Currently At A Population Architecture Essay

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Currently at a population of 6.8 billion people, and increasing by a million and a half people every week, things are starting to look very crowded for the future. It is estimated that by 2050 we will be at 9.2 billion people.

We must start living in a different way - its no longer a question of maintaining our standard of living, but of surviving on a planet that is losing its basic ecological infrastructure.

We use our formidable technology to systematically pollute our air, our water, our soil, and our food chain. We are also experiencing the effects of global warming - heat waves, droughts, dying coral reefs, melting glaciers, rising sea levels, unstable weather patterns, rapid spread of diseases, and accelerated species extinction.

With our insatiable demand for food, fuel, building materials, and useless junk, irreplaceable natural resources are depleting. In an effort to survive, people are simply wiping out everything else, destroying the ecological infrastructure that gave us the comfortable living conditions in the first place. The exponential increase in birth rate depletes natural resources faster than they can be replaced, lowering the standard of living and creating economic pressures both here in the UK and throughout the rest of the world. We are losing our life support, our home.

The Solution To The Problem

We desperately need a solution to the world's overpopulation problem, our continued survival requires a healthy and functioning global ecosystem, on in which humans live in harmony with all other forms of life. We must educate ourselves, recognizing the problem and work together towards a solution. The global overpopulation problem needs to be resolved, or nature will resolve it for us in a manner that we would not ask for.

It is time to live in an entirely new way - we must embrace change.

The City

People need to work together for a solution dealing with cities and the influx of people desiring for a higher quality of life. Natural resources that are readily available must be managed better for our journey towards a greener future, and cities that accommodate everything.

The increase and reliance on technology is creating concentrated urban centre's that are finding it harder and harder to cope with the mass influx of people. We must ask ourselves whether city's can keep growing and growing to accommodate the life we are used to living in this modern world. The city now is a living organism, a place that contains everything and that is ever growing.

Significant advances in public health and medicine, phenomenal agricultural yields and the expanding global economy contribute to the population explosion as the lifespan average continues to increase from this, many live in city's for better opportunities, increasing moving masses from one place to another.

  • In 1900 only 1 in 10 people lived in cities
  • By 1994 the figure had grown to 1 in 2 people, creating megalopolis of millions to tens of millions inhabitants, all using up waste and resources
  • Now there are more than 400 cities that have a population of more than a million people
  • It is further predicted that 2/3rds will live in cities by 2050

Managing such large cities, and better management of the planet's resources, could become the most difficult problem of this century. As the world's population grows it becomes more difficult for the planet to support all its inhabitants.


As the resources diminish, what will be done?

Changing Minds

Years ago no one gave much thought to how much of the Earth's resources had gone into making the items in the first place and whether those resources would eventually run out.

What happened to rubbish after it went into the household bin and was collected by the bin lorry was of no concern to consumers.

Green living is not just about trying to consume fewer of the Earth's precious resources and living sustainably. It is about considering the greenest option in everything you consume, whether you are buying food, clothes, cleaning materials, or cosmetics. You are responsible for the energy and resources used in the making of everything you buy. If you keep using an item you already have, you are not responsible for the damage caused by the manufacture of a new one. However, if you throw your old one away, you fill up landfill sites and are responsible for any toxic chemicals in it leaking into and contaminating the land around the site as well as damaging gases given off during the time it takes for the item to rot away.


Waste from cities

Cities now have everything we need within them, amenities and services that are open 24/7. Our generation now is expectant on ' having things now ', food, clothing etc, but with our increase in having everything we have started too realise that the future may be very different.

Waste is being produced in much higher quantities, how will the city cope, how will it be used to a far more effect source. With the increase in population these problems must be addressed and dealt with.

  • Who will deal with this waste?
  • Where will it go or be decomposed?
  • Can we convert it into something more useful?

Currently in the UK we produce a massive amount of household waste that is sent directly to landfill. New solutions such as separation waste techniques and disposal centres allow people from home to do their bit.

Home - waste - amount of waste produced?

  • The UK produces 28 million tonnes of household waste each year
  • In just one hour we create enough to fill the Albert Hall to overflowing
  • The unreleased energy contained in the average dustbin each year could power a television for 5,000 hours

Agricultural and industrial waste, solids from sewage treatment plants, ashes and garbage are all causes of land pollution and add to the growing concern. The accumulation of inorganic wastes in soil poses a threat to the plant and animal life. Garbage is carelessly dumped into the soil. Non-biodegradable wastes such as plastic and rubber prove lethal to the life in the soil. Plastic and glass bottles, cans, rubber tires and electronic items dumped in the soil make up the main cause of land pollution.

