Introduction to social anthropology

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AN100 Introduction to Social Anthropology Candidate Number: 10615 Class Teacher: Ms Indira Arumugam Date: 26th April, 2010 (Lent Term) 1 AN100 LENT TERM ASSESSMENT ESSAY Why, and how, have anthropologists argued that exchange is the basis of social life? "Exchange is an act of giving something to somebody or doing something for somebody and receiving something in return."1 According to the Encyclopaedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology, „exchange? is the transfer of things between social and actors.2 Things can be human or animal, material or immaterial, words or things. The actors can be individuals, groups, or being such as gods and spirits.3 Trade and barter are examples of some kinds of exchange. From the 18th and 19th century, anthropologists became more interested in the topic of exchange. In the past century, there is a growing concern on the complex societies, i.e. the West. It leads to a more critical investigation for the anthropologists on exchange in West, when anthropologists such as Gregory discovered that exchange is linked to economy. By now, exchange is a universal activity. Moreover, anthropologists realized exchange is central to all people?s lives. Mauss stated that, "exchange is a total social phenomenon."4 Gifts Exchange in Christmas The exchange of gifts is very popular in many parts of the world. In the following, I take in the account that exchange takes place with a generalized medium of exchange, i.e. money. Thus, in order to facilitate trade, barter give way away to selling (C-M), and then the money is then used to buy other commodities (M-C?).5 Carrier examined people?s mindset on exchanging Christmas gifts and he found that it does related to their social relations. The heightening sociality of Christmas highlights the 1 Hornby (2000:433) 2 Carrier (1996:218) 3 Carrier (1996:218) 4 Gregory (1994:911) 5 Gregory (1992:912) It is one of the categories of production-of-exchange, i.e. commodity exchange Karl Marx developed. This type of commodity of exchange is identified as „selling-in-order-to-buy in the peasant markets. AN100 Introduction to Social Anthropology Candidate Number: 10615 Class Teacher: Ms Indira Arumugam Date: 26th April, 2010 (Lent Term) 2 importance of exchanging of gifts, and it reflected people?s Christmas shopping behaviour to the basis of social life. According to Caplow, parents and young children exchange gifts in an unequal value and quantity. In most of the time, the gifts from the parents to their young children have more in quantity and also in value. There is no expectation of equivalent return in this relationship. Whereas, for gift exchange between the spouses, there will be an active concern on the gifts are approximate equal in value.6 Carrier (1993:58) suggested that it is more likely for people to show their affection to their family within a close kin by exchanging Christmas present. As the relationship become more distant, people are less likely to show their affectionate. Rather, it would be a more alienated giving and marks the relations which will be fairly impersonal utilitarian.7 As mentioned above, apart from exchanging Christmas gifts in Christmas Eve?s feast, shopping for Christmas gifts is also a highlight for the exchange and it also maintain the basis of social life. Carrier (1993:63) takes the point that the range of social relations will be greater than normal when purchasing for the items. He suggested that this would be an annual ritual to convert commodities into gifts. This ritual allows us to celebrate and recreate personal relations with the anonymous objects available to us.8 Moreover, Boxing Day allows merchants to celebrate the hierarchical relations outside their households. Seemingly, Christmas is just exchanging Christmas gifts between family and friends. In reality, through exchanging Christmas gifts, it celebrates relations with family, and also those who are distinct from relation in the outside world. Carrier (1993:69) take the point that Christmas is also " ...

Students Paper: Direct Quote:

... is also "a reunion of families sanctified and chastened by tender memories and associations; and let the social intercourse of friends, with pleasant reminiscence, renew the ties if affection ...

... set apart a reunion of families, sanctified and chastened by tender memories and associations; and let the social intercourse of friends, with pleasant reminiscence, renew the ties of affection and ... ... if affection and strengthen the bonds of kindly feeling ...

Students Paper: Direct Quote:

... ties if affection and strengthen the bonds of kindly feeling."9 Garage ...

... the ties of affection and strengthen the bonds of kindly feeling. And let us ...

... ."9 Garage sales is American society Some anthropologists look at people?s daily life activities to argue that exchange is the basis of social life. Herrmann looked at the US garage sale exchange culture in order to investigate the social relationship built between the buyer and seller. Herrmann (1997:915) suggested that garage sale exchange allows the neighbours in the neighbourhood come to know each other, as "the neighbors are attracted by 6 Carrier (1993:55) 7 Carrier(1993:58) 8 Carrier (1993:63) 9 Carrier (1993:96) AN100 Introduction to Social Anthropology Candidate Number: 10615 Class Teacher: Ms Indira Arumugam Date: 26th April, 2010 (Lent Term) 3 informal open invitation to the public to stop by and look over the garage sale goods."10 Moreover, Herrmann 01997:915) also take the point that some neighbourhood garage sale takes place in order to attract the neighbor out of their houses for social interaction. 10 Herrmann (1997:915)

