Comparison of Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park and The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park

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CHAPTER FOUR

ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Introduction

This chapter will be discuss and explains about the analysis and findings which from two reference studies as well as the literature review through comparative analysis. The aspects that will be used to compare are site background, goal and design approach, design layout, amenities, hardscape and softscape selection, accessibility and circulation as well as the activities. Those aspect are considered the reliable from literature review to be part of urban park design planning. This chapter will end up with discussion of analysis between both park which are Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park as well as The North Lynnwood Park

4.2. Site Background

Both of Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park and The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park are different type of park but those park are similar in applying Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles which seeks

to have a zero crime in the park. Table 4.1 shows the comparison of basic background for both parks.

Table 4.1 Comparison of site background for both parks.

Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville

Local Park

The North Lynnwood

Neighbourhood Park

  • Total area: 17 acres.
  • Built by Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission (M-NCPPC) Parks in 1962.
  • Include community center, features playgrounds, a softball field, two multiuse fields, four tennis courts, a football or soccer field and a picnic area.
  • Total area: 6 acres.
  • Developed in 1970 and initiated by Lynnwood Elementary School teachers, as well as the students.
  • Include large active play, picnic area, an outdoor performance space, spray parks and new play equipment known as “Dragon Park”.

Based on the table above, both parks attract public because it’s functioning as a place for socialize as well as there are also provided several recreation facilities for recreational activities. The Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park consist of several facilities within the park which may be used by lot of people in one time. As compared to the North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park, it is also consist of facilities as usual for a park, but the number of user may be slightly different.

4.3 Goal and design approach

Goal and design approach is important and considered in design planning because of particular parks must lies on that aspect. These aspect is based on how the goal will be achieved through the selected approach in developing a good park. From both reference studies, it seem that both park have their own goal but used the same approach which is CPTED to achieve a good park.

For Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park, it want to create a successful park as well as the open space system in the future through the making of existing parks and open spaces as useful and attractive as possible and also creating the right as well as suitable of new amenities and linkages within the park.

The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park also have almost the same aim which is to provide appropriate new recreation facilities as well as redevelop the existing ones and create a new outdoor performance space for Lynnwood Elementary School students and residents. But, both parks have to achieve the aim through several objectives that might be different.

Table 4.2 The difference objectives used by both parks to achieve the goal.

Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville

Local Park

The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park

i. Provide more visibility to other

facilities in the park such as the

playground, basketball and others.

ii. Improve a better access control in

dealing with vehicular and

pedestrian traffic.

iii. Provide better natural surveillance

for those who entered the park.

i. Provide facilities for recreation

activities based on the user needs.

ii. Develop recreational resources and

opportunities that are inherent in

the landscape and outdoor

ambience that may include

walking, jogging, biking as well as

preserving the natural areas.

According to the comparison of two reference studies, both park are aiming almost the same goal but different way to achieve it but still based on CPTED principles. The Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park is indirectly giving a comfortable and secured ambience for the users as to let the easiness for better natural surveillance and provide more visibility to other facilities. Compared to The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park had intended to fix up the facilities with the new one within the park to create better ambience as the park is used by the school children as well as the residents which to keep out fear of crimes.

4.4 Design Layout

A good park design is due to the planning of a good layout setting which is the right and suitable combination of plants as well as the features will create a pleasing appearance and an environmentally friendly layout which mean a safer park. Through the two reference studies, the design layout was compared to determine the design which considering the crime prevention strategies.

Table 4.3 The difference design layout of two reference studies.

Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville

Local Park

The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park

  • Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park was networking within the park linked to each other of the footpath and the cycleway as well as the planting scheme. These are the possibility to create hiding space within the entire layout of the park.
  • The Gwendolyn Coffield Community Center becomes a focal point of the park since the facilities provided are around the center.
  • The facilities that are provided is designated to be at the edge of the park perimeter to ensure the natural surveillance within the park.
  • The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park is designed by positioning the looping footpath at the middle of the park to be the focal point. The pedestrian walkway was created to buffer by trees and other plantings.
  • The design of the park as well as the external layout providing more inclusion of corners that can conceal people by day or night.
  • The planting scheme gives the obstruction of public’s view as the structural planting is planted at the perimeter of the park as well as to deny access to crime targets and to create a perception of risks to offenders.

Based on the table above, the circulation and footpath as well as the cycleway is appropriate to the design guidance for both parks as a good park design. These is designed to allow walking within the park as well as such a desire lines for the users. Planting scheme also played the same role of circulation, footpath and cycleway due to the CPTED principles which is the natural access control.

Apart from that, both park have their own focal point which is a place that people will gather or play around. For Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park, the community center shown in Figure 3.6 act as a focal point of the park because the facilities provided are around the center which is to ensure the natural surveillance within the park. While focal point for the North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park is the looping footpath because of its position which is at the middle of the park. The focal point is one of the aspect for a good park design that act as natural surveillance.