How rubbish will increase by 2050

We are producing increasing amounts of waste each year, which means we are using natural resources at a faster rate than ever and putting more strain on the environment's capacity to deal with our waste products. While a majority of this rubbish is disposed at landfill sites.

" We need to stop thinking of rubbish as a problem to be buried in landfill and start thinking of it as a resource to be used "

" Living within the limits of the earth's natural systems will mean using less and being more efficient "

Managing Waste, the implications of this urgency for waste management are that we must take advantage of approaches that ca be rapidly implemented e.g. prevention, recycling, composting, stabilization prior to landfill. We have to make big changes, including the government focusing policies and incentives on the best approaches, not just those that are slightly better than what were doing at the moment.


Recycling - waste material

Every day 'waste' material is thrown away when actually it is a valuable resource. Paper, metal, glass, green waste, plastics and textiles can all be recycled into new products. Recycling reduces waste going to landfill and also reduces the demand for raw materials, saves energy in the production process and reduces emissions to air and water in the production process.

Increasing amounts of waste are being recycled across the UK - packaging waste recycling increased from 28% in 1998 to 55% by the end of 2005; 51% of construction and demolition waste is recycled or re-used and 45% of commercial and industrial waste is recycled. The government estimates that recycling of household waste in England has now increased to over 33% in 2007, more than quadrupling over 10 years.

The waste management industry is working to provide new facilities to treat and recycle waste to reach these targets. The industry is working particularly closely with local authorities to increase household waste recycling and composting rates.

Recycling and reusing

By recycling more of the waste, we can:

  • Save landfill - reducing the need to find new sites
  • Save energy - reducing global-warming gases and pollution
  • Save raw materials - reducing pollution and spoil heaps
  • Save water - reducing shortages and contamination
  • Facts

  • UK households produced 30.5 million tonnes of waste in 2008/09, of which 17% was collected for recycling
  • 1 recycled tin can would save enough energy to power a television for 3 hours
  • 1 recycled glass bottle would save enough energy to power a computer for 25 minutes
  • 1 recycled plastic bottle would save enough energy to power a 60-watt light bulb for 3 hours

Managing Waste

How much waste?

Uk packaging waste recycling increased from 28% in1998 to 55% by the end of 2008

  • Currently about 43% of all UK waste and approximately 64% of the UK's municipal waste is sent to landfill. Landfills play an essential role in the safe disposal of certain wastes, but most wastes could instead be recycled, composted or used to generate energy.

2/3 of the salvagers live in poorly constructed homes made from mud, plastic bags and boxes. Some sheets of corrugated iron are donated and funded by the government, most have no furniture and bedding is also collected from the site in the form of old clothes and blankets


Different people living around the world

Across the globe waste is seen in different light, while the more developed world consumes and wastes far more, the 3rd world maximises and utilizes all that they waste and use.

And as people move towards a better way of living the rest of the world mainly 3rd world live in poverty and lack the basic human essentials to survive.

Case studies

Garbage Dreams

Garbage Dreams follows three teenage boys born into the trash trade and growing up in the world's largest garbage village, on the outskirts of Cairo. It is home to 60,000 Zaballeen, which means Arabic - "garbage people." When their community is suddenly faced with the globalization of its trade, each of the teenage boys is forced to make choices that will impact his future and the survival of his community.

The Zaballeen have created the world's most effective resource recovery system, recycling 80% of everything they collect. They are actually saving our Earth. From out of the trash, they lifted themselves out of poverty and have a solution to the world's most pressing crisis.

Leaders are also hoping that their campaign for source separation - in which residents sort organic from non-organic waste before it reaches trash collectors - will gain government support and take root among Cairo's 20-million citizens. With the multinational companies government contracts set to expire in 2015, the Zabaleen are focusing on modernizing their trade so they can reclaim a place for themselves in the system.

While the current economic outlook is bleak, there is growing international interest in the Zabaleen's industrious and innovative recycling practices. Leaders also note that the Egyptian government is finally acknowledging the Zabaleen as a valuable and skilled resource. As for the Gates grant, which has yet to be confirmed, the money will ostensibly be used to support the Source Separation campaign, train workers and modernize recycling facilities.

