History and Appreciation of Architecture

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History and Appreciation of Architecture



Question 1:

  • Rococois also known as the Late Baroque. It is the rule of King Louis XV (18th century). This is a playful style of architecture and stresses detailing on the asymmetry of a dwelling or structure, ornamentation on the interior and exterior of the building. These were generally made up of grottoes which consisted of irregular shells and stones. The Rococo style of architecture used light colors and curves in the art and designs.
  • Neoclassicism style of architecture came from classical art and also the cultures of Ancient Greece and Rome. This style of architecture had begun in the middle 18th century and is recognized by its attention to details. It had a fine line between the Rococo and the Late Baroque architecture in terms with their different methods in approaching design.

Question 2:

  • Classical - the traditional style of art, music, literature and architecture. In this particular era it refers to the buildings of the classical period in European history. This started with the uprising of Greece into a major cultural power and ended with the downfall of the Roman Empire.
  • Classicism – refers to the specific genre of philosophy, which states itself in terms of literature, art, and architecture. It was emphasized by the Ancient Greek and the Romans. Classicism was conveyed in theNeoclassicismera.

Question 3:

  • Rococo:
  • Extravagant
  • Decorative
  • luxurious
  • Neoclassicism:
  • Pure
  • Simple
  • Rational

Question 4

  1. The Basilika Vierzehnheiligen, is also known as the Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. This church located near the town ofStaffelstein, inBavaria, southernGermany. This church was designed byJohann Balthasar Neumann. The Basilika Vierzehnheiligen was constructed between1743and1772 and is dedicated to theFourteen Holy Helpers. They are a group of saints honored together in the Catholic Church, especially at the time of theBlack Death.

The exterior of this building has the form of the Latin-cross basilica with the twin-tower façade which is made up of sandstone. The interior of this building is to be considered an Architectural marvel. Entering the building there is a seemingly infinite, glowing space of a series of oval baldachin. The main colours used are white, gold, grey, marble, pictures, sculptures and paintings it gives the building’s interior a rich and dynamic effect which is given off by the regular sharped system of huge columns and pilasters. The large organ on the west gallery smaller one in a corner over a small vestry.

The axis which is longitudinal is emphasized by the main altar which is set forward in the presbytery and is equally strong in the center. This is marked by the free-standing Rococo altar of the Fourteen Saints which is surrounded by heart shaped altar rails. The lower part of this altar is decorated by marble with the vaulted higher canopy, where the Four Holy Helpers are situated on 3 different levels. There are added 2 helpers which are located on either side of the altar. The spatial arrangement shows that there are two systems in this building which is combined; the biaxial organism basically and the conventional Latin cross. With the massive usage of clear glass, the interior is lit up with natural sunlight at day and moon light at night.

Neumann designed his building so that he could create:

1. A focal point in direction of the entrance

2. Effect and mood

3. Use of natural light

4. Sense of motion and direction

5. The use of colours to manipulate natural light

6. Added drama with the floating ceiling

7. Rhythm

The main function of this building is a church and is visited by many till date.


Fig 1: Picture plan of The Basilika Vierzehnheiligen

(http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilika_Vierzehnheiligen assessed on the 02 May 2014 @ 20;22)

Materials used: masonry cut stone


ThePantheon is a church in theLatin QuarterinParis, France and originally built as a church which was dedicated toSt. Genevieve. It is an early example ofneoclassicism. The facade is a representation on thePantheon in Rome and was designed by Jacques.G.Soufflot. This building constructed between 1756 and 1797. This buildings design was based on the Greek cross with hugeporticoofCorinthiancolumns. The large dome features three superimposed shells which was inspired by several similar Renaissance structures and allows for natural light to enter the building’s interior at day. The interior is covered with the same material used to create the Corinthian columns that make up the front façade and reveals the Classical magnificence of form that was shaped in an elegant Corinthian order and was fully detailed and elegant which supported the slender arches. The interior has the Gothic decorations combined with the mainly classical style of the building, creating a neoclassical monument. It also has beautifully painted drawings on the walls, each which portrays a certain story of French history. At the middle hangs the Foucault’s pendulum which depicts the earth’s rotation. The interior also houses many sculptures which illustrates scenes of the French revolution.

The complex transitional position of Soufflot is clearly evidenced in the exterior of the Pantheon, which is much more massive and rigid than the interior which makes it hard to link them as two aspects of a single building.

This building has two functions:

1. It is a burial tomb for great men

2. A place of worship

Materials used: Large marble, stone, thick brick walls and iron reinforcements was added on later for strength.

The dome was constructed with stone which is bounded together with iron cramps and covered with lead sheeting

Fig 2: Picture plan of ThePantheon

(http://picornot.com/keyword/partheon the 02 May 2014 @ 21:45)