Architecture and Exterior Design in Russia

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Introduction

In the report of the architecture history, it was discussed about the bibliography of Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli (1700-1771) and the residence construction of Tsarskoye Selo which was located in Russia. Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli was the in charge of the Tsarskoye Selo residenceconstruction since 1748 until 1756. His ambition was the combined of latest 17th century Italian architecture fashion with the traditions of Muscovite baroque style. At the end of 18th century, Tsarskoye Selo was became the most popular place of summer residence among the nobility. It was a historical monuments and buildings which contained a lot of cultural artefacts in Russia. In Figure 1 below was shown the Hermitage Pavilion in Tsarskoye Selo:

Architecture was the general term which described the structural of the building and physical design. In the architecture area, it was included the structural building planning, designing and also the construction of the building which was the physical structures. Architecture was also defined as the art and science of the designing building structures. The style of the design and the methods of construction of the design were developed through the knowledge of art, science, technology, humanity and creativity. Without those development knowledge, there were be hard to achieve successful design and structural. During the design, it was needed to further studies and researches which help in well knowing of the design based on the design requirement, for example the materials used for the structural design and also consideration of the built environments. A very famous definition of architecture was defined by the French architect which was Le Corbuiser. He was defined that Architecture was the masterly, correct, and magnificent play of forms under the light. (Vers une architecture, 1923)

Exterior design was known as the outer, or the design being on the outer sides which was intended and comfortable for outdoor uses. However, Interior design was defined as the lying, occurring and functioning within the limiting or internal design boundaries. (Veronica Romualdez, 2013) Thus, from the descriptions and definitions of the interior and exterior design, there were the differences between both of the design concepts. The elements that were included in interior design were been line, space, texture, light and colour. Where, the basic principles of interior design were been the design scale, proportion, balance, rhythm, emphasis and also unity.

By comparison of both architecture and interior, there was found that the critical need in both architecture and interior design which was to understand that their roles, methodologies and also service expectations so that they can further evolving within the quick shifting social and economic uses. Where, architecture and interior design were now the subsets together with graphic, industrial design and landscape design which were focused on solving design and development problems so that they can enhanced and preparation for greater design achievements.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/Hermitage_pavilion_in_Tsarskoe_Selo_02.jpg

Figure 1: Hermitage Pavilion in Tsarskoye Selo

(Wikimedia Commons, 2012)

Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli was born at 1700 in Paris, France and died in April 1771. He was the son of Carlo Rastrelli. His father was a sculptor who came to St. Petersburg for his work with Peter the Great. Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli’s professional and architecture education were under his father educated which trained him as architect. He was started his formal education in Europe since 1720 century. According to Italian descent, Rastrelli was moved to St. Petersburg in 1716. During the first 5 years in Russia, he was worked with together with his father, Carlo Rastrelli for ornamenting the interiors of the palace of the Russian aristocracy. (Andrei D. Sarabianov, 2013)

Since, 1721, Rastrelli was worked independently as an architect and immediately made his own name for himself as a professional with a rich imagination and creativity architect. The first instruction of Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli was to build a St. Petersburg home for Prince Dmitrie Cantemir, which was a former ruler of Moldova at Millionaya Ulitsa. Rastrelli was the last great baroque architect to work in St. Petersburg, and he was lived to see the spectacularly decorative style that make him championed fall out of favour with city’s elite. He also was the impressive creator of the Winter Palace and Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo, which were a luxury enjoyed and displayed by Russia’s Romanov rulers in the 18th century, became the prominent aspect of St. Petersburg’s architecture for international visitors. The Figure 2 below was shown the Catherine Palace that named after Catherine I, the wife of Peter the Great:

Aerial view of Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo (Pushkin), south of St Petersburg, Russia

Figure 2: Catherine Palace in Russia in Tsarskoye Selo, Russia

(Saint Petersburg Gallery, 2012)

Within the 50 years period, Rastrelli was established a great number of palaces for Russia’s rulers and the members of the imperial court. He was in the special favour of the empresses Anna I and Elizabeth I, who were partial to sumptuous luxury. The palaces that were built for empress Anna was the Winter and Summer Annenhof. Unfortunately, neither of them were survived, where the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg was destroyed by fired. During the 20 years reign of Empress Elizabeth I (1741-1761), Rastrelli was built 12 palaces and a number of cathedrals for her. Empress Elizabeth I was also employed him for the post of senior court architect since 1730th. Within the duration of 1748th to 1756th, Rastrelli was in charge of the Tsarskoye Selo residence construction.

Besides that, since 1749th to 1756th, Rastrelli was also rebuilt the Bolshoi Dvoretswhich now named as Grand Palace in Tsarskoye Selo and created a series of pavilions in its park. The Tsarskoye Selo Palace was known as the Pushkin Palace which was 1000 feet long, and noted of adornment of its facades and interiors construction and the prosperity of its own plasticity of colour. (RusArtNet, 2012) Tsarskoye Selo Palace was also one of St. Petersburg’s must see attractions, and there can easily occupied by visitors for full day long. Where, the structure’s abundant enhancement of Tsarskoye Selo Palace was makes it appear to have been notched out of a single chunk of stone.

