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The effect of second wave
In order to know the effect of second wave on the life’s of that time we need to know what their life’s consisted of. It started with the concept of civilization in 2000bc. As soon as mankind discovered that they can grow their own food, and they don’t have to change places in search of resources. They figured out the natural resources needed to do agriculture. Hence they started with the agrarian society. Where initially everyone was farmer, but then slowly change in their professions started. People who had faith in god, claimed that they can talk to god and that the god wanted them to translate his command to common people, hence they became priests. As the farms flourished in one area and in other due to natural calamity agriculture failed. Hence others started invading the well worse areas. In order to protect their resources, some physically fit people were appointed as soldiers. And some of them, who somehow lost their lands, started doing odd jobs of the society. Therefore, in this way, profession got segregated by cast. As the society grew, the powerful became more powerful and weaker became more suppressed and increased in number. Hierarchy in people got role in society building. This changed the architecture of the society gradually but drastically. Plan of Temple complexes started evolving from one threshold to number of thresholds. One for lower cast n upper cast, one for king and common people, and one for priests n kings. And the profession of all the groups of people was determined by what people used to think of them. In this way, those who were responsible for designing building and spaces became responsible for repetitive forms throughout the timeline. In this way, other working places, common gathering spaces, living spaces got their forms due to this culture.
This society system continued to be in dominance till a technological revolution, the industrial revolution began in Britain and within a few decades spread to Western Europe and the United States. The period of time covered by the industrial revolution is roughly between 1760 and 1830. This revolution marked the transition going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increase use of steam power and the development of machine tools.
Majorly all the small scale manual production stations were converted into large industries with machines working with steam power and assembly line system making the production process much more efficient and faster.
Important technological development occurred in textile industry, iron industry, steam engines, machine tools, chemicals, cement production, paper machine, glass making, agriculture, mining etc. We will discuss developments which affected the architecture of the time directly.
In iron making industry, the major change was replacement of wood and other bio fuels with coal. Abraham Darby made great strikes using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at coalbrookdale in 1709. However, the coke pig iron he made was used mostly for the production on cast iron goods. He made the production cheaper n faster but coke pig iron was hardly used for producing bar iron. But his son Abraham Darby 2 built horse hay and kettle furnaces. Since cast iron was becoming cheaper and more plentiful, it began being a structural material following the building of the innovation iron bridge in 1778.
In 1824, Joseph Aspdin, patented a chemical process for making Portland cement which was an important advancement in the building technology. A new method of producing glass was developed in Europe during the early 19th century. In 1832, this technology was used to make large sizes of glass sheets.
With cheap and faster production of iron, the large build spaces like industries became larger in size, now the roof spans could be large and lighter and of course much faster to construct. Big projects like bridges were made possible. With the easier production of cement one can shift to much more strong construction material, this material was one step ahead of lime and brick masonry. With the development of large glass sheets the openings of buildings changed. Spaces like homes, close congregation spaces, needed windows for sunlight and natural view and at the same time taking care of wind and rain. Technological advancements which came into play at the time of second industrial revolution like roads, bridges, canals, railways affected the architecture of that time drastically. Ships were constructed of iron, which made the travel faster and more people could travel. In present society of agrarian culture, distances between people was large hence there was no exchange of knowledge and culture. But as soon as this revolution happened, due to advancements like ship building, roads and railway tracks distances were made smaller and knowledge exchange became much easier. In this way, the technologies like metallurgy, cement, glass, advance agriculture techniques found their way in agrarian society’s worldwide. With the upcoming industries people who were of the lower cast and given less importance found their way to these industries which provided shelter, food and employment to all of them. This made an imbalance in agrarian society and hence friction developed between both the thinking.
But in some way, this second wave affected the society adversely, as the increment of employment; number of labours came flooding over in search of employment. Due to this large number of people the level of lifestyle of these people took the set back. They were already from lower class, large in number; fewer resources to use made the lives of these people miserable. In hostile working conditions, living spaces became dense. These rose a big question on the health of these people, people used to live so close to each other that diseases used to spread like fire. All this affected the architecture but not in a thoughtful way, large shaded areas were made to shelter their labours. Community toilets, bathrooms followed them.
Due to this changing lifestyle and changing economy, gradually, a middle class emerge in industrial cities, mostly towards the end of the 19th century. Until then, there had been only two major classes in society: wealthy and privilege ones, and low-income commoners born in the working classes. However new urban industries gradually required more of what we call today “white collar” jobs, such as business people, shopkeepers, bank clerks, insurance agents, merchants, accountants, managers, doctors, lawyers, and teachers. Middle class were those who prided themselves on taking responsibility for themselves and their families. They viewed professional success as the result of a person’s energy, perseverance, and hard work. And due to this class, housing architecture took a new turn. Wealthy ones had villas and big individual houses, whereas working people used to live in clusters, 100s of people used to live together. This new set of people couldn’t afford individual villas but were not willing to live in hostile conditions, where working class used to live. Hence apartment’s concept got its identity, where individual floors were owned by individual family. These lead to-hygienic and comfortable spaces to live.
In these following ways the second wave showed its impression on the architecture of that time:
India was purely a hub of different agrarian societies with different believes, different rituals, different spaces but same hierarchy. But in 19th century, when Britishers arrived and started trade in India, then the First World War happened. India was flooded with industrial revolution based culture. This culture was of fast production, assembly line, large industries with lots of horse power in the form of new coal engines. Shipping, roads, railways were introduced in India. This brought the new ideas of building in India, which in turn again affected agrarian society. After independence, the third wave also found its way to India and surprisingly spreaded in India quicker than in other parts of world. And therefore, the present India makes a very indifferent combination of agrarian, industrial, information based society.