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Foundation is an important part of every building, which interfaces the superstructures to the adjacent soil or rock below it. The superstructure loads will be transferred to the underlying soil or rock. Without a proper design and construction of foundation, problems such as cracking, settlement of building may occur and even to the extent, the whole building may collapse within its design life. Therefore, a proper foundation system is required to maintain the safeness of a building. As for the main purpose of this soil investigation work is to determine the suitability of the site for the proposed project and to propose an adequate and economic foundation design.
. The support can be of different kinds of loads Foundation. Discuss the two types of load.
I am. Dead load
The dead load is constant and the size is fixed to a position over the life of the structure. The dead load of the structure, such as the dead load of the main part of the normal self-weight of the material structures and design dead load the configuration of the density can be accurately calculated from the dimensions. Beams, columns, foundations, slabs a load structure. (Asekeen, 2011)
II. Live load
It consists of a bridge building occupancy load and traffic load live load. They can not change their position or place partially or completely, and can not exist at all. The live load of the human, chair, table, computer, bed, furniture, etc.. They can change the location of a structure that is not included in the lifetime of the current live loads. Thus, in the structural design provides a larger safety factor than others, the live load. (Asekeen, 2011)
B. Compare three types of shallow foundation.
Generally known as a spread footing foundation is shallow spreads the load of the superstructure to the ground because the base is shallow side. (Asekeen, 2011)
I am. Basis of the pad
II. Strip Foundation
III. Raft Foundation
Table 1: Shallow foundation
Type of pad foundation strip foundation raft foundation
The casting slab on top of the foundation to perform the column (pillar) of ground isolated justice. Is used to support the load of the line, such as a wall, these loads. For example, the column may be a better alternative to the interval closely to the pad, and render the use of a strip cut improperly cut. Concrete buildings spread around the base of the foundation, from any floor / oversite concrete / floor slab.
Shallow depth that is suitable bearing capacity of the ground to the point load used in frame building. Use location-based and non-flooded soil your strong areas. Just type the Foundation is comprised of a small building, most of the floor.
The lightweight structure to perform light load bearing capacity • Low on poor land.
• Mixed supportive fills typically used in ground applications.
• You need to dig a little advantage.
• can be designed to accommodate the full site.
• The size of the control based economy.
• Need for tensile and shear reinforcement • You can add a little daunting.
• Because of the economic design cheap, shallow and narrow.
• little impact on neighboring properties. • a combination of low-cost financial foundation floor because.
• A small excavation.
• poor / mixture may correspond to the ground state.
The very large size to cope with the high point loads • Weakness of the Foundation.
• refers to the load limit based fitness frame building.
This for differential settlement that may affect the building • separate from the base to a weak design.
• the uplift force, about about the power of wind and earthquake forces. • Because of the depth to perform the basic functions and design load limit,
• Only suitable for small medium development /
• The frame is not suitable for construction.
About in loose sand or stratum of gravel •. If you support the weak point load required • specific treatment.
• Edge susceptible to erosion.
Figure 1: The pad Foundation
Figure 2: Strip Foundation
Figure 3: Strip Foundation
Source: Riley et al. (2009)
Discussion that may be performed in order to prevent failure based on the processing described the effects of water and chemicals, and soil.
Effect of water and chemicals in the soil.
