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2.7Element of Pedestrian Facilities
According to Implementation Guide Neighbourhood Development Initiative Green Provision Pedestrian (2013), it have some of element pedestrian facilities:
The landscape is an important element in the provision of pedestrian facilities. Among its main role is to produce views such as building lines and improve stiffness and cheer space and road building. In addition, the role of this landscape elements can also function as a tool of climate control, temperature, humidity and micro-climate of the area. Among the functions of the other elements of this landscape was as elements of shade, firewall, buffer, focal point, decoration and also a guide. In addition, this landscape elements ensure walkway is used fully and avoid wastage. There are four (4) or principles of important aspects that I have to consider in the preparation of landscape elements on pedestrian areas namely spatial, distance requirements, type of crops cultivation and crop recommendations.
- Pavement Material
Design an attractive walkway is meant to attract people to use it and direct key function of providing walkways can be achieved. The material used in its preparation is whether it can affect the movement of underutilized or otherwise. Pavement materials that are commonly used in the preparation of this walkway is also available in many forms and types. Among the most commonly used pavement materials, namely concrete, natural rock, cobblestone, brick.
- Utilities / Street Furniture
There are a variety of decorations that can be provided in pedestrian area where it can serve as safety, comfort and beauty. Among the elements that are often used as street furniture or public facilities are like lights, trash cans, telephone booths, benches, signs and advertising, children's toys and so forth.
Normally ramps are provided for convenience purposes for those who can not use stairs. The facility is also to enable certain groups such as disabled people with wheelchairs and for driving troller move smoothly without any problems.
The provision of this facility is to enable pedestrian to move from one area of different levels safely and smoothly. However, in preparing this element several aspects need to be considered so that it can be fully functional and does not pose a problem to pedestrians.
2.8Type of Walking Practice
According on Sigurad Grava (2002) in ‘Ubran Transportation Systems’, human behavior happen when they are in motion a public space that is affected by the actions of each individual destination at a given time. Several different situations can be identified. Three type of walking practice, it is:
- Walking Briskly
This is the need to move quickly from point A to point B. The main purpose is to overcome distance quickly, and to do this by mostly ignoring all distractions and not being diverted by other destination or action possibilities. Best example is going to work in the morning under the time pressure to reach the office, or attend any important event with accurate starting time. The short time distance is chosen must safety on the path and reliability do count, but human amenities and aesthetics can be largely ignored.
Pedestrian are not always in a rush. People use their senses to enjoy the surroundings, look at interesting things that catch their attention, and be part of the street scene as they walked along. It is also still in movement from point A to point B, but not necessarily at the same speed and in a straight line. However, this type of action includes attraction was in town, and every opportunity should be taken to enjoy the walk. Walking should be an experience that is not pressed and positive minded, as long as we are not late for an appointment. Sometime required is dependent on the level of environment and weather conditions.
People are also found in the pedestrian space, and on the road with the really do not intend to head to a place immediately, but only to enjoy the place, meet others and lunch outside. A pedestrian leaving A point, go to some other location, and quite often back to point a. it is part of the city's street theatre, sometimes blocking pedestrians in a hurry and consuming space.
2.9Importance to Support Walking
According on Sigurad Grava (2002) in ‘Urban Transportation Systems’, there have five the importance to support walking:
Routes themselves, usually on the sidewalk and built together with the usual way that requires specific expenses are minimal. Pavement materials can be a relatively light construction because they do not have to carry a heavy load.
The interesting issue is the use of energy. Someone who weighs 70kg will burn 280 calories if you walk fast for 1 hour. The health benefits are obvious and most basic form of exercise become like one of the main reasons of the best in the walkway. This is because not only physical health but also offers safe and attractive.
No need to wait for transit vehicles because there is always mode and ready for use. Walkway system that is free of obstacles to use than any other mode of transport.
Pedestrians are the direct relationship with the environment. The act of running automatically and requires no attention or even too much care to avoid obstacles and dangers. The senses and the mind can be used to value the landscape and environment street or extend the non-thinking
- Environmental Protection
Walking is the ultimate environmentally friendly transportation mode.
2.10Benefits from Pedestrian Improvement
According Untermann. Richard K (1984) in ‘Accommodating the Pedestrian’ since we are all pedestrians, all of us involved with the quality and continuity community pedestrian system. Likewise, we all benefit from efforts to improve or provide facilities to accommodate walking. However, every community has a slightly different group of people who would most benefit through increased pedestrian, and these people need to be identified and considered when priorities established.