Rastrelli was acknowledged by everyone with his genius of combination of brilliance with harmony and symmetry with sophistication. However, the main reason that Rastrelli had a remarkable success in Russia was because of his unique combination of national traditions with European style and elegance. Thus, he had a major influence on Russia architecture and also their culture.

  1. Wikimedia Commons. 2012. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hermitage_pavilion_in_Tsarskoe_Selo_02.jpg. [ONLINE] Available at:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hermitage_pavilion_in_Tsarskoe_Selo_02.jpg. [Accessed 30 April 15].

  1. Vers une architecture. 1923.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toward_an_Architecture. [ONLINE] Available at:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toward_an_Architecture. [Accessed 30 April 15].
  1. Veronica Romualdez. 2013.What Is the Difference Between Exterior & Interior?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ehow.com/info_10042052_difference-between-exterior-interior.html. [Accessed 01 May 15].
  1. Andrei D. Sarabianov. 2013.Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/491832/Bartolomeo-Francesco-Rastrelli. [Accessed 03 May 15].
  1. Saint Petersburg Gallery. 2012.Catherine Palace. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.saint-petersburg.com/pushkin/catherine-palace.asp. [Accessed 03 May 15].
  1. RusArtNet. 2012.Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.rusartnet.com/biographies/russian-architects/18th-century/bartolomeo-francesco-rastrelli. [Accessed 04 May 15].

Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin) , St. Petersburg , Russia

Based on the evidence show for the richness of Russia’s Imperial rulers, you can find out the facts in less than two centuries, there is not build up one Romanov Tsars but two suburban real estate’s at Tsarskoe Selo and Pushkin. Even the Versalles also lost it’s abundance excess. Besides that, there can saw the structure of two spacious and truly unparalleled palaces, the two sides surrounded by large-scale landscaped gardens with variety and charming decorative architecture. The established of Empress Elizabeth by Bartolomeo Rastrelli, there have the architect of St. Petersburg’s Winter Palace, specifically the most attractive of Tsarskoe Selo definitely is Catherine Palace, one of famous is exuberant Amber Room. A neoclassical masterpiece style of Alexander Palace has a especially poignant connection with the family of the Last Tsar, Nicholas II, but less well known and nowadays much more had destroyed.

The most attractive suburb of St. Petersburg’s which surrounded the Tsarskoe Selo estates at The town of Pushkin are renamed in Soviet times to commemorate the greatest poet at Russia. Not only that, the town has numerous attractions connected to Alexander Sergaevich which including a museum in former Imperial Lycee, where he educated.

INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR

CATHERINE PALACE

After Catherine I, the wife of Peter the Great, named The Catherine Palace when her husband passed away for two year for Russia. When Catherine in 1717, a moderation two storey building are consigned by Peter. The Catherine Palace are entrust its shrewd magnificent to their daughter, the Empress Elizabeth, Tsarskoe Selo was ordered by the Empress Elizabeth as her chief summer residence. The building was re-established by four different architected starting in 1743. In order to compete Versailles, Chief Architect of the Imperial Court and Bartholomeo Rastrelli was received instructions to redesign the building on a scale.

Thirteen years later, the obtained palace was consummation in 1756. German sculptor- Johann Franz Dunker, who worked with Rastrelli on the palace’s original interiors, also designed the nearly 1km in circumference with meticulously decorated blue-and-white facades characteristic aureate atlentes, caryatids and pilasters. When Elizabeth’s be on the throne, it expenses over 100kg of gold to garnish the palace exteriors, when Catherine the Great discovered the situation , she condemn that private funds had been squander overdose on the building.

The interiors of the Catherine Palace also grandiose. Rastrelli also had designed the especially illustrious, so-called Golden Enfilade of state rooms, nowadays forms the focus of the palace tour. In fact dates from the 1860s, guests enter via the State Staircase, it blends effortlessly with the magnificent rococo of Rastrelli's interiors, then its with bonzer balustrade and reclining marble cupids. The Great Hall which have another name as Hall of Light, there have beautiful scenery on both sides because of the palace had occupied the entire width, measures nearly 1,000 square meters. In order to reduce the vast quantity of gilded stucco for decorating the walls, the sizes of the arched windows chosen which supply plenty of light are huge. In addition to this, the whole ceiling had covered by a monumental fresco which titled The Triumph of Russia. in the White Dining Room looks equal magnificent , for example the rooms in palace, there are using resemble technology but on a small range. In the corner, solemn had softened the traditional beautiful blue-and-white tiled stove.

References

  1. Wikimedia Commons. 2012.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hermitage_pavilion_in_Tsarskoe_Selo_02.jpg. [ONLINE] Available at:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hermitage_pavilion_in_Tsarskoe_Selo_02.jpg. [Accessed 30 April 15].

  1. Vers une architecture. 1923.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toward_an_Architecture. [ONLINE] Available at:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toward_an_Architecture. [Accessed 30 April 15].
  1. Veronica Romualdez. 2013.What Is the Difference Between Exterior & Interior?. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.ehow.com/info_10042052_difference-between-exterior-interior.html. [Accessed 01 May 15].

Bibliography

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