May be affected by the loss of soil the soil, structure, stability, and texture. The user can change the texture, removal of the entire layer of the destruction of the aggregate and a small particle soil or organic material or weaken the structure or even. The textural changes in order to be more susceptible to these extreme conditions, drought water holding capacity of the soil affect. (G. Wall, et al, 2014)
• Establishment of an existing building
This may cause the existing building of the settlement and the chemical content of water in the soil. The cause of the weakening of the soil characteristics of soil water and chemicals are released. Is caused by a poor soil bearing capacity of soft soil, so the moisture content of the soil and chemical treatment, or, if not removed, can be set gradually over time the weight of the building. (G. Wall, et al, 2014)
• Erosion of soil properties
The soil will lead to soil erosion, water and chemicals. To contain less organic matter and nutrient losses are reduced soil characteristics. When there is excess moisture in the soil, tends to disperse the soil particles and erosion on soil aggregate strike the ground is also water. Poor soil strength may cause the flow of excess nutrients in the organic matter of the soil and the water. The soil chemistry is killing the plants in the ground will have a negative effect on the nature of the soil - has the ability to maintain the plant in the soil. (G. Wall, et al, 2014)
• Corrosion Foundation
Tends to have a negative effect not only cut but also water and chemicals. They have the ability to corrode the reinforcement attached to the base power. Chemical reaction with water when the reinforcing bar, it will start the corrosion and to reduce the strength of the bar. It may cause corrosion of the reinforcing bars to be weak basic properties in the long term. Situation may cause you concentrated strength of a weak base to support the load of the building collapse. (G. Wall, et al, 2014)
May be carried out to prevent the basic process fails.
• dehydration method
The lower the level of the surrounding water and drilling chemical methods. For example: a sump pump. Is intended for temporary use to reduce the level of ground water in contact with a basic water level decreases so that the water and also to consolidate the soil (soil strength) to this method. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the possibility of failure of the base. (G. Wall, et al, 2014)
• impermeable block building wall
Permeable wall, built-in, for example, to resist the movement of the water close to the diaphragm base wall. Tends to withstand the water pressure underground walls. It is also possible to block the penetration of water in contact with the diaphragm base wall. (G. Wall, et al, 2014)
Figure 4: impermeable barrier
B. The subsoil when it is wet or dry ground motion is typically primarily on the change in the volume group. Discuss the effects of ground motion in the lower part of the building.
If the subsoil is wet or dry, and occurs near the top of the soil surface, the change in the volume of the soil. .Subsoil Shear movement that can have a significant impact on the reduction of the effective stress building serious problem corresponding reduced intensity. Have to be planned for the construction in order to examine the soil before appropriate treatment and administration. (Shayler, 2012)
Suffers a very small movement of small granular soils such as gravel is to perform a cohesive clay soil near the top surface, while suffering a high volume change. Frost is the process of pulling may be caused by freezing and expansion of water held in the soil of a similar change. (Shayler, 2012)
Can occur by direct physical contact with the roots of the lower building damage. It is clear that the most common clay subsoil moisture are indirect effects of the shrinkage or heave. It is most evident in the long dry season, by abstracting water from the plant compound shrinkage. However, generating a pull wet weather, and is a compound to remove the old tree is dependent on the moisture balance of the subsoil conditions otherwise affecting any drainage. Has the ability to give rise to movement of the lower part of the building capacity subsoil movements. (Shayler, 2012)
The cracks in the lower soil movement as well. The main problem is the contract swelling soil. It is due to climate change in dry and wet season. Clay soil is one of easy stretching and cracking the structure of the soil type. Shrinkage of the soil thus creates an empty space formed the basis for the structure cracks, foundation footing below. In addition, it may cause cracks in the foundation as opposed to the floor because of the swelling pressure of the soil. (Shayler, 2012)
Shahe Asekeen (31/10/2011), Civil Engineering Basic, Live Load vs Dead Load: Live Loads, Dead Loads, Structural Safety, Available at http://civilbasics.weebly.com/structural-loads/live-load-vs-dead-load-live-loads-dead-loads-structural-safety (Accessed on 12 October 2014)
 Riley,M.,Cotgrave,A (2009). Construction technology 2:Industrial and commercial building.2nd ed. England: Palgrave. 109.
Izreal (2012), Basic in foundation, Available at http://izreal.eu/2012/10/29/basics-in-foundation/ (Accessed on 12 October 2014)
 Thomas Elliott Foster (09 March 2013), This case study has been prepared for J & W Lowry Limited, Foundation, Available at http://www.jwlowry.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/Brown-Field-Site-and-Suitable-Foundation-Types.pdf (Accessed on 12 October 2014)
 Shayler.H, McBride.M, Harrison.E,(2012) Sources and Impacts of Contaminants in Soils, Available at http://cwmi.css.cornell.edu/sourcesandimpacts.pdf (Accessed on 12 October 2014)