People that live on landfill - Zabelleens

Where do they live?

2/3 of the salvagers live in poorly constructed homes made from mud, plastic bags and boxes. Some sheets of corrugated iron a roof is provided by the government.

Most have no furniture and bedding is also collected from the site in the form of old clothes or blankets. Those who live in the caves around the area cover themselves with plastic carrier bags when it rains. The caves become dangerous and sometimes walls collapse.

Why they live on site

A survey was done in 2005 to ask people why they live on the site. The findings were that:

  • Many were unemployed and couldn't afford the basic human needs of food, water, shelter and clothes
  • Some had been born there and it was the only home they knew
  • Some were orphans and had no family to help them and had no way out of the landfill
  • Widows ended up there when the money earner of the family died
  • Different tribal groups became refugees in there own countries
  • Some were thrown out of the slums they had lived in when Governments tried to clear the areas up

What do they collect and what is done with it?

The salvagers themselves use some of the materials collected, such as the food dumped by hotels in Cairo and cloth, which is used for clothing and bedding. The rest of the materials are sold to middlemen who in turn sell to recyclers. These include bones, plastics and scrap metal.

How earn living through recycling

There are so many people living on the dumpsite now that the salvagers are having to look for alternative sources of income. These include:

  • Working on local farms - Subsistence farming (growing crops to eat themselves) alone the roads and spare land around the dumpsite
  • Doing laundry for people
  • Weaving baskets and mats using scavenged polythene
  • Selling water
  • Major issues - lack off

  • The salvagers have poor access to water and sanitation
  • There are no toilets, no bathrooms and no clean water to drink
  • They have to buy water from vendors to drink
  • Some of the salvagers collect rainwater

Health and bad living conditions

A new study by the New York State Department of Health reports that women living near solid waste landfills where gas is escaping have a four-fold increased chance of bladder cancer or leukemia. The new study examined the occurrence of seven kinds of cancer among men and women living near 38 landfills where naturally occurring landfill gas is thought to be escaping into the surrounding air.

The health of these people is poor. Malaria is common due to the pools of stagnant water, which allows mosquitoes to breed. Diarrhoea. Pneumonia and skin infections are common. Scavengers cannot afford to visit a doctor. They have developed other ways of coping with their illnesses, such as using herbal remedies, buying cheap drugs across the counter or borrowing money from friends.


My idea is to improve efficiency through a nomadic shelter

By creating a device that maximise the output of landfills and the use they have to use we can formulate a solution for the future.

  • My design - NewDealDesign
  • A versatile refuge for rubbish victims
  • Adjusting to this change by using
  • Everyone having the opportunity for a better life
  • This is what people still need
  • Life after - better living
  • Energy solutions algae

    Biodiesel from algae is here!

Oil has been one of the most efficient and effective fuel sources for decades. But due to the nonrenewable nature of oil and the pollution resulting from carbon emissions, scientists have raced to find a new fuel source. Hydrogen, biodiesel, solar, electricity and even water have been considered as potential fuel sources. Now, one of the newest renewable energy source hopefuls is algae biofuel.

Algae gather energy from the sun through the process of photosynthesis. A byproduct of this process is oil, which can be utilized to create biofuel. The algae itself can be transformed into ethanol through the process of fermentation. During photosynthesis, algae and other photosynthetic organisms capture carbon dioxide and sunlight and convert it into oxygen and biomass. Up to 99% of the carbon dioxide in solution can be converted, in large-scale open-pond systems.

The production of biofuels from algae does not reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), because any CO2 taken out of the atmosphere by the algae is returned when the biofuels are burned. They do however eliminate the introduction of new CO2 by displacing fossil hydrocarbon fuels.

Algae is an incredibly large and diverse species. Algae can be found in most bodies of water including lakes, streams, ice, snow, and the ocean. This plant reproduces rapidly and would be very difficult to over-farm. Algae can produce 15-300 times more oil per acre than conventional crops, such as rapeseed, palms or soybeans. As Algae has a harvesting cycle of 1-10 days, it permits several harvests in a very short time frame, a differing strategy to yearly crops. Algae can also be grown on land that is not suitable for other established crops, for instance, arid land, land with excessively saline soil, and drought-stricken land. This minimizes the issue of taking away pieces of land from the cultivation of food crops. Algae can grow 20 to 30 times faster than food crops

Algae fuel production does not affect fresh water resources, can be prduced using ocean and wastewater, and are biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled.