Part of the current interest in improving pedestrian circulation can be traced to people who have some disability that move as pedestrians. These people, who are represented by people in wheelchairs, including permanent and temporary disabilities such as blindness, deafness, and ambulatory disabilities. While defects including broken limbs and recovery from surgery, pulled muscles, pregnancy, and other conditions. About ten percent of our population suffer from some defect free movement. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on efforts designed to ensure the continued security and access for the disabled. The problem area to be considered in planning pedestrian environment to accommodate the elderly are:
- Lengthened physical reaction time
- the non standardization of street signs
- Impairments in sight and hearing
- The excessive width of streets and the inadequacies of street crossing and signals
- Aggressive behaviour of drivers
However, urban design usually plan for a typical pedestrian rather than an older pedestrian. This cause some problems for elderly pedestrians in the following are:
- Location of community facilities
- Lack of pedestrian hardware such as handrails, benches, lighting, and ramps at curbs
- Speed of pedestrian control signals at lighted intersection
- Provisions for personal protection
2.11Planning for Improvement Pedestrian
According Untermann. Richard K (1984) in ‘Accommodating the Pedestrian’ planning for circulation non-motorized uses a different approach from that used in the design of the car. Traffic planners developed strategies for motor vehicles to design pedestrian facilities are bound to fail. Differences between motorists and pedestrians that can influence planning:
- Cars equalize drivers
Regardless of health, age or physical ability, all drivers are the same. Guarantee has led to the widespread use of the car that caused the crowding and delays. To resolve this problem, traffic planners try to "equalize" the driver with a greater power for, special roads such as highways and arteries. Pedestrians are not the same in the same sense in case they run depends on the health, age and physical condition. Moreover, not the same as weather conditions, protection and security. Therefore, the main objective of the scheme is to improve access by helping to equalize the way, making everything and every castle is accessible to all. Finely detailed network development allow people to commute to work safely, relaxed and happy. Walkways need to be designed for maximum utilization, protection, diversity, amenities and security. Parking may need to be restructured so that pedestrians can walk to some destinations without moving their cars.
- Pedestrian are unlike motorists in their movement patterns
Pedestrians usually travel to gain experience of destination, while drivers generally use their cars to move from one place to another. Generally only way to connect the different points. Pedestrians do not have to be channelled into the hallway efficiency or moving at a constant, but should be able to walk, rest, warm up, in the sun, stop, take, or seek shelter from the rain. Walking environment must become more diverse than the surrounding roads. For pedestrian, the route is an experience, while for the driver road is a medium.
- There has been a change in the speed factor for which planners design
There are several justifications for easy auto-oriented environment and create a more pedestrian space complex. Visual human eye covers about three objects at any time. A driver traveling at 25 mph pass the store 30 feet wide in a little less than a second, distinguish two or three objects. Pedestrians moving at 3 mph can distinguish and understand 21 different objects within the same 30 feet. Thus, vehicle owners benefit from reduced complexity of visual messages, while walkers benefit from the increased complexity of the message.
- While local and state governments have created the means to pay for the construction of roads and related facilities, how to pay for the construction of pedestrian and bicycle-related improvements is still ill defined.
The need to build, police, and maintain the pedestrian environment in a different way and far from the road, combining problem.
- Most people seem to enjoy the experience more than the current drive.
There is evidence to show that most people would drive rather than walk, even if it takes more time. The towns and cities which are not designed to create a safe, comfortable and pleasant.
That has two potential improvements to accommodate pedestrians can provide a framework for planning and implementation.
- Utilitarian Improvements
People who have a mission set, destination, or continuous duty, direct, free of obstacles and safe is the most important goals. People benefit from an increase in the most utilitarian of passengers and people who walk every day.
- Aesthetic Improvements
Many people walk leisure to make social contacts, store, pass time, exercise, and rest. Their experience is enhanced if the place is pleasant, rather quiet, beautiful, well maintained, and bright, and provided with a number of street furniture. Down cities, centres of shopping, urban gardens, business district and neighbourhood centres are examples of areas that need improvement aesthetic.
According Untermann. Richard K (1984) in ‘Accommodating the Pedestrian’ achieve uniqueness by altering the standard details can enhance convenience of shopping but planners need to ensure the overall goals are met and funds spent wisely. Here are some architectural consideration for planners to use in evaluating proposed project details, it is:
- The use of pavement that can be replicated as a walkway be repaired
- Providing diverse, and the size of the random
- Try to keep the junction of relatively free of vegetation
- Promote changes and improvements to individual stores. Different pavements, awnings and facades added benefit of pedestrians, and adding its own for every dealer business
- Encourage shortcut for parking behind the store. Shortcuts should go between stores whenever possible. The idea is to facilitate movement of the foot
- Thank dealer option for plants, for example, if they want no trees in front of their shop
- Make sure the tree planting area as large as possible. The more space for root growth, water and air, better
- Install as many benches as possible, because shoppers will use it
- Avoid using furniture the right way. Lamps, planters, trashcans and benches can all be designed to lower costs. Typically, the average consumer usually does not know the difference and saving may also be used elsewhere
- Avoid growers unless they are maintained on a regular basis. Grew up in a large area of â€‹â€‹cultivation covered streets is acceptable and inexpensive method to change the way
- Reset 3-5 feet, the new store was built in older downtowns to allow space for window shopping and a wide walkway
- There are trees planted in the ground and not in the investors, unless there is a basement under cultivation path. While many architects prefer to use the growers, they are not good for the trees (they restrict root and dry quickly)
- Do not over-emphasize the point further from the curb. Many architects suggested that because the area include trees, lamp posts, parking meters, fire hydrants and other.