The third group of foragers dwells in the arctic regions where vegetation was scarce. Eskimos, the local people, hunt sea mammals (whales, seals) and value a lot the undigested vegetation. For that reason, female did not specialize in gathering food. In the summer both males and females gathered larvae and maggots.
Infanticide occurs when a mother deliberately kills a newly born child. The reason is that sometimes, woman cannot afford to meet the needs of the baby, or because the baby has some deformed physical features.
The fertility rate among foraging people is very low. There may be several reasons for this. Females from the San people are for example very slim and they do not weight more than 80 pounds. This can postpone the menstruation. Their puberty comes later, the average age is 16 years-old, compared to the average age in the US- 12years-old.
- The first one is called Generalized Reciprocity, which is based on the assumptions that there is no return in the exchange. In other words, people do not expect to have a return for they favor, or exchange of goods or services. For example, it is even insulting among some foraging group to say thank you, after they have given you food. We also have in our societies Generalized Reciprocity- when your parents buy you clothes or give you pocket money, they do not expect you to return anything to them back.
- The second type of Reciprocity is the Balanced Reciprocity. It involves an exchange with immediate return. This system is more like bargain and trade. It is used by groups of people who in a far distance between them. In modern foraging groups this reciprocity is not very common, because most of them exchange values and goods among kin groups only.
- The third type is the Negative Reciprocity, which involves no reciprocity of all. It is an attempt to get an exchange or a deal without returning anything.
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This system creates more mutual trust and bounds better kin and relations. It also strengthens the egalitarian status of people.
However, recent studies challenged the hypothesis mentioned above. They found that these facts to not apply to every forage group. For example in the rain forests people could not easily find some certain type of food immediately and spend more than 30 , 40 hours a week, searching for it. Furthermore, it is estimated that other activities, such as making weapons or preparing the food also involves much time. Those recent studies do not challenge entirely the previous hypothesis, but expand the relativity that comes from the geographic locations of people.
- The family can be Nuclear, which includes parents and their immediate offspring. Band includes several Nuclear Families. A band can include from 20 to 100 individuals, depending on the environment capacity of subsistence of those people.
- Cross cousin marriage appears when a male is married to the father's sister's daughter or his mother's brother's daughter.
- Patrilocal residence- when the married couple resides with the male's father.
- Restricted marital exchange is the combination of patrilocal residence and cross cousin marriage, where two groups exchange the females to tight the kinship alliances.
- Brideservice is when male resides in a female's band for a period of time.
- Matrilocal residence- the husband lives with the bride's family.
- Inuit tradition is the wife exchange where male individuals have sexual intercourse with each other's wives.
- Egalitarian status of men is more common than the equal status of females in foraging group, compared to people from other societies.
- Patriarchal- when male dominates in political and social aspects.
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