Establishmont of a Pre-Requisite Integrated Multi-Transit System

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  • Introduction
  • Aim
  • Objective
  • Research Question
  • Methodology
  • What is integration?
  • Multi-modal passenger transit system
  • Public transport system in Vijayawada
  • Para-transit provisions in Indian context
    • Typology of para-transit system of the city
    • Relevance in Vijayawada scenario
  • Significance of spaces in transit system
  • Travel pattern and network
    • Travel behaviour in the city
    • Traffic network and congestion
    • Simplification of road network
  • Urban demolition and flexibility of spaces
  • Modal transfers and frequency
    • Peak and off peak timings
    • Factors on transfer rate
  • Connectivity Map
  • Distance-Time-Expenditure analysis
    • Modal change and expenditure
  • An approach to metro rail network

Integration of multimodal passenger transit system and the role of para-transit provisions


This paper analyses how the transit culture in India and particularly in the city of Vijayawada can be redefined with respect to the available redevelopment patterns and the para-transit provisions in the city. The existing urban form and network play the actual role in the redevelopment pattern which can be either partial demolition method or constructive method. Though most the modes of transport are truly in the existence in the city, the art of integrating them gives the light to the developed multi-modal transit system in that particular city. It really changes the transit culture within the city enabling the introduction to further modes of transport and terminals. The existing canal modification may affect the eradication of slums which have been deeply rooted near the canal. The paper also analyses on all para-transit modes of transportation in the city that how it felicitates and contributes to the ‘linking process’ among the other modes. It also oversees the futuristic development of the city in the urban scale where traffic congestion has to be nullified or minimized

Key words: Multimodal, para-transit, redevelopment, transit culture, passenger, transfers


A developed country is not where the poor use cars, it’s where the rich use public transportation”, Gustavo Petro, the mayor of Bogota, Columbia. Transportation system in India has never been drastically changed over the past decades due to the unauthorized land acquisition and unplanned transport development. Among the various cities, very few are planned whereas others were raised, built and spread-over rapidly, in random space and time. It led to further congestion of roads, streets and public spaces without delivering a chance of re-development process. So the transportation, where it didn’t play major part in Indian context was dragged into a change, which offered nothing less than a mere development and couldn’t foresee the futuristic India. The major technological advancement failed to enter Indian subcontinent, led to the forceful limitation of traditional and available transportation. Therefore the transit system was kept under-developed for ages, where different modes of transportation were introduced but seldom made a donation to a multi-modal transit system. Even Indian economy was undoubtedly incapacitated with the new concepts of transit development and more or less the same system prevailed over.

The resourceful cities of India still have major modes of transportation, which could be effectively re-modified into an integrated system, which promises a simplest and flexible movement within and around the system. The water, road and the rail transit collectively form the fastest and easiest transfers, in which the time factor makes the advantage. The modern era also demands a process or an activity, which makes life faster and easier, promoting the aesthetic sense as a whole. The transportation has been an unavoidable part of everyday life, demanding the demolition of pre-existing features to ensure the future needs and necessities. Many cities have started demarcating provisions for a multi-modal transit system where sustainability and structures are still conserved.

Transportation is a very vast topic on which we create different layers of thought process to establish the connectivity and linkage in a proper way. The transit culture of India is gradually being changed. We can see the change in the completed and upcoming projects in New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai, Bangalore and Hyderabad. The twenty first century started with the metro rail and subway rail system rather than the suburban and other networks. The advancement of high-speed Express highways also paved a way to the city transportation planning concepts.

It has also to be mentioned that the multi modal transit hubs and terminals have seen into the actual picture of a future city. People use different modes of transport to reach destinations where they use an interphase transit mode for making it economic as well as faster. For example, New Delhi railway station has a good access to reach out to the Metro station, city buses, autos, rickshaws and taxis easily so that the time delay in finding another mode of transport is negligible. That is the reason why many of its Metro stations are located just above the Highways and Bus terminals.

The interphase of water transport and the road transport can be very well seen in the study of city of Venice in Italy. How sophistically the pedestrian movement migrates to the water transport and vice-versa could be designed according to the physiological and geographical character of the city. However, the road transports proved to be the decisive part in the transit development, the other modes have to be linked to the road transit making it as the primary mode of transport. The gridiron pattern of New York, triangular pattern of Paris and the Radial or Hexagonal pattern of New Delhi have their own advantages and disadvantages in its transit culture. What we have to focus is to regenerate the principles and ideas to solve the problems and functionality of the transit system in a city.

A multi modal transit system also demands for the freight transfers, which have a different impact on the transit behaviour of the city. The logistics and contracts are involved in the transfers, which deal more into the economic and financial phases rather than the design and planning principles.


To establish a pre-requisite integrated multi-transit system, through the amalgamation of different transit modes and systemization of para-transit facilities, as the backbone of city transportation. To redefine the existing city transit networks in a broader level so that maximized passenger transfer, minimized distance and least travel time are achieved.


•To re-develop the urban transport system of the city fabric.

•To have a re-modelled railway corridor including the barrages and bridges.

•To simplify of road network with respect to rail and waterways.

•To establish central hub for connecting all modes of the transit system.