List of plagiarised documents

4% http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=71264

4% http://www.pilgrimhall.org/ThanxProc1880.htm

4% http://www.technoheaven.com/bi/NDOP-NatDayOfPrayer-Details.doc

2% http://www.google.com/dictionary?hl=en&q=exchange&sl=en&tl=zh-CN&oi=dict_lk

2% http://www.google.com.tw/dictionary?hl=zh-TW&q=exchange&sl=en&tl=zh-TW&oi=dict_lk

1% http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20080245356

1% http://www.freepatentsonline.com/3717083.html

1% http://www.freshpatents.com/Grill-frame-and-turnable-grill-dt20081009ptan20080245356.php

Master document text

AN100 Introduction to Social Anthropology Candidate Number: 10615 Class Teacher: Ms Indira Arumugam Date: 26th April, 2010 (Lent Term) 1 AN100 LENT TERM ASSESSMENT ESSAY Why, and how, have anthropologists argued that exchange is the basis of social life? "Exchange is an act of giving something to somebody or doing something for somebody and receiving something in return."1 According to the Encyclopaedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology, „exchange? is the transfer of things between social and actors.2 Things can be human or animal, material or immaterial, words or things. The actors can be individuals, groups, or being such as gods and spirits.3 Trade and barter are examples of some kinds of exchange. From the 18th and 19th century, anthropologists became more interested in the topic of exchange. In the past century, there is a growing concern on the complex societies, i.e. the West. It leads to a more critical investigation for the anthropologists on exchange in West, when anthropologists such as Gregory discovered that exchange is linked to economy. By now, exchange is a universal activity. Moreover, anthropologists realized exchange is central to all people?s lives. Mauss stated that, "exchange is a total social phenomenon."4 Gifts Exchange in Christmas The exchange of gifts is very popular in many parts of the world. In the following, I take in the account that exchange takes place with a generalized medium of exchange, i.e. money. Thus, in order to facilitate trade, barter give way away to selling (C-M), and then the money is then used to buy other commodities (M-C?).5 Carrier examined people?s mindset on exchanging Christmas gifts and he found that it does related to their social relations. The heightening sociality of Christmas highlights the 1 Hornby (2000:433) 2 Carrier (1996:218) 3 Carrier (1996:218) 4 Gregory (1994:911) 5 Gregory (1992:912) It is one of the categories of production-of-exchange, i.e. commodity exchange Karl Marx developed. This type of commodity of exchange is identified as „selling-in-order-to-buy in the peasant markets. AN100 Introduction to Social Anthropology Candidate Number: 10615 Class Teacher: Ms Indira Arumugam Date: 26th April, 2010 (Lent Term) 2 importance of exchanging of gifts, and it reflected people?s Christmas shopping behaviour to the basis of social life. According to Caplow, parents and young children exchange gifts in an unequal value and quantity. In most of the time, the gifts from the parents to their young children have more in quantity and also in value. There is no expectation of equivalent return in this relationship. Whereas, for gift exchange between the spouses, there will be an active concern on the gifts are approximate equal in value.6 Carrier (1993:58) suggested that it is more likely for people to show their affection to their family within a close kin by exchanging Christmas present. As the relationship become more distant, people are less likely to show their affectionate. Rather, it would be a more alienated giving and marks the relations which will be fairly impersonal utilitarian.7 As mentioned above, apart from exchanging Christmas gifts in Christmas Eve?s feast, shopping for Christmas gifts is also a highlight for the exchange and it also maintain the basis of social life. Carrier (1993:63) takes the point that the range of social relations will be greater than normal when purchasing for the items. He suggested that this would be an annual ritual to convert commodities into gifts. This ritual allows us to celebrate and recreate personal relations with the anonymous objects available to us.8 Moreover, Boxing Day allows merchants to celebrate the hierarchical relations outside their households. Seemingly, Christmas is just exchanging Christmas gifts between family and friends. In reality, through exchanging Christmas gifts, it celebrates relations with family, and also those who are distinct from relation in the outside world. Carrier (1993:69) take the point that Christmas is also "a reunion of families sanctified and chastened by tender memories and associations; and let the social intercourse of friends, with pleasant reminiscence, renew the ties if affection and strengthen the bonds of kindly feeling."9 Garage sales is American society Some anthropologists look at people?s daily life activities to argue that exchange is the basis of social life. Herrmann looked at the US garage sale exchange culture in order to investigate the social relationship built between the buyer and seller. Herrmann (1997:915) suggested that garage sale exchange allows the neighbours in the neighbourhood come to know each other, as "the neighbors are attracted by 6 Carrier (1993:55) 7 Carrier(1993:58) 8 Carrier (1993:63) 9 Carrier (1993:96) AN100 Introduction to Social Anthropology Candidate Number: 10615 Class Teacher: Ms Indira Arumugam Date: 26th April, 2010 (Lent Term) 3 informal open invitation to the public to stop by and look over the garage sale goods."10 Moreover, Herrmann 01997:915) also take the point that some neighbourhood garage sale takes place in order to attract the neighbor out of their houses for social interaction. 10 Herrmann (1997:915)