4.5 Amenities, hardscape and softscape selection

Amenities and hardscape selection of urban park is reasonable to be compared with looking at the crime prevention aspect as these provided in those park is influence to create social interaction among the users. For softscape selection as well as landscaping played role to enhance the natural amenity in the park. It is important, however, to ensure that dense foliage and inappropriate planting does not lead to opportunities for concealment and possible crime.

Table 4.4 Comparison of amenities, hardscape selection for both parks.

Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville

Local Park

The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park

  • A large open space/ playground
  • A multi-use football and soccer field
  • A baseball field
  • Two tennis courts
  • One and a half basketball courts
  • Community center
  • Security lighting within the park
  • Spray park
  • Reservable picnic facilities
  • Large active play areas
  • Play Equipment
  • Basketball Court
  • Outdoor Stages/Performance Area
  • Restrooms
  • Parking

Based on the table 4.4, the amenities as well as the hardscape provided in Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park are approachable in terms of security aspect as the features is adapting security element as the amenities and the space provided can create a social ambience. According to Cranz (1982), people will use the park for their sociable space where people get to use passing scene, meet friends do other recreational activities. Compared to The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park, the park provided good amenities, but the hardscape features of the park is quite inadequate to support the safety environment.

Table 4.5 Comparison of softscape selection for both parks.

Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville

Local Park

The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park

  • The park encompasses almost 70% of plantings. This is possible to make a shady area as well as to provide cover for related and suitable activities.
  • The planting selection need to fit the local ecology and recreational context.
  • The plants selection is creating a pattern which is covering at the edge of the park.
  • The use of plants are to give and provide the colour as well as the texture of planting.

Based on the table 4.5, softscape selection is an important element in a park which it’s played different role due to the local surrounding. This is because each planting scheme will be reflecting the image of the park.

4.6 Accessibility and circulation

Accessibility and circulation aspect played role in developing a good and better park. The design basically to enhance the actual and perceived safety of walkway users, by avoiding from leading people into dangerous situations or areas.

Table 4.6 Comparison of the accessibility and circulation of both parks.

Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville

Local Park

The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park

  • The accessibility or street layout provided to lead the movement of the users within the park is clearly where it is connects to the whole area.
  • The pattern of park’s accessibility or street layout is more to create the natural path setting and the circulation of the path design is too loopy.

Based on table 4.6, both parks seem to give and let the users enjoy the different ambience of the park through different pattern of accessibility as well as circulation. Unfortunately, both circulation design is contradicting to the design guidance of park. . The design of footpath should be more in the direct desire lines because the direct access will let in creating more hidden places (Qolcuhoun, 2004).

4.7 Activity

Basically, each park will provide public social space, lawn area as well as recreational facilities as a place that forms and creates activity for the social and environmental health of communities. These will indirectly give some basic guidance for crime reduction within the park (Singapore National Prevention Council, 2003).

Table 4.7 Activities of both parks.

Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville

Local Park

The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park

  • Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park providing a lot of space for activities that may include sports, fitness, dance, music, art, or the opportunity to join together with friends and neighbours for a special celebration or social gathering which to ensure the park is full used.
  • The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park providing outdoor performances space which include two stages, amphitheatre seating and a large climbing boulder for the purpose of creating other activities to make the park more energetic.

Based on the table above, both parks slightly providing the same activities which to keep and ensure the parks useful to the users as well as the residents. Through the development of open space plans which to enhance visual amenity of an area do not have the potential to jeopardize the safety of the users (Christiansen, 1977). So, the more visual amenities are provided within the park, there more activities will be occurred.

4.8 Summary

From the comparative analysis made between Rosemary Hills-Lyttonsville Local Park and The North Lynnwood Neighbourhood Park, it can be concluded that the main consideration of preventing crime in urban park are site background, goal and design approach, design layout, amenities, hardscape and softscape selection, accessibility and circulation as well as the activities aspect. These should become the design guidelines during the spatial design in developing successful urban park based on CPTED principles. Both parks shown a good approaches in applying the CPTED principles through those aspect. Hence, the design guidelines for urban park should consider the strengths from both parks order to create a zero crime environment as well as a comfortable and safer ambience within the park.

References

  1. McCormick, J. (2006). Design Against Crime. National Recreation and Park Association
  2. Drakakis, S. and David, W. (1981). Urbanization, Housing and the Development Process. London: Croom Helm.
  3. Jamil bin Abu Bakar (2002). A Design Guide for Public Parks in Malaysia. Johor Darul Ta’zim: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
  4. Singapore National Crime Prevention Council (2003). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Guidebook. Singapore: Singapore Public Affairs Department.

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