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Give a description of the work of one of the following designers: James Stirling; Norman Foster; Ettore Sottsass; Richard Rogers; David Hicks; Philippe Starck.
High Tech appeared in the thirties, French architects Jean Orouve and Pierre Chareau, used High Tech to design house, when High Tech was architecture design trends. In the thirties, Industry was common, produce more metal, so High Tech style using very metal material to construct.
In 1779, the first iron bridge in England River Severn, it is a metal structure. High Tech popular before built the iron bridge.
High Tech have five points, about the features and elements of the style. First, High Tech have mechanical and structural aesthetics, emphasizes logic, processes, machinery and equipment, technology and structure. And it has mobility, for example emphasizes the concept of extrasensory, more lightweight and flexible, 'exoskeleton effect'. Second, it has visual effects. Third, it have High Tech materials, it using smooth metal, transparent glass and crystalline minerals, to make cool feeling in the architecture, main color is white, gray and black, for example Yoyogi National Gymnasium and Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank. Fourth, High Tech emphasis on industrial technology, transparent and translucent, and make more new ideas, to achieve acme of technology in high tech style. Last, High Tech created new design ideas, for example it break the limitations of the column and wall, mesh grid, glass reflection and transmission, and exposed structure.
High Tech architectures are 'energy-saving architecture'. Because it is environmentally friendly, the architectures wall is glass, the light can easily go to indoor.
Renzo Piano, Jean Nouvel, Richard Rogers, Helmut Jahn, Jean Nouvel, Santiago Calatrava and James Stirling, they use High Tech to design and construct their works.
Norman Foster is high tech's representative architect and designer too.
Norman Foster was born 1 June 1935 in England Manchester. When he was 21 years old, he graduated Manchester University School of Architecture and City Planning in 1961, then he won Yale University scholarships and studied Master of Architecture. Next, he married Wendy Cheesman who is architect, in 1964. Norman Foster constituted Foster Associates (Foster + Partners) with his wife Wendy Cheesman and eight working partners in 1967.
Foster Associates (Foster + Partners) is a construction company in London, England. Foster + Partners founded in 1967. The chairman is Norman Foster and the chief executive officer is Mouzhan Majidi.
Foster + Partners completed many major projects, it has ten parts those master plans, bridges, government building, cultural building, higher education building, sport ground, transportation, office, leisure installation, and house.
First for master plans, Foster + Partners planned Duisburg Inner Harbour in Germany (1991-2003), Trafalgar Square Redevelopment in London (1996-2003), West Kowloon Cultural District in Hong Kong (2009) and so no. Second for bridges, they constructed and designed Western Årsta Bridge Årstabroarna in Sweden (1994/2005), Millennium Bridge in London (1999/2002), and Millau Viaduct (2004); it was the highest road bridge in the world. Third for government building, they constructed London City Hall (2002), New Supreme Court Building in Singapore (2005), and reconstruct Reichstag building in Berlin (1999). Fourth for cultural building, they constructed and designed Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts at University of East Anglia in Norwich, in UK (1978), redevelopment of the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court of the British Museum (2000), and extension to Lenbachhaus art museum, Munich (2013). Fifth for higher education building, for example Kings Norton Library in UK Cranfield University (1994), Cambridge Faculty of Law in UK (1995), British Library of Political and Economic Science in UK London School of Economics (1993-2001).
Then, Foster + Partners constructed and designed Lusail Iconic Stadium in Qatar (2010), and reconstruct Wembley Stadium (2007). Seventh for transportation, it had Stansted Airport in UK (1991), Canary Wharf Underground Station in London (1999), Spaceport America in New Mexico (2005-2013). Eighth for office, it had London Citigroup Centre in UK (1996-2000), Hearst Tower in New York City (2006), Caja Madrid in Spain Madrid (2002-2009). Ninth for leisure installation, it had The Great Glashouse National Botanic Garden of Wales in UK Wales (1995-2000), Elephant House of Copenhagen Zoo in Denmark (2002-2008), Faustino Winery Bodegas Faustino in Spain Castilla y Leon (2007-2010). Tenth for house, it had The Murezzan in Switzerland St Moritz (2003-2007), Regent Place in Australia Sydney (2003-2007), Jameson House in Canada Vancouver (2004-2011).
Norman Foster has many architectural achievements, for example he is ex-vice president of the Architectural Association, external councilors of the Royal Architectural Association (RIBA), councilor of the Royal College of Art in London, member of the Royal Society of Arts in London, honorary member of the American Institute of Architects and so on.
Norman Foster won 190 awards and more than 50 international competitions. He was awarded The RIBA Royal Gold Medal in 1983, Japan Association for International Design Award in 1987, the RIBA trustees medal in 1990 and Gold Medal of the AIA in 1994. In 1999, he won The 21st Pritzker Architecture Awards, and was awarded the title of 'Lord' by the Queen, so we could call him Lord Norman Foster.
Willis Faber Dumas Offices in 1974, Sainsbury Centre for the Visual Arts in 1976, Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank in 1979, Airport Terminal in 1980, Museum of Modern Art in 1983, Kings Cross Redevelopment in 1988, 30 St. Mary Axe in 2003 and so on. There were High Tech style architecture by Norman Foster.
On the other hand, Norman Foster has many famous works, for example Reliance Control Factory in 1966, Original Drawings in 1978, Whitworth Art Gallery in 1984, Institute francais d rchitecture in 1986 and Royal Academy of Arts in 1986.
In addition to, Furniture appeared High Tech, for example tables, chairs, beds. Adreas Weber, Bruce Burdick and Norman Foster used High Tech to design tables and worktables, those are stainless steel and glass. Hermann Müller desgined Aeron Office Chair, that is High Tech style and ergonomics.
Norman Foster did not create High Tech, but he was influential in architecture and design. Norman Foster made High Tech that became common. In addition, many designers will use High Tech in interior design, because it has five good points. First, High Tech using smooth metal, to make cool feeling. Second, High Tech has mechanical and structural aesthetics, to make modern. Third, High Tech main color is white, gray and black, does not affect the designer and to make modern. Fourth, High Tech using transparent glass, it can increase interior sense of space, and light can easily go to indoor. Fifth, interior can use High Tech furniture for example tables, chairs, and beds.
In conclusion, Norman Foster do not only contributing to architecture, he contribute design, for example interior design and furniture design.