The Influence on Design of the Merging of Cultures at the End of the Roman Empire.

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At the end of the Roman Empire a great merging of cultures took place. How do you feel that this merging influenced subsequent design?

The roman Empire started on 735 BC, was discover by Romulus, he is the first seven Roman king. Romulus was born on 711, he has a brother call Remus. In roman mythology they are twins. In legend Romulus and Remus was raised by a wolf, people found them in field , they believe Romulus and Remus are the son of god. Because of Romulus brave and strong , he become the first creator go Roman Empire and the first king of Roman Empire at the end. Late Roman Empire, slave continue to rise then the Byzantine Empire was start on 330 A.D. The end of Roman Empire the following is the middle century of Europe, the decline continues 320 years, finally told AD 467 September 4.

The features of Roman architecture, the architect of roman start imitate the Etruscans building style. Roman was combine wit arcuated and trabwated, like arches and constructed with post and lintel. In interior mosaic pendentive upwards to the dome. Byzantine Design was the most pepresentive age of arches, lintel. Include great domed structures. Columu are so the main architecture on Roman, which is Roman Tuscan Order, Roman Doric Order and Roman Composite Order.

395 AD, Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire split into two empires. Known as the Byzantine Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire to the Roman aristocracy lifestyle and culture foundation. Since the trade, so that the integration of culture and oriental Arab, Islamic, Byzantine art form alone. Byzantine architecture generally is more grounded and has spatial elements sua as domes and round windows and components. These features combined to give a general soft and open seas of space. Gothic architecture appealed more to emotion and was ore focused on ornamentation. Light and symbolism also are an important aspect of gothic architecture.

There are three development stage in Byzantine architecture, First one is start on 4-6 century, mainly by the shape of the Roman city to build Constantinople, in the 6th century with the emergence of large-scale as the center of a dome of Hagia Sophia. Second 7-12 century, due to successive invasions of foreign enemies, narrow land, buildings reduced large scale

Byzantine architecture. It features small footprint and the development of high and no large central dome, the dome instead of several small groups and focus on decorative, such as Venice's St. Mark's Church. Third 13-15 century, when the Crusaders Byzantine Empire Crusades several great damage, construction of this period neither more nor nothing new creation, and later took over most of the damage in Turkey after no saved.

From the perspective of historical development, the Byzantine architecture is developed in succession on the basis of Roman architecture culture together. At the same time, because of geographical relations, it draws Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria and other oriental culture, formed their own architectural style, and later the Russian church architecture, Islam mosque have had a positive impact.

Islamic architecture finds in religious building such as the mosque and madrasah. Early Islamic religious architecture. dome of the Rock and the Great Mosgue in Damascus , draw on Christian architectural features such a dome, columnar arches mosaic. Central fountains and bright colours and commonly used.

Islamic conquest in the 7th century Persia, leading to early Islamic European architects borrow and take some of the traditional way and the fall of the Persian Empire. The Islamic architecture borrowed from the Persian architecture, some of what may be called the Persian architectural extension and further evolution.

Domed building Ilhan States Period, and finally to the Persians, in order to build high structure provides a number of innovations. These changes paved the road Lusafawei architecture approach. Khanate architecture reached the peak of Soltanieh dome in Iran, measuring 50 meters in diameter and 25 meters height of construction, making it the third largest and tallest masonry dome ever erect thin, double-shell dome reinforcement layer and arches layer. The tomb in Soltanieh is one of the largest of the most impressive monuments in Iran and, although many later plundered.

Roman lots of grate architecture took place. In architecture, the Romans absorbed some important techniques from Etruscans before Greek influence was decisively felt. This included the arch and the vault. The vaulting techniques used by the Romans were the simple geometric groin rault, and the segmental vault, the vault smfaces were typically covered with stucco or tiles. An excellent example of Roman vaulting is the Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius in Rome. A natural Constantine and Maxentius in Rome. A natural develsssopment of the fault was dome.

The Roman use of the arch and their improvement in the use of concrete and bricks easier the building of the many aqueducts throughout the empire, for example the Aqueduct of Segovia and the eleven aqueducts in Rome , including theAqua ClaudiaandAnio Novus. The same concepts make a lots of bridges, some of which are still in using , for example thePuente RomanoatMéridain Spain, and thePont Julienand the bridge atVaison-la-Romaine, both in Provence in France.

Thedomeconstruction license ofvaulted ceilingswithout cross beams and made possible greets covered public space such aspublic bathsandbasilicas. The Romans in line with much of theirarchitectureon the dome, such as Hadrian'sPantheonin the city of Rome, theBaths of Diocletianand theBaths of Caracalla.

The use of arches that spring directly from the tops was a Roman development, seen from the 1st century AD, that was very diffusely adopted in medieval Western,ByzantineandIslamic architecture.

The Romans were the first builders in thehistory of architectureto realise the latent ofdomesfor the production of large and well-defined interior spaces. Domes were the first of Roman building liketemples,thermae,palaces,mausoleaand lastchurches. Half-domes also became a comment architectural element and were adopted asapsesinChristiansacred architecture.

Ahypocaustwas an old Roman as a part ofunderfloor heating, used to heatHOUSESwith lost of hot air. The Roman architect Vitruvius, writing about the end of the 1st century B.C., became their contrivance toSergius Orata. Many trace of Roman hypocausts have saved throughout Europe, western Asia, and Africa. The hypocaust was an creation which improved the sanitation and living quality of cpeople, and was a forerunner of moderncentral heating.

Hypocausts were used for heating hot baths (thermae),homeand the other buildings, whether public or private. The floor was protruding above the ground by , calledpilae stacks, with a layer of brick, then a layer of specific, then another of brick on top; and spaces were left inside the walls so that hot air and smoke from thefurnacewould pass through these closed areas and out of flues in the roof, thereby heating but not polluting the interior of the room.

During theBaroqueand theRenaissanceperiods, Roman and Greek architectural styles again became popular, not only in Italy, but all over the world expertly Europe.

Roman influencence found around us inbanks, government buildings, greatHOUSES, and even smallHOUSES, maybe in the form of a stoop with Doric columns and a pediment or in a fireplace or a shower floor copied from an original in Pompeii or Herculaneum. The great pillars, domes and arches of Rome reply in theNew Worldtoo, where inWashington DCwe see them in theCapitol Building, theWhite House, theLincoln Memorialand other government buildings. All around the US the seats of local government were normally built in the grand traditions of Rome, with greatFLIGHTSof stone steps receipts up to towering pillared porticoes, with huge domes gilded or decorated inside with the same themes that were popular in Rome.

InUS such as the great forest of 18th and 19th century Louisiana, there too are the pillars and porticoes, the symmetrical façades with their pilasters, the domes and statuary that would have seemed familiar to Caesar and Augustus.

In Britain, a similar ardor has seen the construction of thousands of neo-Classical buildings over the last five centuries, both civic and domestic, and many of the grand country houses and mansions are purely Classical in style, an obvious example beingBuckingham Palace.

Following and to the Roman pattern, the west front of the large cathedrals was flanked by two important towers, now is usually topped by spires or pinnacles. The entrance usually consisted of triple portals with pointed arches and several archivolts with sculptures depicting saints or biblical figures or sending a mortal tale to the loyal as they entered the church. Over the portals a large circular rose or wheel window radiated outward give a focal point that at the same time pulled the whole front towards. Rosa windows also featured often over the east and west transept doorways.

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