deliver it to the people via Internet. While ‘‘Digital City’’ is a connected community that shares broadband communications services to meet the needs of government and its employers and citizens (Yovanof and Hazapis 2009).
Many researchers have also asserted on the importance of city networking organizations, which contain various participants including government, corporations and social groups. Arguments on the digital city have focused mainly on development of internet services for different groups, which provides services to city components and citizen.
Digital City and Information City are the city of ubiquity; i.e. ‘‘city in every place’’, which makes data available through embedded urban infrastructure through implement the ICT equipment in all city parts such as roads, bridges and buildings .The notion of smart city also derived from the government of South Korea which utilized ICT in the city-run network to provides its citizens with services (Lee and Phaal 2013).
The aim of this city is to apply all forms of urban spaces with information infrastructure and the provision of various services including those involve in energy and environmental monitoring (Lee and Phaal 2013).
Lee, Han, Leem, and Yigitcanlar 2008 emphasized on the idea of â€‹â€‹U – city as a city of connection services because it works within the urban space. It will support these efficient services of the city and the quality of life for its citizen regardless of time and place. However, this concept puts less importance on users made â€‹â€‹of the social infrastructure for instance a human and the perspective of social capital.
The concept of Smart City focuses on investments achieved through such innovation in three scopes: 1) intelligence, creativity and creativity; 2) Collective Intelligence, and 3) an artificial Intelligence. Service providers will use information and communication technology to share in the creation and design of the joint Services, usually through the integration of embedded systems methods of technology such as sensors and cooperative media (Komninos and Sefertzi 2009).
Smart cities lead to a vital change in the nature of life and work in the city, instead of merely additional space for improvements. Endoscopy of smart cities is usually placed in the context of ' Knowledge economy ' which considers human thinking and Social capital as the most valuable resources (Yigitcanlar, Velibeyoglu, and Martinez-Fernandez 2008). Development (Including social development) seeks to take advantage of these resources in the ability to support the creation of knowledge and procedures to education. Technological innovation is the core of smart city that places of any concept ' City of Knowledge ' in order to promotes knowledge. It is demonstrated that this concept of smart city derived from different perspectives, including the “Information City”, this concept; however, has gradually evolved the idea of â€‹â€‹the city -centric information and communications technology or an open city (Nam and Pardo 2011).
2.2 Global Technology Providers
The major and famous technology provider companies such IBM , Siemens and Sisco play an important role on shaping smart cities whereas encourage the cities on inserting the technology in their infrastructure to achieve many benefits in context of sustainable development , for example, the efficiency in water consumption and reducing carbon emission are results of enhancing the public utilities by technology.02
IBM (2010) described a city as a (system of systems) and emphasized on the role of ICT in sharing the information and communications among the city components and how the ICT can enable the planners and policy-makers understand these systems and how to facilitate services to residents.
2.3 Smart Cities in the European Union
Especially The European Union (EU) committed to continuing efforts for formulating meaning of smart urban development for its cities. The European Union, as well as other International organizations and research organizations emphasized on the in the ICT infrastructure role in the cities development.
There are different tasks in the European Union to hold sharp activities of the city. Two real, size, and plan, and the number of parts, and the downtown area of topographical, is wonderful cities and communities (The European Commission “, 2012).
The Smart Cities and groups had to pay “European partnership of innovation" in July 2012 and assigned to 365 million euros for smart city projects. This link between the parts of the business ventures and vital areas of innovation, transportation, and data plans for the current innovations coordinated and innovative and productive in the urban areas. This mission seeks to promote urban departments, while reducing pollution, reducing gas released increase, the expansion of productive vitality, and strengthen the management of assets regular. Smart City project directing innovative partners thirteen accepted from six countries of the European Union from the area of â€‹â€‹the North Sea, and support is part of the way through the North Sea Region Program 2007-2013 of the European Union, and more parts of the civil and the school itself. The goal is to make an advancement of the organization between the parts, and in order to create and give enhanced electronics.
2.4 Smart or intelligent
Glaeser and Perry (2006) showed that the most rapid urban development happened in the cities that have high rates in the educational people and work force.
Also they mentioned that the availability of the information and communication technology is not only the indicator of smartness of the city. Different experiences emphasized on the role of human and education as obvious evidence of smart city.
Perry and Glaeser (2006) clarified the model of the relationship between human and urban development arguing that innovation is led by entrepreneurs who innovate in industries and products require the workforce increasingly more adept. Not all cities with equal success in investment in human capital, the data suggest that the educated workforce-or, in the State of Florida, the ' creative Category '-space over time. This tendency is recognized cities diverge in terms of the levels of human capital has attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers. It turns out that some Cities, which in the past had better luck with a skilled workforce, and managed to attract more The levels of human capital has attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers. It turns out that some Cities, which in the past had better luck with a skilled workforce, and managed to attract more Skilled labor, while the competing cities failed to do so. Policy makers, in particular in the European are most likely to attach to a consistent weight of spatial homogeneity in the circumstances; Progressive clusterization of human capital in the urban areas and then great concern.
2.5 Smart city in literature
Murray, Minevich, and Abdoullaev (2011), emphasized on the relation between the components of the city and the culture, in order to understand the full potential Smart City; there is a need in variety of population to increase cooperation and exchange of knowledge among citizens.
Murray, Manevich, and Abdullayev (2011) also stated that the deficiency of funding is major problem facing the smart cities; despite the fact that there are many studies argued that investment in human capital development contributes to economic Growth.
Also the authors clarified that the city smart becomes likely to to failure on a large scale as one can ripple through the wrong one and break down the whole system. The cyber-attacks constitute a major threat to the future of smart cities, to be the challenges related with providing security for the large scale of the electronic devices and systems.
Hollands (2008) evaluated the real term of the smart city, and mentioned it as an urban labeling phenomenon. He argued that the definition is not accurate and self-congratulatory, leads to self-designation, and holds silent assumptions. Also raised the question whether the economic growth and environmental sustainability in terms of smart cities are compatible, and to what the level that they may conflict with each other.
Also added a critical review of the literature on urban growth from an economist’s perspective and assessed on the “utilization of networked infrastructure to improve economic and political efficiency and enable social, cultural and urban development”, where the term ‘‘infrastructure’’ refers on business services, housing, leisure and lifestyle services, and ICTs (mobile and fixed phones, satellite TVs, computer networks, e-commerce, internet services). This idea fetches to the forefront the idea of a wired city as the main improvement model and of connectivity as the basis of growing.
Beck (2005) also assessed smart cities on the basis of the benefits of digital urban revolution which will not be able to access each individual within the city. Instead of reducing difference between inhabitants, this digital divide people in social and cultural divisions and increase the gap between the skilled workers are attracted to go to the city, and the illiterate, the population of the poorest and least educated. In addition , it has been He pointed out that some of the initiatives smart city can be a negative impact on the environment , such as Fossil fuels , and chemicals needed for development in the context of transport and information and communication technology , The amount of waste that have been created because of the need for continuous technological improvements.
Clancy (2013) noted that many smart cities projects has ignored the need to involve citizens and the role of the public in the design process, which could have some negative effects if the program would be implemented on a larger scale.