Adverse reactions to food

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Peanut Allergies

The essay is being reviewed by the following criterias:

  • Format and structure
  • Clarity and precision
  • Quality and reliability of sources
  • Evaluation of sources
  • Presents a clear and substantiated arument
  • Provides clear and applicable recommendations for hospitality industries

The reason for choosing the above lies on judging the essay whether or not it provides a clear and consise range of information. It will help the author to know the range of sources used and whether it had been properly evaluated or not. The detailed evaluation of information and wide range range of conclusions which derives from the evaluation of the sources will help to review it according to its 'usage' by the author. Finally recommendations for action which derives from conclusion will help to review it based on its relevance to hospitality and tourism industries.

Brief overview of the essay

The essay sarts off identifying different types of nuts or peanuts. The essay then discusses the facts and figures of illness which creates a sense of feeling that peanut allergies is a serious issue to be considered. It discusses the outbreak in UK and US where peanut allergies are a serious issue. It then goes on describing the causes of the alllergies while moving onto the consequences of how it might affect peopleThe author brings in the dilemma that occurs in the hospitality industry with giving a examples as cited in Hearnes, (2003). The author describes an example of allergies in an plane which although relates too little with peanuts in hospitality industry. On the next paragrph the author goes on advising for the nut allergy sufferers while describing the legal requirements of an establishment, also giving expamples of the legislation guidelines. Moving on, the author provides practical recommendations for the kitchen and restaurant setting examples from Dealing with the above recommendations the author kept in mind the issues of training and the costs arising from it. The author finnally cocludes by adressing the process of removing allergen in peanuts

Format and structure

The essay is well written and elaborative and it focuses on the topic with examples, data and appendices to support the data but the essay is divided into lot of paragraphs with no headings or sub hedings which makes the reader a confusion of what the author is going to meant in the next section. On different paragraphs the author is moving on to different issues which makes the reader a hard to clue about the sections of the essay.

Clarity and precision

The essay is somewhat clear and precised in terms of its topic. The essay went much in a flow i.e in a stuctured way like defining alergens, causes, symtoms, outbreaks, rules and legislations, conclusion and recommendations. The author did was it derived the recommendtion before the conclusions while it was said in the module that the conclusions should link to recommendations. The author was meant to derive conclusions from the evaluation of sources which it lacked as the author just ends saying the process of removing allergens in peanuts. . While it included several stuffs referiing to the aeroplane which has little to do in an hospitality industries

Quality and reliability of sources

The author used various sources including journals, books and internet sites which states that the research was done consulting wide range of sources. Rieviewing on its quality the author used online sources with no dates as well as no authors. It therefore causes a doubt on its reliablity which could mean possibly its not a recent one. It might have been written long ago which is not a good source to use in the essay. Possibly the authors could have used more recent journals for a more valid and reliable information whch could prove that the articles are up to date.

Evaluation of sources

There was a great effort in evaluating the sources used in this essay. In each section the author evaluated giving examples from journals, books to make the essay more informative. Most of its statements and arguments are being supported by drawing out examples. The good part was it draws out some legislative examples showing the steps that goverments nowadays are taking, refering it to the sites.

Recommendation and conclusions

The main thing that this assignment lacks is relating it to the hospitality and tourism industries. Althoughs the author gives a small hint of dilemmas in hospitality industries it lacked in prviding recommendations that can be applied to the hospitality industries. The author identified the problems of cost but failed to provide recommendations for overcoming it. The good part was that it draws practical recommendation for kitchen as well as its training but failed to link it with the industry. Recommendation was not linked to conclusion, failing to demonstarte the understanding of the hospitality industry as per as the module guidelines.

All the references are done correctly by following the Harvard Referencing method with well labelled appendices which are linked to the topic. Future prospects have been covered

Areas of improvement

Cases seen in U.S where peanut allergies are the most occuring allergies could have been drawn as done by Metcalfe et al (2003).

"Extrapolating from the Sorensen data (10) would suggest that there are about 2500 food induced anaphylactic reactions in US each year with about 25 deaths. Peanuts and Nuts were the most common foods causing serious anaphylactic reactions. Book surveyed 73 emergency departments in Colorado over a 2 year period and identified 25 cases of severe anaphylactic reactions to food with one death" ( .2003, p 193).

