Heat generation in buildings

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Introduction

The estimations show that over 40% of energy has been consumed by buildings in European countries which are the greatest amount of consumption far from transportation and industrial production.

Estimations made by EU shows that the energy consumption is going to be increased within following years, as a result improvements has to be made to heating systems and area of the insulation. In order to have an efficient systems, energy saving and reduction of Co2 must be taken in to account.

The key approaches to have a more energy efficient building in terms of air conditioning and lighting are:

  1. Use of condensing boiler technology.
  2. Pay attention to heat distribution and heat emission by using pumps, radiators and under flooring heating system.
  3. Use energy efficient products in order to isolate heat within the building.
  4. Air conditioning technology.
  5. Take advantage of daylight in order to reduce the heat consumption.

Another alternative way of having efficient building and approaching energy standards is reducing the consumption of fuel and replace it by renewable energy resources. Renewable energy resources are good from the environmental point of view as they reduce the Co2 emissions.

Renewable energy areas in building:

  1. Solar thermal technology
  2. Usage of wood chips
  3. Reduce environmental heating by using heat pumps or hot water supply

Insulation:

Insulation technology:

In the building construction, use of standard materials can be helpful in reducing heat transfer. However, the transfer of heat from interior to exterior of building is impossible but insulation technology can reduce these flows significantly.

In constructing a building we have to add additional insulating wall layer with low heat conductivity which normally placed on the cold side of the structure. When we design an exterior wall the cold side of the structure is the inner part. The other important thing that has to be considered is the component of material that has to be weatherproof.

Commonly used insulating materials:

  1. Foamed plastic, such as polystyrene and polyurethane
  2. Mineral wool, glass wool, cellular glass
  3. Mineral materials, such as porous concrete, pumice stone
  4. Injected cavity fill
  5. Wood fiber, wood shavings, cork
  6. Plant or animal fibers, such as hemp, flax, coconut, wool

Reed plates

  1. Calcium silicate plates

Commonly the most important parts that have to be insulated are as follows:

  1. Roof
  2. Exterior walls
  3. Basement ceiling
  4. Glazed surfaces
  5. Heating system and heat storage unit

In the building construction using of insulating walls makes significant difference in the wall thickness. In order to achieve the same insulating effect the thickness of the wall has to be 10 times greater.

Heat distribution and emission:

In order to achieve efficient heating the building needs heat generation and distribution. The heat distribution of the buildings contains pipe work, pumps, and line fitting in which the heat generator transfer the heat to point of emission. On the other hand the heat emission system contains radiators and a room for controlling the temperature.

Air conditioning technology:

The air conditioning technology is that maintains the good condition in the rooms in terms of temperature which require air conditioning system that reduce or increase the temperature and humidity.

Installation of air conditioning system is require when we want to design and construct a building but the most important thing is the cost and efficiency of it in terms of energy. Beside that the rules and regulation of the following system has to be consider. The air conditioner that works with renewable energies and designed based on efficient systems, is the most reliable source of energy efficient system.

Heat recovery ventilation:

With this technology, the extracted air energy from the system is used to heat the air which enters to the building in cold times and cooling it in hot weather.

Solar cooling:

As said before the solar energies can be used to heat water and rooms, however, any other energy during summer time can be helpful in reducing the building temperature. To achieve this, we have to use thermal cooling machines like compression cooling machines or thermal compressors. The main advantage of solar cooling's over standard cooling is that they have less disturbance on surrounding environment and use nature heat instead of valuable source of energies.

Whole above part: http://www.efficiency-from-germany.info/EIE/Navigation/EN/Technologies/buildings,did=255396.html

Federal ministry of economics and technology

Day light:

From the energy efficiency point of view, using natural daylight has considerable advantages over artificial lights. It has been estimated that 25-40 percent of energy consumed by the building lighting. Considerable financial saving can be achieved by using natural light rather than artificial light. In order to achieve this target, we have to consider the material, design strategy and construction method.

Design recommendations:

  • Increase the area which has the main daylight
  • Design in a way that day light can pass through the building. For example locate the windows in a roof or high in the walls.
  • Try to increase the daylight effect in the building by using light shelf that increases the brightness of the room.
  • Design slope ceilings which allow more light into the building
  • Consider the orientation of the building because it affects the day light strategy ; for example light shelves that are effective when the building has a south facades, are going to be ineffective when the facades of the building is located on east or west.

Materials and method of construction:

  1. Glazing Materials: one of the most popular ways to increase the effect of day light within the building is taking advantage of Glazing materials. Glazing is one of the easiest and inexpensive alternative ways to increase thermal performances. There exist different types of Glazing like tints, metallic and low-emissivity coatings.
  2. Aperture Location: The strategy of Simple side lighting helps daylight to enter to building and can also be beneficial in the views and ventilation.
  3. Reflectance of Room Surfaces: this will affect daylight performance and should be as high as possible. Ceiling reflectance should be over 80%, walls over 50%, and floors around 20%.
  4. Integration with Electric Lighting Controls: We can adjust the level of light within the rooms and buildings with the lighting control devices. There exist three types of lighting control:
  1. Switching controls: turn off the electric light when there is a natural source of light.
  2. Stepped controls: keeps the level of light intermediate.
  3. Dimming controls: complement the artificial light with the natural light by chenging the power input too lamps.

Whole the below writing: J:\Building Regulations Part L - A Review.mht

(From Building regulation part L)

The part L of building regulation:

According to building regulation part L effective actions should be made in order to avoid heat loss in the buildings so that we can conserve fuel. This can be done by fabrication of the building walls and other part of the building and in order to reach this target we should:

  1. Use efficient insulation in the roof, wall, floor, window and doors of the building to avoid excessive heat loss.
  2. Try to use airtight fabrication in the building construction

One of the most popular methods that help us to limit the heat loss is the U-value method.

value is the overall coefficient of heat transfer which introduces the heat transfer through materials. The U value has direct relation with heat transfer, if U value increase the amount of heat transfer will increase as well. The values for U do vary for materials and type of construction. The table below gives the value of U for some common method of construction.

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