•To systemize para-transit facilities connecting all modes of transport.

•To exhibit a view on metro/subway development in the farthest future.

•To substantiate urban demolition to maintain the flexibility of the transit.

•To evaluate real time-based analysis of transfers within the systems.


Why do we require an integrated system of all modes of transit along with para-transit amenities in an urban multi-transit system and how can we achieve this to underline high transfers and least time and distance?


The paper studies about the transit culture within Indian context where the case study of the network is taken in New Delhi, Chennai etc. The output of the study aim at the city of Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh, which has the scope of its transit redevelopment, extends to road, rail and water due to the availability of the railway corridor and canals of the river Krishna.


The multi-modal transit system needs lots of literature study, data collections and surveys which have to be assembled, framed and evaluated. We start with the normal studies related to the public transportation, the concerns of transit oriented development, the modal-wise transit culture in India and abroad and the problems of malfunctioned transit terminals.

LITERATURE STUDY: The various studies about the transit oriented developments in the United States of America prove to be vital in this scenario. The more the accessible it is, the public interphase will be much more than we expect to be. The accessibility being the major element of the transit network, the authorities started thinking about the re-development of few transit stations depending upon the public interphase. Moreover the accessibility, it actually started working out the other factors responsible for the transfers and movement. For instance, a fully rail car can remove 200 cars from the road and a rail bus can remove 20 cars from the road. (Public transportation). Taking the broader picture, through the statistical analysis in the United States of America, Los Angeles County Metropolitan transportation authority has seen a 40% increase in ridership on metro since the provision of real time information was established. (Public Transportation) It gradually fosters the communities to ‘walk more and drive less’. However, the automobile industry sustains even though, it has lost its higher hand in the system, favored the various modes of public transport system to come up to the competition. That is how the subway systems played a crucial part in regulating the transit harmony of the cities of United States of America.

The public transport in the Indian cities has the worst situation in the subcontinent, though it is easily accessible from anywhere in the country through different modes. The data shows the private transport being dominant causing the traffic congestion and pollution.

In the Indian context of multi-modal transit, Kashmere gate and Anand Vihar in New Delhi serve the purpose of it accommodating the passengers from metro as well as the interstate bus terminal increasing the accessibility and connectivity.

DATA COLLECTION: Several surveys have to be conducted on for the results related to the transfers, time and distance.

  • Travel time-distance survey in public transport, para-transit options (pedestrian, rickshaw and auto-rickshaw) and private owned transport.
  • Differential mapping of actual distance and covered distance between two different modes. (Railway and Bus).Time taken for the modal change from one to another and vice-versa. If there is a difference, why?
  • Survey of number of people using public and shared transport rather than privately owned. Subsequently their shares in the current traffic in the city.
  • Survey on transfers from and to in a mode of transport with respect to time.


Integration is a process or an act of intermixing of different subjects into a single value giving a combined advantage of both. In this context of transport system, the transit modals must have been established long time back. But the actual integration of the different transit modes is the questionable factor to be accomplished. Many of the Indian cities, including Vijayawada, are also on the-verge of transit integration which enables the unlimited access of public transportation and minimized private intervention. WSA(2007) data gives us a light in the transit cultures in Indian cities along with asian monopolies. Public transportation and integrated transit systems in European countries and American states prove to be a vital element in the global development of the entire subcontinent.

Multi-modal passenger transit system

As many understand, multimode transport refers to a transport system usually operated by one carrier with more than one mode of transport under control or ownership of one operator. It involves the use of more than one means of transport such as a combination of truck, railcar, railways, aeroplane or ship in succession to each ( It drives the urban development of the entire city in its physical, socio-economical and internal network. It is one of the decisive functional aspect of the city traffic.

Public transport system in Vijayawada

Vijayawada city is completely a transit oriented city as the road, rail and water transport have the major impact in its history, culture and the physiography. It has a huge railway terminal since it has been declared as one of the biggest and busiest railway corridor. The main two roads in Vijayawada starts from the Old Vijayawada region diverge to meet the National highway-5 which lays the heart of the city. The water canals were the historic evidence of merchandiser but turned to be sewage and garbage remover of the city in the real sense.

Talking about the road transport system, APSRTC (Andhra Pradesh State Transport Corporation) runs its services throughout each and every corners of the city from 5 am to 12pm with a total of 500 city buses and metro buses having nearly 2000+ daily services (PNBS at Once, 1991). Pandit Nehru Bus Station operates another 2500 trips of other ordinary/express/interstate buses away from the city. It is one of the successful corporation having a record number of services in South India. The bus Terminal is the second largest in India (The New Indian Express, 2014) after ISBT Kashmere Gate, New Delhi (Economic Times, 2013). It has succeeded in connecting people and services, ultimately involving the public into the system. The response from the public gave a green light to the maximum coverage in most of the corners of the city.

Para-transit provisions in Indian context

Those services which in-turn support the main streams of modes of transport and connect them through sophisticated networks are commonly known as para-transit system. It generates lot of travel options and pattern in travellers which can be opted to be used accordingly. Although it is not directly linked with a fully flourished transport mode say Bus transit, it actually add ups