By doing this the author could have also derive the seriousness of the issues (allergy problem) as done by Butriss (2002) in his book Adverse Reactions to food.

The seriousness of a particular food allergy problem depend on the measure of sensitivity can be so high and the consequences so serious. (Buttriss , 2002). Peanut and tree nut allergy has become more common and have come into prominence in the last few years (Hourihane , 1997 cited in Buttriss , 2002 ) . Peanuts are relatively new food in UK since world war II. The USA produces 2 million tonnes of peanuts annually , and Britain imports over 100 000 tonnes each year . Brazil nuts , almonds and hazelnuts , can also cause severe reactions , the most concern is peanuts because of the severe reactions and deaths that have recently been reported .(Buttriss , 2002)

More recent journals Griffiths (2006) could have been used in where the author claims where the future of food safety is going. For future implications and propects, the author could have mentioned this.

Importance of food allergy to hospitality industry could have been covered as done by Allen (2004) in his book.

As far as hospitality industry is concerned, more and more organizations are recognizing the significance of addressing food allergies. Food allergies, in fact, are nothing to sneeze at. From fast service to fine dining, operators are looking at ways to perk up their menus, the ingredient information they give out to customers and the allergy-related training of their staffs (Allen, 2004).

The author could have improved by drawing out examples from hospitality industry. Case studies like Burger king, Bristo in Chicago and Brinker International could have been included to reveal the steps taken by hospitality indudtry.

Burger King Officials roll out a training program designed to teach workers how better to reply to customers' food allergies. On the other end, at Bistro 110 in Chicago, while servers learn of a customer's food allergy, they right away alert the floor manager, who talks with the patron and informs the chef. Furthermore, Outback Steakhouse offers a gluten free menu for customers allergic to wheat and other gluten-containing ingredients (Chapman, 2008).

Brinker International is as well amongst an increasing list of restaurant chains that offer allergen information online .The chain offers menu options free of the common allergens, enabling guests the opportunity to assess the information prior to their restaurant visit and print the suggested menu options to carry with them to the restaurant. (Chapman, 2008).

Recommendations could have been made based on how the hospitality industry is going to meet an escalating demand for special meals to provide for those with allergies. Referiing to the above point Kramer and Scott, (2004) suggests that a rising number of people are being diagnosed with food allergies. For a few, the repercussions might be fatal. Simultaneously, more and more people are eating in hotels, pubs and restaurants. Therefore, the hospitality industry is going to meet an escalating demand for special meals to provide for those with allergies. The fact is that a proportion of the hospitality industry possesses a restricted knowledge of food allergies, and might not be competent to reply sufficiently to such requests. Here, then is a serious problem, which might have deadly repercussions if unnoticable. (Kramer and Scott, 2004)

The author could have used more practical recommendations linking it to the hospitality industry bearing in mind the cost and training involved in it. Kramer and Scott, (2004) suggests how managers in hospitality industries could put these ideas and concpts of training into practice sp thta it is a systematic ongoing process.

Even though many managers in the hospitality industries endorse the concept of training, merely very few managers put these ideas into practice. In true sense, hospitality training is a systematic process in the course of which an organisation's human resources put on knowledge and develop skills by instruction and realistic activities that result in enhanced corporate performance. In addition, they note down that the effective accomplishment can be attained from frequent learning measures and not a one time activity (Kramer and Scott, 2004).


  • Allen, R.(2004), "Protecting customers from food allergies shows true spirit of hospitality, good business practice", Nation's Restaurant News, Nov 22.
  • Buttriss, J. (2002), " Adverse Reactions to food", 3rd edition, Blackwell science , Marston book service Great Britain , Oxford
  • Griffith, C. J. (2006), "Food safety where from and where to", British Food Journal, 108, 1, pp. 6-15.
  • Metcalfe, D. , Sampson, A. , Simon, A. ( 2003), " Food allergy Adverse reactions to foods and food additives" , 3rd edition , Blackwell science, Port city press
  • Kramer, J., and Scott, W. G. (2004), "Food safety knowledge and practices in ready-to-eat establishment", Journal of Environmental Health Research, 14, 5, pp. 343-350.