Inputs-CO2 + Water + Nutrients + Algae Strain + Sunlight

" This Algae biofuel substitutes 100% traditional fuel, without needing to be mixed and can be used in various biofuel applications."

" Algae Oil Farming for Biodiesel Algae Biofuel uses the excesses of carbon dioxide produced by industrial activities, in a way that does not contaminate, but contributes to cleaning the atmosphere. "


The often futuristic vision of a society in which conditions of life are miserable and characterized by poverty, oppression, war, violence, disease, pollution, resulting in widespread unhappiness, suffering, and other kinds of pain.


The world will need to reallocate its energy and resources away from merely pursuing economic growth to addressing issues of poverty, equality, gender equality, and access to health care and education instead empowering all who wish to participate in determining their future with the right to do so.

Today the world is focused on the individual. In 2050, communities, relationships between people, and personal responsibilities to the society will be the key principle in the construction of our cities. Provision of necessary city services like food, water, waste handling, and energy will be more localized, integrating these services into the fabric of the city. Bringing these services closer will also reconnect people with the earth, giving people better insight into their resource use and impacts.

Waste volumes will be further reduced through highly efficient waste sorting, recycling, and composting. My vision of the future is that the World will collapse and consume itself if solutions of re-using and recycling are not implemented. This will produce alternatives that can assist in quality of life as well as providing the essentials that people need to survive.


So as we move into the future I predict that we will become more nomadic and need to move around in a more rational way. By creating a shelter that is temporary, lightweight and self sustainable. A shelter that has been designed for people on the move, a device that can be made readily available in different locations around the world. It can be quickly dismounted and constructed to house the occupant as fast and efficient form of shelter.

A self-sufficient shelter that sustains itself, using energy produced by algae. Fuelled on algae bio diesel, it can produce its own electricity to power the essentials for living.

My design - NewDealDesign

a versatile refuge for rubbish victims

The 'urban tent' is an exploration of mass-produced, easy-to-assemble and quick-to-mobilize recycling hubs.

A family of 2 objects, 'Collector and Case' and 'HUB', represent new solutions for shelter, comfort, energy and organisation. As well as provide varying levels of protection for different climates and surroundings, it provides a more hygienic and safe living environment for the inhabitants.

HUB is a concept for a portable housing unit that would help people in meeting their immediate shelter requirements created by lack of housing and poor living conditions.

This shelter can be very quickly transported and reassembled with just few necessary tools and offer inhabitants with individual living space. This shelter is made from from recyclable and reusable materials.The main HUB must be erected by 6-10 people, this can be designed and manufactured on demand at varying locations.

Each of the objects are compressed into space-saving packaging. Easy to manufacture and transport within a few hours.

Once they arrive, they can be set up easily by the inhabitants to provide instant support structurally, socially, and emotional.

Many alternative housing solutions deal with small scale but can't cope with large scale displaced populations. The shelter:

  1. Easily transportable, collapsible and able to be shipped flat
  2. Built of recyclable materials and have the ability to be reused
  3. Easy to erect and assembled with few or no tools
  4. Amenable to infrastructure? can be used as a basic structure, but have the capabilities to upgrade and implement modern conveniences
  5. Stackable provide conveniences (electricity for light, compact stove and refrigerator).

Adjusting to this change by using

10-Everyone having the opportunity for a better life


This is what people still need

Future vision

In 2050, our societies will transcend the narrow focus on material goods and wealth generation that we see today. They will instead, strive to meet the deeper needs of human beings, addressing happiness and spiritual and emotional fulfillment.

Indicators of success, now often measured in purely financial terms, will instead look at ideas of happiness and satisfaction. The world will reallocate its energy and resources away from merely pursuing economic growth to addressing issues of poverty, equity, gender equality, and access to health care and education instead empowering all who wish to participate in determining their future with the right to do so.

Today the world is focused on the individual. In 2050, communities, relationships between people, and personal responsibilities to the society will be the key principle in the construction of our cities. Provision of necessary city services like food, water, waste handling, and energy will be more localized, integrating these services into the fabric of the city. Bringing these services closer will also reconnect people with the earth, giving people better insight into their resource use and impacts.

Waste volumes will be further reduced through highly efficient waste sorting, recycling, and composting.